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Northern state journal. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1846-1849, December 11, 1846, Image 2

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Mexican Minister ofinroigh Affairs toour minis- ter! bearing date on thd 12th of March, 1846. Paredes had then revolutionized the government, and his mintister,,after referring to the resolution •hi the annexation of Texas, which had been adopt- ed by our Congress in March; 1845,,proceeds to declare that \ a fact such as this, or, to speak with greater exactness; so notable a n act of usurpation, created an imperious necessity that Mexico, for her own honor, Should repel it with proper firm- ness ami dignity. The Supreme Government had beforehand declared that it would look upon such an act as a casus belli; and, as a consequence of this declaration, negotiation was, by its very na- ture, at an end, and war was the only resource of the Mexican government.\ It appears, also, that on the fourth of April fol- lowing, General Parades, through his minister of war, issued orders to tho Mexican general- in com- mand on the Texan frontier to \ attack\ ou r army \ by every means which war permits.\ To this General Paredes had been pledged to the army and people of Mexico during the military revolu- tion wliich had brought him into power. On the 18th of April, 1846i Gem Paredes addressed a let- tor to the commandor on that frontier, In Which he stated to him, \ at the present date I suppose you at the head of that valiant army, either fighting already, or preparing for the operations of a cam- paign ;\ ana \ supposing you already on the thea- tre of operations, and with all the forces assem- bled, it is indispensable that hostilities be com- menced, yourself taking the initiative against the enemy.\ The movement of our army to the Rio Grande was made by the commanding general under po- sitive orders to abstain from all aggressive acts to- wards Mexico, or Mexico citizens, and to regard the relation between the two countries as peace- ful! unless Mexico should declare war, or commit acts of hostility indicative of a state of war; and these orders he faithfully executed. Whilst oc- cupying his position on the east bank of the Rio Grande, within the limits of Texas, then recently admitted as one of tho States of our Union, th e commanding general of the Mexican forces, who, in pursuance of tho orders of his government, had collected a largo atmy on the opposite shore of tho Rio Grande, crossed the river, invaded ou r territory, and commenced hostilities by attacking our forces. Thus, after all tho injuries which we had re- ceived and bomo from Mexico, and after she had insultingly rejected a minister sent to her on a mission of peace, and whom she had solemnly agraed to recoive, she consummated her long courso of outrage against our country by com- mencing an offensive war and shedding the blood of our citizens on our own soil. Tho United States never attempted to acquire Texas by conquest. On the contrary, at an ear- ly periotl after the people of Texas had achieved their independence, they sought to be annexed to tho United States. At a general election in Sep- tember, 1B3G, they decided with groat unanimity in favor of \ annexation;\ and in November fol- lowing, the Congress of the republic authorised tho appointment of a minister, to bear their request to this government. This government, however, having remainod neutral between Texas and Mex- ico during the War between them, and considering It due to the honor of our country, and our fair fame among the nations of tho earth, that wo should not at this early period consent to annexa- tion, nor until it should be manifest to the whole world that tho reconrjuest of Texas by Mexico was Impossible, refused to accede to tho overtures made by Texas. On the 12th of April, 18-14, and after more than seven years had elapsed since Texas had established her independence, a treaty was concluded for the annexation of that republic to the United States, which was rejected by the Senate. Finally, on the first of March, 1845, Congress passed a joint resolution for annexing her to the United States, upon certain preliminary conditions to which her assent was required.— The solemnities which characterized tho delibera- tions and conduct of the government and peoplo of Texas, on the deeply interesting questions pre- Bonted by these resolutions, are known to tho World. The Congress, the Executive, and tho peoplo of Texas, in a convention olocted for that purpose, accepted with great unanimity the pro- posed terms of annexation; and thus consumma- ted on her part tlio great act of restoring to our federal Union a vast territory Which had been ceded to Spaiil by the Florida treaty fnofd than a quarter of a century before. After the joint resolution for thd annexation of Texas to tho United States had been passed by our Congress, the Mexican Minister at Washing- ton addressed a note to the Secretary of State, bearing date on tho sixth of March, 1845, protes- ting against it as \ an act of aggression, the most unjust which can be fouud recorded in the annals of modern history; namely, that of dispoiling a friendly nation, like Mexico, of a considerable por- tion of her territory;\ and protesting against tho resolution of annexation, as beingan act\ where- by the province of Texas, an integral portion of the Mexican territory, is agreed aimadmitted into the American Union;\ and he announced that as a conscquenco, his mission to tho United States had terminated, and demanded his passports, which Was granted, It was upon the absurd pretext, made by Mexico, (herself indebted for her inde- pendence to a successful revolution,) that the re- public of Texas still coniinued to bo, notwithstan- ding all that had passed, a province of Mexico, that this stop was taken by the Mexican Minister. Every honorable effort has been used by me to avoid the war which followed, but all have proved Vain. Al l our attempts to preserve peace have been met by insult and resistance on the part of Mexico. My efforts to this end commenced i n the note of tho Secretary of State of the 10th of March, 1S45, in answer to that of the Mexican Minister. Whilst declining to reopen a discus- sion which had already been exhaiited,and proving again what was known to the whole world, that Texas had long since achieved her independence, tho Secretary of State expressed a regret ol this government that Mexico should have taken of- lence at tho resolution of annexation passed by Congress, and gave assurance that our most stren- uous efforts shall be devoted to the amicable ad- justment of every cause of complaint between the two governments, and to the cultivation of the kindest and most friendly relations between the sister republics.\ That 1 have acted in the spirit of this assur- ance,will appear from the events Which have since occurred. Notwithstanding Mexico had abruptly terminated all diplomatic intercourse with tho U. States, and ought, therefore, to have been the first to ask for its resumption, yet, waiving all cere- mony, I embraced the earliest favorable opportu- nity * to ascertain from the Muxican government whether they would receive an envoy from the United States, intrusted with full power to adjust all the questions in dispute between the two gov- ernments.\ In September, 1845, I believed the propitious moment for such an overture had arri- ved. Texas, by the enthusiastic and almost u- nanimous will of her people, had pronounced in favor of annexation. Mexico herself had' agreed to acknowledge tho independence of Texas, sub- ject to a condition, it is true, which she had no right to impose, and no power to-otiforce. Tho last lingering hope of Mexico, if she still could have retained-any, tliat Texas would ever again become onS of her provinces, must liave be'ei'i a- bandoned. • The consul of flip United States at the city of Mexico, was therefore Wi'structcd by theSecretary of State, on the 15th of September, to make the inquiry of the Mexican government. The inqui- ry was mads, and, on the 15th October, 1845, the Minisler of Foreign Affairs of the Mexican gov- ernment, in a noto addressed to our consul, gave a favorable response, requesting, at the same time, that our naval force might bo withdrawn from Ve- ra Cruz while negotiations should be pending Upon the receipt of this note, our naval force was promptly wilhdrawn from Vera Cruz. A minister was immediately appointed, and departed to Mex- ico. Everything bore a promising aspect for a speedy and favorable adjustment of all our diffi- culties. At tho date of my annual message to Congress in December last, no doubt was enter- tained but that he would be received by the Mex- ican government, and 1 the hope was cherished'that all cause of misunderstanding between the two countries would be speedily removed. In the con- fident hopo that such would be the \result of his misfion, I informed Congress that I forbore at that time t o \ recommend such ulterior measures of redress for tho wrongs and injuries' vy'd had s o lonj borne, as it would have been proper to make htu no such negotiation been instituted.\ To my sur- prise and regret, the Mexican government, though sdjernnly pledged* to do so upon the arrival of our minister in Mexico, refused to recoive and accred- it Mm.- When he reached Vera Cruz, on the 30th November, 1845, lie found that the aspect of af- fairs had' un'doteono an unhappy change. The government of'Har'rera,. who was at that time tot- trrirtg t o its fall, Paredes- (A> military loader) had manifested liis determination ^overthrow the gq.v- ernment of Herrera, b y a military revolution: and one of the principal means which heem-ploy- cd to effect his purpose, and reiidbi 1 ' fTre- govern- ment o f Herrera odious to the army and people of Mexico, was by loudly condeminjj its determina- tion to receive a minister of peape from the Uni- ted by Mexicoj and for the justice of which on our part we may confidently appeal to the whole world I resolve to prosecute it with the utmost vigor.— The reports from the Departments of War.andthe Navy will inform you more in detail of the meas- ures adopted in the dlnergcncy in which our coun- try was placed, and of tho gratifying results which have been accomplished. The various columns of the army hare performed their duty under great-disadvantages, with the most distinguished skill and courage. The victories of Palo Alto and Resaca do la Puluia, and of Monterey, won against greatly superior numbers, and against most decided advantages in other respects on the part of the enemy, were brilliant in their execution, and entitle our brave officers and soldiers to tho grateful thanks of their country. The nation deplores the loss of the bravo officers and men who have gallantly fallen while vindicating and defending their coun- try's rights and honor. It is a subjoot of pride and satisfaction that our volunteer citizen soldiers, who so promptly responded to their country's call, with an experience of the dis- cipline of a camp of only a few weeks, have borne their part in tho hard fought- battle of Monterey with a constancy and courage equal to that of veteran troops | and worthy of the highest admiration. The privations of long marches through the oncmy's country, and through a wilderness, have been borne without a murmur. By rapid movements tho prov- ince, of New Mexico, with Santa Fe, its capital, has been captured without bloodshed. Tho navy has co- operated with the-army, and rendered important ser- vices ; if not so brilliant, it is because the enemy had no force to meet them on their own clemout, and be- cause of the dufences which nature had interposed in the difficulties of the navigation of the Mexican coast. Our squadron in the Pacific, with the co-op- eration of a gallant oiliccrof the navy, and a small force hastily collected in that distant country, have acquired bloodless possession of the Ctdifomius, and the American flag has been raised at every important point in that province. I congratulate, you on the success which has thus attended our military and naval operations. In less thansoven months alter Mexico commenced hostili- ties, uta time selected by herself, we have taken pos- session of many of her principal ports, driven back and pursued her invading army, and acquired niili- bp intended by Mexico to shield Spanish subjects from tho guilt and punishment of pirates, under our treaty with Spain, they will certainly prove una- vailing. Such a subterfuge -would bo but a weak- device to defeat the provisions of a solemn treaty. I recommend that Congress should immediately provide by law for tho trial and punishment as pr- ivates of Spanish subjects who, escaping the vigilance of their Governmen, shall be found guilty of priva- teering against the United States. 1 doubt appre- hend serious danger from these privateers. Our na- vy will be constantly on the alert to protect our com- merce. Besides., in case prizes should be- made of American vessels, theutnibst vigilance will be oxer- ted by our blockading squadron to prevent the cap- tors from taking thcm.into Mexican ports, and it is not apprehended that any nation will violate its neu- trality by suffering such prizes to bo coadenicd and sold within its jurisdiction. I recommend that Congress.should immediately provido by law for granting letters of marque and reprisal against vessols.under the .Mexican Flag. It is true that there are but few, if any, commercial vessels of Mexico upon the high seas; and it is, therefore, not probable that any American privateers would be fitted out, in case a law should pass author- izing this mode of warfare. It is, notwithstanding, certain that such privateers may render good ser- vice to the commercial interests of tho country by re- capturing our merchant ships, should any bo taken by armed vessels under the Mexican Ping, as well as by capturing these vcssolslllchiselves. Every means within our power should bo rendered available fur the protection of our commerce. The annual report of the Secretary of the Treas- ury will exhibit a detailed statement of the condition of the finances. The imports of the fiscal year cudr ing on the lath of Juno last, wore of the value of one hundred and twenty-one million six hundred and ninety-one thousand seven hundred and ninety- seven dollars; of which the amount exported was eleven million three hundred and forty-six thousand six hundred and twenty-three dollars, leaving the amount retained in thocountry for domestic consump- tion, one hundred and ton million three hundred and forty-five thousand one hundred and seventy-four dollars. The value of the exports for the same pe- riod was ono hundred and thirteen million four Hun- dred and eighty-eight thousand five hundred and sixteen dollars; of which one hundred and two mill- ted States, alleging that it was the intontion of Herrera, by a treaty with the United States, to dismember the territory of Mexico, by Ceding a- way the department of Toxas. The government of Herrera is believed to have been woll disposod t,o a pacific adjustment of ex- isting difficulties; but, probably alarmed for its own security, and i n order to ward off the danger of the revolution led by Paredes, violated its sol- emn Agreement, and refused toreceivo or adoredit out minister; and this, although iniormed that he had beeH invested With\ full \power\ to adjust all questions in dispute between the two governments Among the frivolous pretexts for this refusal, the principal one was, that our minister had not gone upon a special mission, confined to the question Ol Texas alone, leaving all the 6utfitges upon our flag and\ our citizens unredressed. The Mexican government well knew that both.bb.r'natioual hon- or and the protection due to our.lcjtizens impera- tively required that the two questions* of boundary and indemnity should be treated of together, as naturally and' inseparably blended, and they ought to have soen»tjiat this course was best calculated to ehable the United States to extend to them the most liberal justice. On the 30th of December, 1845, General Herrera resigned the presidency, and yielded up the government to General Pa- redes without a struggle. Thus a\revolutiqn was accomplished solely by the army commanded by Parades', and the supreme power in Mexico passed into tho hands of a military usurper, who was known to b e bitterly hostile to tho United States. Although the prospect of a pacific adjustment with the new government was unpromising, from the known hostility of its head to the United States, yet, determined that nothing should be loft undone on our part to restore friendly relations between the two countries, our minister was in- structed to prosont his credentials to the now gov- ernment, and ask t o be accredited by it, in tho di- plomatic character in wliich he had been commis- sioned. These instructions he executed by bis note of the first of March, 18-16, addressed to tho Mexican minister for foreign affairs, but his re- quest was insultingly refused by that minister, in his answer of the 12tli of the same month. No alternative remained but for our minister to de- mand his passports, and return to tho United States, Thus was the extraordinary spectacle present- ed to the civilized world, of a government, in vio- lation of its own express agreement, havingtwice rejected a minister of peace, invested with full powers to adjust all the existing difficulties be- tween the two countries, in a manner just and hon- orabled to them both. I am not aware that mod- em history presents a parallel case, in which in time of peace, one nation has refused even to hear propositions from another for terminating existing difficulties between them. Scarcely a hope of adjusting our difficulties, even at a remote day, ur of preserving peace with Mexico, could be cherished while Paredes remained at the head of the government. lie had acquired tho supreme power by a military revolution, and upon the most solemn pledges to wage war against the United States, and to conquer Texas, which he claimed as a revolted province of Mexico. H e had de- nounced as guilty of treason, all those Mexicans who no longer considered Toxas as constituting a part of the territory of Mexico, and who wore friendly to the cause of peace. The duration of tho war which he waged n- gainst the United States was indefinite, because tho end which he proposed, of the reconquest of Toxas, was hopeless. Besides, there was good j mont declined to accept thisTfricndly overture, but j si^sA'ci T Uiuusand sTsT hundred* and'n'i'ri reason to boliovc, from all his conluct that it was referred it to the decision of a Mexican Congress, to <i 0 p;, rs an j ninety-eight cents. / rt the republic of Mexico in- j be assembled in the early part of the present month j i u ^.j cr t u ,, roa0 o«to the wjr with Mex: I communicate to you, herewith, a copy of the letter of the Secretary of State, proposing to re-open ne- gotiations, ol' the answer of the Mexican govern- ment, and of the reply thereto of tho Secretary of State. The war will be prosecuted with vigor, as the best means of securing peace. It is hoped that the decis- ion of the Mexican Congress, to which our last over- ture has been refcrrcdj may result in a speedy and honorable peace. With our experience, however, of the unreasonable course of the Mexican authori- ties, it is the part of wisdom not to relax in the ener- gy of our military operations until the result is made known. In this view, it is deemed important to hold military possession of all the provinces which have been taken, un'il a definitive treaty of peace shall have been concluded and ratified by the two countries. The war has not been waged with a view to con- quest; but having been commenced by Mexico, it has been carried into the enemy's country, and will be vigorously prosecuted there, with a view to obtain an honorable peace, and thereby secure ample indem- nity for the expenses of the war, as well as to our much injured citizens, who hold large pecuniary de- mands against Mexico. iou, inhabited by a considerable population, andmuch of it more than a thousand miles from the points at which wo had to collect our forces and commence our movements. By the blockade, the import and export trade of tho enemy lias been cut off. Well may the American people be proud of the energy and gallant- ry of our regular and volunteer officcra and soldiers. The events of these few months afford a gratifying proof that our country can, under any emergency, confidently rely fur the maintenance of her honor, and the defence of her rights, on an effective force, ready at all times voluntarily to relinquish the com- forts of homo for tho perils and privations of the camp. And though such a force may be for the time expensive, it is in the end economical, as the ability to command it removes the necessity of employing a large standing army iu times of peace, and proves unit our people love their institutions, and arc eve ready to defend and protect them. Whilst the war was in a course of vigorous and successful prosecution, being still anxious to arrest its evils, and considering tliat, after the brilliant vic- tories of our arms on the Sth and 9th of May last, the national honor could not be compromitted by it, another overture was made to Mexico, by my direc- tion, on the 27th of July last, to terminate hostilities by n peace just and honorable to both countries. On the o 1st of August following, the Moxicnn govern lars of foreign articles. The receipts into the treasury for the same year were twenty-nine million four hundred and ninety- nine thousand two hundred anil forty-seven dollars and six cents; of which there lyas derived from cus- toms twenty-six million seven hundred and twelve thousand six hundred nnd sixty-seven dollars and eight-seven cents; from sales of publio lands two million six hundred und ninety-five thousand four hundred and fifty-two dollars and forty-eight cents, and from incidental and miscellaneous sources nine- ty-two thousand one hundred andtwciity-six dollars and seventy-two cents. The expenditures for the snuio period were twenty-eight million thirty-one thousand ono hundred and fourtcon dollars and twenty cents, and the balance in the treasury on the first day of July last was nine million one hundred and twenty-six thousand four hundred and thirty- nine dollars and eight cents. Tho amount of tho public debt, including treasu- ry notes, on the first of the prestut month was twen- ty-four million two hundred nni fifty-six thousand four hundred and nincty-fourdoljnrsnnd sixty cents; of which thesumofsoventeciimjllionsovenliundrcd nnd eighty-eight thousand seicii hundred nnd nine- ( ty-nine dollars and sixty cents was outstanding on j the luurth of March, IMS, leafing the amount in- I cm-red since that time six millijn four hundred and ' ' — \ '•'•• '— l -\-' \-•' ninety-four overgrown wealth of thccomparatively few who had invested their capital in manufactures. The taxes were not levied in proportion to tho valuo of tho ar- ticles upon which they were imposed; but, widely doparting.froni.this just rule, the lighter/ taxes woro, in many cases, levied upon articles of luxury and high pride, and the heavier taxes on those of neces- sity and low price, consumed by the great mass of the people. It was a system the inevitable effect of which was to relievo favored classes and the wealthy few from contributing their just proportion for the support of government, and to lay the burden on the labor of the many engaged iuothor pursuits than manufactures, A system so unequal and unjust has been superse- ded by the existing law, which imposes duties not for the benefit or injury of classes or pursuits, but distributes, and, as fur as practicable, equalizes the public burdens among all classes and occupations. The favored classes who, under the unequal and un- just system which has been repealed, have hereto- fore realized large profits, and many of them amass- ed large fortunes, at the expense of the many who have been made tributary to them, will have no rea- son to complain if they shall be required to bear their just proportion of the taxes necessary for the support of government. So far from it, it will be perceived, -by an examination of the existing law, that discriminations in tho rates of duty imposed, within the revenue principle, have been retained in their favor. Tho incidental aid against foreign com- petition which they still enjoy, gives them an advan- tage which no other pursuit possesses; but of fids none others will complain, because the duties levied ore necessary for revenue These revenue duties, including freights and charges, which the importer must pay before he can couie in competition with the heme manufacturer in our markets, amount, on near- ly all our leading brandies of manufacture, to more than one-third of tho value of tho imported article, and in some cases to almost one-half i n value. With such advantages, it is not to bo doubted that Our domestic manufacturers will continue to pros- per, realizing in well conducted establishments oven greater profits than can bo derived from any other regular business. Indeed, so far from requiring tho protection of even incidental revenue duties our manufacturers in several leading branches ure ex- tending their business, giving evidence of great in- genuity and skill, and of their ability to compete with increased prospect of success, for the open mar- ket of tho world. Domestic manufactures to tin- value of several millions of dollars, wliich cannot find «. market at home, arc annually exported to for- eign countries. With such rates of duty as those established by the existing law, the system will prob- ably be permanent; and capitalists who have made, or shall hereafter make, their investments in manu- factures, will Itnow upon what to rely. The coun- try will bo satisfied with these rates, because the ad- vantages which the manufacturers still enjoy result necessarily from the collection of revenue for the support of government. High protective duties, from their unjust operation upon the masses of the people, cannot fail to give vise to extensive diss-ttis- fnctiori nnd complaint, nnd to constant olfnrls to change or repeal them, rendering all investments in manufactures uncertain an] precarious. Lower and dred miles distant, in some cases, from any deposi- tory, and a large portion of them in a foreign coun- try. The modifications suggested in the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, are recommended to your favorable consideration. In connexion With thissubject,.! invite youratlcn- tion to the importance of establishing a branch mint of the United States at Now York. Two-thirds of the revenue derived from customs being collected at that point, the demand for specie to pay tho duties will b e large; and a bi'anch mint, where foreign coin and bullion could \be immediately converted into A- merican coin, would greatly facilitate the transaction of tho publio business, enlarge the circulation of gold and silver, and be, at the same time, a safe deposito- ry of the public money. The importance o f graduating and reducing the price of tho public lands as luivc been long olfered in the market, at the minimum rate authorized by ex- isting laws, and remain unsold, induce mc again to recommend tho subject to your favorable considera- tion. Many .millions of acres of these lands have been offered in the market for more than thirty years, and larger quantities for more than te n or twenty years; and being of an inferior quality, they must remain unsaleable for* an indeliaite period, unless the price at which they may be purchased shall be re- duced. To place a price upon them above their real value is not only t o prevent their sale, and thereby deprive the ti-easm*y of anyhicomo from that source, but is unjust to the States in which they lie, because it retards their growth and increase of population, and because they have no power to levy a tax upon them as upon other lands wstliin their limits, held by other proprietors than the United States, for the support of their local governments. The beneficial effects of the graduation principle have been realized by some of the States owning the lands within their limits, in wliich it has been adopt- ed. They havo been demonstrated also by the Uni- ted gtates acting a s tho trustee for the Chickasaw tribe of Indians in the sale of their lands lying with- in the States of Mississippi and Alabama. Tho Chickasaw lands which would not command in the market tho minimum price established by tho laws of the United States for the sale of their lands, wore, in pursuance of the treaty of 1831 with thnt tribe, sub- sequently offered for sale at graduated and reduced rates for limited periods. The result was, that large quantities of these lands were purchased, which would otherwise have remained unsold. The lands were disposed of at their aetaal value*, and many persons of limited means were enabled to purchase small tracts, upon which they have settled with their families. That similar results would be produced by the adoption of the -graduation policy b y tho United States, in all the States in which they avo the own- ers of largo bodies of lands which have been long in the market,cannot bedoubtad. It cannot ben sound policy to withhold large quantities of the public lands from tho use and occupation of our citizens, by fixing upon them prices which experience has shown they cannot command. n the contrary, it is n wise policy to afford facilities to our citizens to become the owners, at low ami moderate rates, of freeholds of their own, instead of bring the tenants and depend- ants of others. I f it be apprehended that these \With full reliance upon the wisdom and patriotism of your deliberations, it will DC -ny di\ty,ftiit will be my anxious, do- siro, lo co-operate with you in o'very constitutional effort to promote the welfare tind maintain the honor of our common country. JAMES, K. FOLK. •WASuiiN-oTON, December 8,1G4G. ;Norti)ent State lounwl. FRIDAY EVENING, MEMBER 11, 184* Sfi* The Message was recoived by to-day's'mail, and we hasten to lay it before our readers. Wo are enabled to do so at about half-past 9 this evening, Like those of his predecessors, it has tho quality of length —our readers will decide about its depth more permanent rates of duty at the same time that lands, ir reduced i n price, would he secured in large they will yield to tho manufacturer fair and rami- quantities hp speculator* or capitalists, the sales may iierating profits, will secure him against the danger | bo restricted, in limited qnantites, to actual settl crs his intention to conve to a monarchy, and to call a foroign European princo to tlio throne. Preparatory to this end, ho had, during Ids short rulo, destroyed tho liberty of the press, tolerating that portion.of it only wliich openly advocated the establishment of a monarchy. The better to secure tho success of his ultimate designs, he had by an arbitrary decree, convoked a Congress—not to bo elected by the free voice of the people, but t o bo chosen in a manner to make thorn subservient to liis will, and to givo him ab- solute control over their deliberations. Under all these circumstances, it was believed that any revolution in Mexico, founded upon op- position to the ambitious projects of Paredes, would tend to promote the cause of peace as well as prevent nny attempted European interference in the affairs of tho North American continent— both objects of deep interest t o thu United States. Any such foreign interference, if attempted, must have been resisted by the United States. My views upon that subject woro fully communicated to Congress in my last annual message. In any event, it was certain that no change whatever iii the government of Mexico which would deprive Parcdos of power could be for the worse, so far as the United States woro concerned, while it was highly probable that any change must be for the bettor. Xiiis w-aa tho slate; of ufliurft existing when Congress, on tho 14th of May- Inst, recog- nized the existence of the war which had been commenced by the government of l'aredes and it becamo a n object of much importance with a view to a speedy settlement of our difficulties and the restoration of a n honorable peace, that Paredes should not retain power in Mexico. Before that time there were symptoms of a rev- olution in Mexico, favored, it was understood to bo, by the more liberal unity, and especially by those who wore opposed to foroign interference and to tho inonarchial form of government. San- ta Anna was then in exile in llavanna, having been expelled from powor and banished from his country by a revolution which occurred in De- cember, 1841; but it was known that he had still considerable party in his favor in Mexico. I t was also equaily woll known that no vigilance which could be exerted by our squadron would, in all probability, havo prevented him from effecting a landing somewhere on the extonsive gulf coast of Mexico, if h e desired to return to his country. He had openly professed an entire change of pol- icy ; had expressed his regret that he had subvert- ed the federal constitution of 1824, nnd avowed that he was now in favor of its restoration. H e had publicly declared his hostility, in tho strongest terms, to the establishment of a monarchy, and to Europen interference in the affairs of his coun- try. Information of this fact had boon received, from sources believed to be reliable, at the date of the recognition of the existence of the war by Con- gress, and was afterwards fully confirmed by the receipt of the despatch of our consul in the city of Mexico, with the accompanying documents, which are herewith transmitted. Besides, it was reasonable to suppose that ho must see the ruin- ous consequences to Mexico of a war with tho United Suites, and that it would bo his interest to favor peace. It was under these circumstances and upon those considerations that it was deemed expedient not to obstruct his return to Mexico, should ho at- tempt to do so. Our object was the restoration of peace; and with that view, no reason was per- ceived why wc should take part with Paretics, and aid him, b y means of our blockade, in pre- venting tho return of his rival to Mexico. On the contrary, it was believed that tho intestine divi- sion's which ordinary sagacity could not but an- ticipate as the fruits of Santa Anna's return to Mexico, and his contest with Paredes, might strongly tend t o produce a disposition with both parties to restore and preserve peace with the United States. Paredes was a soldier by profes- sion, and a monarchist in principle. Ho had but recently before been successful in a military re- volution, by which bo had obtained power. H e was the sworn enemy of the United States, with which he had involved his country in the existing war. Santa Anna had been expelled from power by the army; was known to be in open hostility to Paredes, and publicly pledged against foreign intervention and the restoration of monarchy in Mexico. In view of these facts and circumstan- ces it was, that, when orders were issued to the commander of our naval forces in the Gulf, on the fifteenth day of May last, only two days after the existence of the* war had been recognized by Con- gress,, to place tho coast of Mexico under block- ade, he was directed not to obstruct the passage of Sauta Anna to Mexico, should ho attempt to return. A revolation took place in Mexico in the early part of August following, by which the power of Paredes was overthrown, and lie has since been banished from the country, and is now in exile. Shortly afterwards, Santa Anna returned. It re- mains to bo seen whether his return may not yet prove to be favorable to a pacific adjustment of existing diflicullies, it being manifesly liis interest not to perserve in the prosecution of a war com- menced by Paredes, to accomplish a purpose so absurd as the re-conquest of •Texas to she Sabine. Had Paredes remained in power, it is morally cer- tain that any pacific adjustment would have boon hopeless. Upon the commencement of hostilities by Mex- ico against the United States,- tho indignant spir- it of the nation was aroused.- Congress prompt- ly responded to the expectations of the country, and by tlie'act of 13th May last, recognized the fast that War' existed; by the act of Mexico, be- tween the United States and that republic, and granted the means necessary for its vigorous pros- ecution. Being involved in a war thus commenc- jpr vigor and energy, ns tho best to a speedy and honorable tt| loan will be necessary to meet the present nnd the next fiscal should bo contiuued until the' ico with jnrans of bringing it ;minntion, a further he expenditures for years. If tho war Sth of Jnne, 18-18— •Jfvcnty-lhree millions jfhe estimate is made 11 bo necessary to rc- \ four million of dol- ics. If such surplus nined, then a loan of being the end of the next fisea'jyear—it is estimated that nn additional loan 0 f \ \— —\\— of dollars will be required, upon tho assumption that it wj tain constantly in the treasui lars to guard against continge' were not required lo be reii nineteen millions of dollars would be sufficient. If, however, Congress should, at ( the present session, im- pose a revenue duty on the principle articles now embraced in the free list, it i estimated that an ad- ditional annual revenue of nWt two millions and a half, amounting, it is estimated, on the 30th of June, 1S-1S, to four millions of dollars, would be derived from that source; nnd the loan required would be re- duced by that amount. I t ,s estimated also, that should Congress graduate md reduce the price of such of the public lands as have been long in the market, the additional revenue derived from that source, would be annually, lor several years to come, By the laws of nations a conquered territory is between half a milliun ol' doners; and' the loan re- subject to l,i-governed by the conqueror during bis nuirciLmay be reduced by tbat amount also. Should military possesion, and until there is either a treaty tucc c , nc;lsurc s be adopted, dio loan required, would of peace, or be .shall voluntarily withdraw from it. not probablv exceed eighteen or nineteen millions or ^ha | ol.l > olvn | itnv-orium-ntbLJii^niviMiidyi<npi'iTr'l- ,1,,11,,,-a, i,.„Ciii K in the Treasury a constant surplus -- jg n etl, ii is th e rlghtum) duty or llmconqueror to aecurt' his conquest, nnd to provide for the maintenance of civil order and the rights of tho inhabitants. This right 1ms been exercised, and this duty performed, by our military and naval commanders, by the estab- lishment of temporary governments in sumo of tho conquered provinces of Mexico, assimilating them as far ns practicable, to the free institutions ol\ our own countrv. hi the provinces of New Mexico, and of tho California.*, little if nny further resistance is apprehended from the inhabitants to the temporary governments which have thus, from the. necessity of thecase, and according to tho laws of war, been es- tablished. It may be proper to provide for the secu- rity of these important conquests by making an ade- quate appropriation for the purpose of erecting for- tifications and defraying the expenses necessarily in- cident to tho maintainance of our possession and au- thority over them. Near the close of your last session, for reasons communicated to Cmigacss, I deemed it importent ns a measure for securing a speedy peace with Mexico, that a sum of money should bo appropriated, and placed in the power of the Executive, similar to that which had been made upon two former occasions du- ring the administration of President Jclferson. On tho Smli Of February, 1803, an appropriation of two millions of dollars was made, and placed at the disposal of the President. Its object is well known. It was at that time in contemplation to ac- quire Louisiana from France, and it was intended to he applied as a part of the consideration which might bo paid for that territory. On the I3lh of February, lSOli, tho same sum was in like manner appropriated witha view to the purchase of Florida from Spain. These appropriations were made to facilitate ncgoti- ations, ami as a means to enable the President to ac- complish the important objects in view. Though it did not become necessary for the President to use these appropriations, yet a state of things might have arisen in wliich it would have been highly important for him to do so, and the wisdom of making them cannot be doubted. It is believed that the measure recommended at your hist session met with the ap- probation of decided majorities in both bouses of Con- gress. Indeed, in different fcrms, a bill making an appropriation of two millions of dollars passed each house, and it is much to be regrettal that it did not become a law. The reasons which induced me to recommend the measure at that time still exist: and I ngaiu submit the subject for your consideration, and suggest the importance of early action upon if. Should thtMipproprintion be made, and be not needed, it will remain in the treasury : should it be deemed proper to apply it in whole or in part, it will bo accounted for as other public expenditures. Immediately after Congress had recognized the existence of the war with Mexico, my nttcntion was directed to tho danger that privateers might bo fitted outin'the ports of Cuba and Porto Rico, to prey up- on the commerce of the United States,: nnd l invited the special attention of the Spanish government to the 14th nrtiolc of our treaty with'that power, of the 20th of October, 1703, under which the citizens and subjects of cither nation who shall take commissions or letters of marque, to actus privateers against tho other, \ shall be punished as pirates.\ It affords mo pleasure to inform you, that I have received assurances from tho Spanish government, that this article of the treaty shall bo faithfully ob- served on its part. Orders for this purpose, were immediately transmitted from that government to tho authorities of Cuba and Porto Rico, to exert their utmost vigilance in preventing any attempts to fitout privateers in those Islands-againsttheUnitcdStntes. From the good faith of Spain, I am fully satisfied, that this treaty will be executed in its spirit, as well as its letter ; whilst tho United States will, on then- part, faithfully perform all the obligations which it imposes on them. Information has been recently received at the Department of State, that the Mexican Govern- ment has sent to Havana, blank commissions to pri- vateers, and blank certificates of naturalization, signed by General Solas, the present head of the Mexican government. There is, also, reason to ap- prehend that similar dpcuments have been transmit- ted to other parts of the world. Copies of these pa- pers, in translation, are herewith transmitted. _ As the preliminaries required by the practice of civilized nations for commissioning privateersand reg- ulating their conduct appear not to havo been ob- served, and as these commissions are in blank, to be filled up with tho names of citizens and subjects of all nations Who may be willing to purchase thorn, the Whole proceeding can only be construed as an invi- tatiou toalT the froe-booters upon the earth, who are willing to pay for the privilege, to cruise agaiust American commerce. I t will be for our courts of justice to decide whether, under such circumstances, these Mexican letters of marque and reprisal shall protect those who accept them, and commitrobbcries; upon the high sens under their authority, from tho pains and penalties of piracy. If the certificates of naturalization thus granted' _r i'uur miitioiYs or UYuiars. * 'i*J»o luiTti r/runusvu, is estimated, will be suuleient to cover the necessary expenditure'?, both for thewar, nnd for all otherpur- poses, up to the, thirtieth of June ISIS ; nnd au a- innunt of this loan, not exceeding one-half, may be required during the present fiscal year, and the greater part of the remainder, during the first half of the fiscal year succeeding. In order that timely notice may bo given, and proper measures taken to effect the loan, or such por- tion of it ns may bo required, it is important that the authority of Congress to make it be given at an early period of your presentscssion. It is suggested that tho loan should be contracted for a period of twenty years, with authority to purchase the stock anil pay it off, at nn earlier period, at its market value, out of any surplus which may at any timo bo in the treasury applicable to that purpose. After the establishment of peace with Mexico, it is sup- posed that a considerable surplus will exist, and that the debt may be extinguished in a liiuoh shorter pe- riod than that for which it may bo contracted. The period of twenty years, as that for which the pro- posed loan may be contracted, iu preference to a shorter period, is suggested, because all experience, both at home and abroad, has shown that loans are effected Tipon mush better terms upon along time, than when they arc reimbursable ntshort dates. Necessary as this measure is, to sustain tho honor and the interests of the country, engaged in a for- eign war, it is not doubted but that Congrcs will promptly authorize it. The balance in the treasury on the first of July last exceeded nine millions of dollars, notwithstand- ing considerable expenditures had been made for the war during the months of May and June preceding. But for the war, the whole public debt could nnd would have been extinguish^ 1 within a short period; nnd it was a part of my settled policy to do so, and thus relievo the people from its burden, and place the government in a position which would enable it to reduce the public expenditures to that economical standard which is most consistent with the general welfare, and the pure and who'esomeprogress of our institutions. Among our just causes of complaint against Mex- ico, arising out of her refusal iu treat for peace, as well before as since the war so unjustly commenced on her part, are tlio extraordinary expenditures in which wo have been involved. Justice to our own people will make it proper that Mexico should be held responsible for these expenditures. Economy in the public expenditures is at nil times a high duty which all public functionaries of the government owe to tho people. This duty becomes themoreimperativeiti a period of war, wdien large and extraordinary expenditures become unavoidable. Duringtho existence of thewar with Mexico all our resources should bohusbandcdVand no appropriations made, exoeptsuch as are abundantly nocossary fot> its vigorous prosecution and the due administration of the Government Objects of appropriation which in peace may be deemed useful or proper, but which are hot indispensable for the public service, amy, when the country is engaged in a foreign war, be we'll postponed to a future period. By the observ- ance of this policy at your present session, largo a- mointts may be saved to tho treasury, and be applied to objects of pressing and \urgent necessity, and thus tho creation of a corresponding amount of public debt may be avoided, ,. It is not meant tp recommend that, the ordinary and necessary appropriations for the support of gov ernment should bo withheld, but it is wefi known that at every session of Congress appropriations are proposed for numerous objects which may or may not bo made, without materially affecting the public\ in- terests ; and these it is recommended should not be granted. The act passed at your last session \ reducing the duties on imposts,\ not having gone into operation until the first of the present month, there has not been time for its practical effect upon the revenue, and business of the country, to bo developed. It is not doubted, liowcvcr,.that the just policy which it adopts willad-1 largely to our foreign trade, and pro- mote the general prosperity. Although it cannot bo certainly foreseen what amount of revenue it will yield, it is estimated that tt will exceed that produc- ed by the act of 1S-12, which it superceded. The leading principles established by it ore, to levy the taxes with n view to raise revenue, an'l to impose them upon tho articles imported according to their actual value. The act of 1842, by the excessive rates of duty which it imposed on many articles, cither totally ex- cluded them from importation, or greatly reduced the amount imported, and thus diminished instead Of producing revenue. By it tho taxes were impos- ed not for the legitimate purpose of raising revenue, but to afford advantages to certain classes; at tho expense of a large majority of their fellow-citizens. Those employed in agriculture, mechanical pursuits, commerce and navigation, were compelled to contri bulc front their substance lo swell the profits and nerating profits, will secure him against the danger of frequent changes in the system, which cannot fail to ruinously affect his interests. Simultaneously with the relaxation of tho restric- tive policy of the United States, Great Britain, from whoso example wo derived the system, has re- laxed hers. She has modified her corn laws, mid re- duced many other duties* to moderate revenue rates. After ages of experience, the statesmen of thatcuun- , try have been constrained by a stern necessity, and . | by a publio opinion having its deep foundation in tho sufferings and wants of impoverished millions, o abandon a system tho effect of which was to build up immense fortunes in the hands of the few, nnd to reduce the laboring millions to pauperism and mis- ery. Nearly in tho same ratio that labor was ile- prc»c-a, TOpitni wa s increased and concentrated by the Brit'sh protecu.. ,. n u„^ ' The evils of the system in Urc» — . '_. „ length rendered intolerable, and it has been aban- doded, but not without a severe struggle on the part of the protected and favored classes to retain the unjust advantages which they have so long enjoyed. It was to be exp -d that a similar struggle would be made by the same classes in the Uuited States, whenever an attempt was 'e to modify or abolish the samo unjust system >. The p-oteetivo poli- cy \ . been in operation ' the United States lor a much shorter period, and its pernicious effects were not, therefore, so clearly perceived und felt. Enough however was known of theso effects t o induce its re- peal. It would be strange if, in the face of the example of Great Britain, our principal foreign customer, and of tho evils of a system rendere I in- lifest in tl-at country by long ami pain 1 experience, and in the face of the immediate advantages which, under a mo'e liberal commercial puliey, we arc already de- riving, and must continuo to derive, by supplying her starving population with food, the United Slates should restore .a policy ivliicli she has been compelled to abandon, ami thus diminish her ability to pur- chase from us the fowl mid other articles which she so much needs, and wo so much desire to sell. By the s\ .inlliineous abandonment of the protective pil- lcy toy Ore.t VlrUiuTi nutl tU'j Umtcnl KluU'S, ui'W and important markets have already been opened fcr our agricultural mid other products; commerce nnd navigation have received a new impulse; labor nnd trade have been released from the artificial trammels which havo so long fettered them—and to a great extent rcciprooity in the exchange of com- modities, has been introduced at the sa.nn timo by both countries, and greatly for the benefit of both. Great Britain has bteu forced, by the pressure of circumstances at home, to abandon a policy wliich has been upheld for ages, and to open her markets for our immense surplus of breadstuffs; and it is confidently believed that other Puwcrs of Europe will ultimately see tho wisdom, if thoy bo not com- pelled by the pauperism anil soffvrings of their crowded population, to pursue n simil lr puliey. Our farmers arc more deeply interested in main- AatnnicAN AUT UNION,—This is an institution es- tablished fur the purpose of encouraging the Fine Arts in this country, which have been so sadly negj lected. The amount required from each person to become a member is five dollars, which entitles them to a picture of acknowledged worth. The balance of the funds of the institution arc expended in pur- chasing superior paintings, sculpture, &c,the pro- duct of native artists, which are divided by let among the several subscribers. The drawing takes place 6a the 18th inst. in New-York City, and wc hope that J. C. PA-ruinGE, Esq, of this village, an Honorary Secretary, may have the plcasuro of announcing to ono or more of the patrons of the institution, in this county, that they arc the lucky ones, and havo been so fortuimto as to secure prizes. Siclcncss at the West. Carre ponficticc of the St. Lovis iVeio Era, PEOIUA, Nov. 23,18-10.. Tbcpastseason has been remarkable for two evei'ifs 1 which are well worth a place in the memory of \ the oldest inhabitant.\ The first is the extraordinary sickness which prevailed throughout the State. W e need not confine ourselves to Illinois, but the remark will apply toall that portion of the Union lying North and West of the Ohio river. It would have been but a slight hyperbole, last September, to have called this entire region one vast hospital. I n that mont\ business led mo to the Itock Hitcr country, and as I travelled very leisurely in my own conveyance, 1 wne enabled to ascertain that in largo settlements not a single family was ontircly exempt. In some, every member was prostrated, depending upon visitors to render them assistance, while other families had to be removed entire to the huuscs of friends wdicro fewer weresiok. \What is also remarkable is, thnt the disease was very seldom fatal, and it is very questionable whether tho actual mortality was as great as iu ordinary years. \Were all your readers physiologists, I might interest them by going into particulars. Let one case suffice. Galcsburg, where is located Knox Manual Labor College, is a town of StlO inhabitants. At least one-half of these were sick, and yet out of the entire population there was not a singlodeath. The sickness in the region spok- en of commenced about tho middle of July—provi- dentially after the wheat harvest. I remember in- quiring of oneof our millors, about the first of Au- gust, bow tho mill (steam) wasguing on, when ho re- I plied that ho could get no wheat—that tho people in I the country were all so sick that they cuuld'nt got it 1 thrashed out. This was notunlly true. The sick- qiiantit' or persons purchasing for purposes of cultivation. In my lust annual message 1 submitted for tlio con- sideration of Congress the present system for the managing the mineral lands of tho United States, and recommended that they should be brought into market and sold,upon such terms, and undersuch re- strictions ns Congress might prescribe. By die act of the eleventh of July last, \the reserved lead mines and contiguous lands in the Stales of Illinois and Arkam.K and Territories of Wisconsin ami Imv,,\ , ^ uonli| „„ a t]irouph<)ll t September and October, were authorized t o bo sold 1 he net i s co„li„od in th( . , (ia t ,„„„„, w f , f IlrnW ' linB „ a m„„ v new ens' « f „o .....It ! PO.- .1:..- 'P I I... i - - I.:--I tainiig the just and liberal policy of the existing law than any other class of our citizens. They con- i itute n large major'.; - of our population; and it is well known \rhen they prosper, all other pursuits prosper aki. They have heretofore not only re- ceived none of tho bounties or favoes of govern- ment, but, by the unequal operations of the protec- tive policy, have been made by the burdens of taxa- tion which it imposed, to contribute tu Ibc buunlies which have enriched others. • When a foreign as well as n home market isopened to than, they must receive, as they arc now receiv- ing, increased prices for their products. They will find a readier sole, and lit better prices, fur their wheat, flour, rice, Indian corn, beet, pork, laid, but- ter, cheese, and other articles, which they produce The home market alone is inadequate to enable them to dispose of the immense surplus of food and uthi-r artie'es which they are capable of producing, even at the most reduced prices, for the manifest reason that they cannot be consumed in the country. Th e United States can, from their imme-iso surplus, sup- ply not only the homo demand, but the deficiencies of\ food required by the whole world. Tbat the reduced production of some of the chief articles of food in Groat Britain, and other parts of Europe, may have contributed to increase the de- mand for our bread stuffs and provisions, is not doubted; but tbat the great and efficient cause of this increased demand, and of ^ increased prices, con- sists in the removal of artificial restrictions hereto- fore imposed, is deemed to bo equally certain. That our exports of food, already increased and increasing beyond former examples, under the more liberal pol- icy which has been adopted, will be still vastly en- larged, unless tliey be chocked or prevented by a res- toration of the protective policy, cannot be doubted. That our commercial nnd navigative interests will bo enlarged in a corresponding ratio with the indrcase of our trade is equally certain, while our mantfiictur- ing intores'T will still bo the favored iutercstof the country, aitilreiecavolhoiiiei'icntal protectionnIForded them by rcvenucdutiesjimdiuorctlian this tlicy can- not justly demand. In my annual message of December hist, a tariff of revenue duties, based upon the principles of the ex-* isting law, was recommended, nnd I have seen no rea- son to change the opinions then expressed. In view of the probable beneficial effects of that law, I rec- ommend that the policy established by it bo main- tained. It has but just commenced to operate; and to abondou or modify it without giving it a fair trial would be inexpedient and unwise. Should defects in any of its details be ascertained b y actual experi- ence to exist, these may be hereafter corrected; but until such defects shall become manifest, the act • should bo fairly tested, It is submitted for your consideration Whether it may not be proper, as a\var measure, to impose rev- enue duties on some of Hie articles now enibweed in the free list. Should it be deemed proper to im- pose such duties with a view to raise revenue to meet the expense of the war with Mexico, or to avoid to thnt extent tlio creation of a publio debt, they may bo repealed when the emergency which gave rise ;o them shall cease to exist, and constitute no part of the permanent policy of the country. The act of the sixth of August last, \ to provide for the better organization of the treasury, and for the collection, safekeeping, transfer and dlsburse- r. 1 e*at ofthc public revenue, 55 has been carried into ex- ecution as the delay necessarily arising outof the ap- pointment of new officer*, takingand approving their bonds, and preparingand secarinff proper places for the safekeeping of the public money would permit.— It is not proposed to depart in any respect from the principles or policy oil which this great measure is founded. There lire, however, defects in tho details of the measure, developed by practical operation. which are fully set forth in the report of the Secre- tary of the Treasury, to which the attention of Con- gress is invited. These defects would impair lo some extent the successful operation of the law at all times, but are especiallycmbarrassingwh>'ii thocoun- try is engaged in a war, when the expenditures are greatly increased, when loans are t o Tie ctfecW, and the disbursements nro lo bo made at points many'hun- its operctinn. to Head mines and contiguous hud A large portion of the public lands containing copper and oilier <u*cs is represented to be very valu- able, and I recommend fhat provision bo nwlo au- thorising the sale of these lands, upon such terms nnd conditions as their supposed value may, in the ircArvfjilfrfif Congress, he deemed advisable, having as may lie located iip'oiiTuTwif-sueh of our citizens It will he important, during your present M-S-„... to establish a territorial government and to extend the jurisdiction and laws of the United States over the Territorv of Oregon. Our laws regulating trade and iiitcrcom-sc with Hie Indian tribes cast of the lltieky mountains should be extended to the Pa- cific uceaii, ami for the purpose of executing them. an d preserving friendly relations with the Indian tribes within our limits, nn additional number of In- j dijn agencies will be required and should bo author- ized by law. The establishment of custom houses, and of past offices and post reads, ami provisions for the transportation of the mail »n such routes as the public ennveniencp will suggest, require legislative authority. It will be proper, also, to establish a sur- vivor iieneval's office in that territory, and to make tho necessary provision for surveying the public Un!s,und br'ingine: them into market. As our citi- zens who now re-side in that distant region have have been subjected to many hardships, privation-\ nnd sacrifices in their emigration, and by their im- provoineiitshave onhnncd the value of the public kinds in tlieii'-i^'ilH'rlim-i of llwir settlements, it is rcfoiiunrnilist tliat lilievil grants !.» m.idoto them or siirb pnrtionsof theselaii'lsiislboy may occupy, nnd tliat similar grants or rights of pre-emption be made tn all who may emigrate thither within a limited pe- riod, to be proscribed by law. The report of the Secretary of \War contains de- t,tiVl inl'iinuation relative In the several branches of the public wsrvipo- connected with that department.— The operations o f thr army have been of a satisfac- tory and highly gratifying character. I recommend t o your early and favorable eansid- oratiun the measure proposed by the Secretary of \War fur speedily filling up the rank and file of the regular army, for its greater efficiency in the field. and fur raising an additional force to servo during the war with Mexico. Embarrassment is likely In nrise for want of legal proi Men authorizing compensation to be made lotbe agents employed in the several States and Territo- ries to pay the revolutionary and other pensioners the amounts allowed by law. Your attention is in- vited to tho recommendations of the Secretary of War on this subject. These agents incur heavy re- sponsibilities nn«i perform important duties, and no reason exists why they should nut be placed nn the same Rioting, a s to compensation with other disburs- ing officers. Our relations with Urn various Tndinn tribes con- tinues to be of a pacific character. The unhappy tlissensinns which have exlsti-l amonjr theCherokces- for many years p.ist have been ho.mlod. Since my last annual mess-igc, inipnrtiitit treaties have beer negotiated with *oine of the tribes, by which thcln- »li.m title to large tracts of valuable fand within the limits of the States and Territories has been extin- guished, and arrangements made for removing them to the country west of the Alis^is-fsippi, Between three and four thousand, of different tribes, have been removed t o the country provided for them by treaty stipulations, and arrangements have been made for others to follow. In our intercourse with the several tribes particu- lar attention has been given to the important subject of education. The number of schools established a- mong them has been increased, and additional means provided, not enly for tcichiug them tho rudiments of education, but in instructing them in agriculture and the mechanic arts. I refer you t o the report of the Secretary ofthc Navy for a satisfactory view of the operations of the department under his charge durinjr the past year. It is gratifying to perceive that while the war with Mexico litis rendered it necessary t o employ an un- usual number o f our armed vessels on her coasts, the protection due to our commerce in other quarters o the world has not proved insufficient. No means will be spared to givo efficiency to the naval service in the piosecution of the war; and I am happy to know that the officers and men anxiously desire to devote themselves to the service of their country i n any enterprise, however dillietilt of excetilioii. I recommend to your favorable consideration the proposition to add to each of our foreign squadrons an efficient sea steamer, ami, as especiallydeinanding attention, tho establishment at Pensacola of the nec- essary means o f repairing and refitting of the ves- sels of tho navy employed jn the Gulf of Mexico. There arc other suggestions in the report which deserve, and I doubt net, will receive your conside- ration. Tho progress and condition of the mail service for the past year are fully presented in the report of the Postmaster General. The revenue for the year end- ing on the 30th of June last, amounted to three mil- lion four hundred and eighty-seven thousand one hundred and ninety-nine dollars, which is eight hun- dred and two thousand six hundred and forty-two dollars and forty-five cents less than that of the pre- ceding year. The payments for that department (luring the same timo amounted to four million eigh- ty four thousand two hundred and ninety seven dol- lars and twenty-two cents. Of this sum five hundred and ninety-seven thousand and ninety-seven dollars and eighty cents have been drawn from the treasury. The disbursements for the year were two hundred and thirty-six thousand four hundred and thirty-four dollars and seventy-seven cents less than those of the preceding year. While the disbursements have been thus diminished, tho mail facilities have been enlarged by new mail routes of five thousadd seven hundred and thirty-nine miles; an inereascof trans- portation of one million seven hundred, and slxty-four thousond one hundred and forty-five miles, and the establishment of four hundred and eighteen new post offices.^ Contractors, post masters, and others en- gaged in this branch of the service, havo performed their duties with energy and faithfulness deserving commendation. For tony interesting details connected with the operations of this establishment, you are referred to the report sf the FoHtmnstor General; anil IIIH 6iipg'-slions for improving its revenues are refijmmeniiiol tu ymir favorable cnimJilBration.— I repeal ibo opinion oxprcsneil in my last annual message, thai tli:; business o f tiihibsparlniont should bo so regu!at<-d lhatlliQ revenues derived from it should be maila lo eijilat the expenditure: and it is believed thai this may bo done liy proper modifications of the present laws, as suggested In the repoi lid tlioPoslma.ftcrGonCinlavalioulcham'ilii.lho present rates of fus-lHgr-. es as either of the preceding Thanhs to a kind Providence, universal health is now restored; and ns if to enable the farmers to bring up leeway, tho same kind Pnividcucc is continuing the mild\ autumnal weather beyond nil former example. Tho number of deaths hero this rear will be about one hundred: population y.soo. this is one out of every SS. The average mortality in the U.Stntcs, is i • v \\~*-«r nftv.or thereabout. But this has been fin probably willnotw«.. ~ • W . n , txi „ ca i bS ti-and IMPORTANT FROM MEXICO. From tho N. Y. Ib-raltl. By the steamship McKim, at New Orleans, from Brazos, which port she left on the 2 1th lilt., we havo later and highly important intelligence from Mexi- co. Tho McKim brought as passengers Majors Mc- Lean and Graham, bearer of despatches from Gen. Taylor, and Capt. Davis, bearer of despatches from Gen. \Wool. Gen. Word took peaceable possession of Monclova on the Mill of October. The Governor and nil tho influential citizen formed an escort, on hearing of Gen. Wool's np pi-oach, and met him about four miles from the city and welcomed him ns a friend. Gen. Wool occupies, os his head quarters, ono of the IK-SI houses in the city, nnd every attention is paid to him nnd his troops by the inhabitants. The army of Gen. Wool—two thousand men— is in excellent health nnd spirits. Tlio country through which they have passed on their march abounds in every thing necessary for their subsis- tence, and Wi.5 obtained t\t the most reasonable pri- ces. News was received nt Monclova on the Sd of No vember thnt Pol Doniphan, of Gen. Kearney's San- ta Fc division, had taken the city of Chibuahun, with his command, numbering 700 men, without re- sistance. [This report wns contradicted by the telegraphic report of Monday evening.] Col. Ililey, of the 3d infantry, had been ordered to march with his regiment on Victoria dc Tnmauli- pas, and was already en route for that place. Gen. Taylor, on the arrival of despatches from our government, ordering the discontinuance or tho armistice, despatched Major Graham to Saltillo, to confer with the Mexican camp, and inform them of the fact, and that thereafter each party was at liber- ty tn act as they might think best. Not a soldier was to be seen nt Saltillo on the ar- rival at that place of Major Gniham, nor bad any made their appearance previous to his leaving there. On the loth of November, General \Worth re- ceived orders at Monterey lo inarch against Saltillo, and evi?ry thing was in readiness fbr his departure No resistance, however, was anticipated from the nr my. Letters received at Camargo continue to speak of Santa Annn'.sproparationsal.SanL'uisI'otosi. They «U c that he bad collected at that place 30,000 men; and little credence was given to the statements. Gen. Worth's division still occupied the city of Monterey, nnd Gen Twiggs and Butler's commands were encamped outside the town. It was nlso rumored nt Camargo, on the 7th No- vember, that another revolution had broken out in Mexico, nnd that the flanta Anna party had de- clared him Dictator. The parlisans of Santa Anna headed byGen Valencia, demurred at the Dictator- ship, anil drove hiin and his fiver-zealous friends from San Luis Potusi. ThoDictiitor in consequence,was falling back upon the city of Mexico. This rumor, however, was doubted by the better informed citizens of Camargo. The inhabitants of Camargo are talking seriously of a territorial government. Gen. Patterson had left Camnrgo with 2000 men, en route for Tampico. Gen. Ampudia, tho Mexican chief nt Monterey, was reported to be confined in prison nt Matagorda, on account of his capitulation to Gen. Taylor of tho city under his commond. Col. Gates has been appointed Governor of Tam- pico. Gen. Butler is still suffering severely from tho effect of his wounds. Col. Baker hail recovered from the injuries ho had received. Tho loss of the troops by sickness on the Rio Grande, since tho opening of the campaign, is esti- mated nt1500. The McKim left at Brazos, (ho IT. S. brig Vomers and schooner Arispc, loaded for Tumpico, for which port she would soon sail with a company of regulars, provisions and munitions of war. The schooner John Wainwright of New York, was lost in a gale off Brazos on the 19th Novembcn .Several other vessels draggged their anchors and put to sea. The MelCim lost overboard on her voyage, Chas. Muller, of Baltimore, of tho Texas rangers, and Churchill, of Capt. May's XI. S. Dragoons. A TALK OF Soitnow.—About six months ago, a widow lady came to this city from the State of Maine. She was the mother of five children, four of whom she brought with her when she came. Her chief purpose in coming here was to find employment for her family whereby they might obtain a comfortable living and enjoy the comforts of home. About thrco months after taking up her residence here, her young- est daughter, about nineteen years of ago, was taken sick and died : in tho following week, a son younger than tho daughter, also died; then in another week a young matt who was a boarder in the family, died; on the same week another boarder, ayoung man, was taken sick, went homo and died in the following week; then on the next succeeding week another daughter, died ; and on Wednesday, the last of tho four who came here with the mother, died also. The one who died on Wednesday was married about two months ago to a worthy mechanic of this city, Thpy-nll died,, of the typus fever. These simple facts tell a sad talo of sorrow and bereavement.—[Lowell Courier. Mr. William [latch, of \Wortbington was, frozen, to death during the storm of tho night preceding Thanksgiving, while going from Cummington to his house. Ho fell by tho roadside, being unnblo to. withstand the wind and snow, and there perished. [Springfield Rep.

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