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The western star. (Westfield, N.Y.) 1826-1828, June 22, 1827, Image 1

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c-' / l£l • / t i i, hz — IWI VOL. II.] PVBLTSHRn CN NUOAV8, BV IJAUVST\ S8WQOMB, AT WISTFIH.O, C!f.»LTAU(ii;r. CO. ft. ••ARMERs'ANl) MANUFACTURERS' MEETING. At a Meeting of the Pennsylvania Society for the promotion of Manufactures and tlie Mechan&k Arts, held at Philadelphia, on the Mth da;, of Mav, I82l Am Westfield, Friday, June 22, 1827. •\•^•\•WwfiSMfiTlJ\ \ill ^pjllWWW^MMMaMl^MM were MrluXS W T^™£jKl!iiV r ' I sons cr! P a ~- d '» M^otfkn branch, will di-findepcndcncethencearising,from an ample wete exclude.!. 1 be population or the Urn- vert their indwstfy to agriculture—and thu- i~- e , i tetf States, winch, in 1702, was about 4,*00,- i not merely diminish the market for the ne 000, ,s now about 12,500,000. Yet the ex-; cessaries of life, and other products of the rLiST ,, ' T ,79 - , r ™;£\ t^l\**^**^?****^ number of —1(),.^«) barrels more than in 1825. ils cultivators. The diminution of the export of wheat and j The great importance to the farmers of Indiani corn has also been ^reat. The ex- J securinga steady market for wool isvastlv port of those articles in 1790, and 1825, was increased bv the depmsed state of the mar 3 fcHows:—Wheat, — *\\\*\ * '* - - - \- ' »UIBUBU [No. 55. Prosperity among the fdtmeis and manufacturers must\ necessarily be fol- •• lowed by advantages in every mechan- ical employment—and the merchants \land storekeepers, by having'emiched . _ . I .i . al^ has wore than trebled—vet not merelv I into view wl branches must have on other depart- „ ^ ^ ^ JJ oup exports; vance^at have bo^n^de within a men ts of industry, aitd on the general {of most of tho '\ ! '\ a ien we consider the rapid ad- few growm; been reduced welfare, having been duly considered, it was Resolved, that the Pennsylvania So- ciety for the promotion of Manufactures ami Merhanick Arts, do earnestly call on the farmers, manufacturers, and the friend* of both branches of industry, to hold conventions in their respective 'ticle«, they States as earl) as convenient in che ; l ,u P ui ' at!on in i7i ' 9 \\'• > *'>ou montit of June next, to appoint at least'\ ,s oow flbo ' t 12 those articles, on which the grain; years, by the introduction of steam naviea stales mainly depend, has sincrjj ticn, canals, and raii road3. and the hapm | destinies to which the couitry must a The domestick exports of the United | diculd every branch of industry be duly pro ppy rrive, St .tes in 17P0, (the first year when a dfs- tected bv wise regulat.ons, tins society feel crimination was made by the treasury de-jthemselve- imperiously called upon tomake nartmeat between foreign and domestick,)! a solemn appeal to the middle, eastern; and ; rbout €33.000,000, exclusive ofcUtoa j western states. were and tobacco. In 1825, excluding those ar-j We do not consider this question as ex- erc onh €23,882,473. Our clusivciy sectional, although such a charac- iOO.000. t 4*750,000.— jter has been frequency attached to it, both Thus, while it; in and out of our nation\ • national councils,* but nat- general convention at Harrisburgb, , g lias iieariv trebled, t!;< exports of all li.ear-ju>allv address ourselves to the states most live delegates from each State, to meet | {IC1LS pr ^ WOl \ ov 8 j, Lllt io.ooe.OOO of our! directly interested in tie adoption of die pol- icy which wa advocate. The society have beheld with great re- gret, that the doctrine of the unconstitution- ality cf congress affordhg protection to man- ufactures, by duties on imports, has been o- al- in- rowing and wool s,,ld at ltss ,!lal » a halt, a third, or a ;, and such other, fouith of thair former value, thereby ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ popnlatienbare diminished one third; Pennsylvania, on the thirtieth day of j though the export of manufactures ban Jnlv. to deliberate on what measures creased above four-fold. are proper to be taken, in the present; h ^ painfiri to tike a retrospect of the e .i :- , A'.--- .distress which the exclusion ot our grand posture of ben affairs oc<|d . n (he Btate of Poi)i( ^ lva Resolved, that the farmers and man- jg U1 ]S10 md , B20 mi (|om whWh ; t ^ Bfaetnrers, and the friends of farming not vet recovered. A committee of both and manufactures in the several eoun- houses of the legidatuie of the state, appoint- ties of this StatP, be requested to ap- ed 'o ascertain the extent of the evil, drew point delegates to attend a meeting of a. t!ie fi -'owing outline i State convention, be held at Harris-) \ Burnous sacrifices of landed piop- borgh on Wednesday. 26th day of June ertj at she. .11 s sales, wherein, n tna- uext, to take into'consideration the 1 \>' cdses ? lane's and houses have been present state of wool gro manufacturing inter* sts. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ I11111 - 1111111 ^ BBBBB _ Banouctarei as may require encot.r- depriving of tht.r hemes and the liuits Bgeroent, and to appoint delegates to,°* l«ootou» years, a vnflt numbei ot our attend a general convention, for these industrious farmers, some ot whom have purposes, to be held at Harrisburgh on been driven to seek, in the uncultivated the 30th day of July next. i forests of ,he ***** *•« shelle » \* wil,ch Resolved, That Messrs. Charles J. they Inve been depttved in their native Ineersoll, Mark Richards, &c. be a •»»• ports oTtbe productions of tl.e grain growing states is considered, it may be a matter of surprise to many, unacquainted with tl-e subject, hew our immense imports- tioi.s lii,ve been paid for. To this we an- ?-,7c:-, that a very large amount of our pub- lic!; and private securities has been inortga- i ged for their paj men!. It must therefore be I obvious, thai the interest of these securities, produced by ti\' labouring classes of our i country, unouutiog probably to above 42,- ; 000 000 annually, is appropriated to i)a> for t'oi\ -r. La boat, >v!iii*; OUT OWO iai'iiK ;s anU woikmcn nant profitable employment.— When the tariff of 1824 was enacted, after solemn debate, it was hoped that ris provis- ions would afford promotion to every branch compensation ?\ Mr. Jefferson's message of Decem- ber, 1S02, is to the same effect :— \To cultivate peace, and maintain com- merce and navigation in all their lawful en-. , „,^ „ _ ;1I /•„, -, . » « - T . , . c . r i • customers, Wi 1 tind their business more terprises; to foster our fisheries, as nurseries I _ . » . \•\\iw niore of navigation, and for the nurture of mar.; profitable, and subject to racch less haz^ and to PROTECT THE MANUFA€- «ld. TURKS adapted to our circumstances, * + *! It is not extravagant to assert, that are the landmarks by which to guide our-! without a system of protecting duties selves in all our proceedings. 1 ' ff\V m'Jniirar*lnroc thn *r*rk\w\~trwr*vwftr\r* ^ - ,1 Mr. Madison and Mr. Monro their for manufactures, the grain-growing and ;n j manufacturing states would be debarred messages, uniformly held the same of a i arge poMmn of the blessing lhe doctrine. ' & - b And can it be for a moment admit- ted, that the venerable Washington, his three successors, and those members of the first congress, above named, who had but recently been called upon to give their luminous minds and great talents to the formation of the constitu- tion, would, so soon after its adoption, have mistaken its meaning ? for they surely could not have lent their aid to union is calculated to confer upon the United States generally. It is assumed that protecting duties on the importation of foreign manufac- tares greatly enhance the prices, and of cuurse impose an oppressive tax on the consumer. Nothing can be more foreign from the fart. Alexander Ham- ilton exposed the fallacy of this notion, above thirty years age :— • \ When a domestick manufacture has at- its violation. Yet such is the true state I tained to perfection, and has engaged in the of the case, if the doctrines now con- prosecution of it, a competent number of tended for by the legislature of Virgin-J persons, it is invariably cheaper. Beingfree ia in the following resolution be cor rect : 44 Resnlvrd, That this general assembly I does most sol from the heavy charges which attend the importation of foreign commodities, it can be atforded, and seldom or never fails to be* lomnly protest against the claim \ fitfSK ^> K^V^™' '\'V? 5 « whatever, on the part of the | ^^J^^^ * ** subr- enal mittee to frame an address to the! J*' 1 \ 5 ?^thenJnnnutioniof the quantity an citizens of the United 5t,tes, on the I va,,,c °' **export* »i the productions of th subjects embraced in the preceding n-s olntiona. C. J. INGERSOLL, J7ce Prcs't. REDWOOD FISHFR, \HC*y. ries : i the Citizens c.i't'tt United £ The Penui Ivania Society for the promo- tion of Vfanufactnres and the Mechanic* A ts. beg leave respectfuHy to oiTer for the c . lid consi loi\.;ion of r ; :':; - fellow citizens, s «ns riews of national;; :l!cy on which ihe r t a >pcar at present to exist aS'fferenees of o pi ; *. Y-'t it is believed these riews wJI I • found reconcilable w;t;, the inlcrcs • rery section of the Union, and emiiu caloal: •I'tiv : J * B ***o°ul indttsti j. ted\to encourage national industry I . Thu i^y r ercer:t. duty laid upon for- _ . . .. . - •, earn wool, it was contemplated, would have and oromote national prosperity. ! r .,• • . . . .t ~, ,- .. ., • ' •. • t * • given sutlicie.it protection to toe wool grow- rhe objects of this society, it is true, are ° ....... . _ • • , , . -, •,, ,, •' ers. and, that tbe duties and rebtrictious on more i n u sdiatelv connected with the inter- .- .. ... .. ,, r . • , .. , tae importiou oilu;:-eien woollens, would ktil- Dits •; inanut Tturers ;nl artists—the mu-,. ., r . , ,, ? . , . , . , , , , ,- . i iicicntlv protn t lhe ^•.merw an taDiicli. l.ui tual de^^aience, haweve - , of tnegreat sour- Li .• at • J- I -.-.I i e '. , .. i tne former will be o< no avail, it the dotnes- ' • • •'. national industry upon ea.cn ottjer. •, . , ,. .. „ . , , , , ... , , . .. .-• ' . F ., tick market for the article be destroyed, the and tne tendency which an increase ol the t . - . ... .. .,- ^^^ ^^^ i,, . rcsvit ot Hit; prostration of lhe woollen man- iutacture, which will certainly take place without an immediate and radical change in prosperity of one branch na!u r a!ly p\o;n :e the vrelfare of all, is too evident to be denied. The groat cKtent of our territory, and i'.ie general fartilitv of the soil have attracted the indbstry ofbv far the greater portion of the nation, above SO ger cent, of the whole, to tlio pursuits of agriculture: and it ha 5 not been until within these few ycais that at- tention has been in anv considerable degree diracted to manufactures. l:\ every well regulated community, the cultivation of the soil in the best manner nviit always he a subject of the highest con- sideration ; and while the attention of the society has b?en catted to a view of the ex- isting state of the agriculture of the country, it has been lod to a belief that the deprea sion of that important interest which has a- risen from the due waat of proportion be- tween the consumers and producers, might have been prevented, bv fostering and pro- tecting thoso branches of manufactures, which np'^o t{ doaagtUck market, the best of <J '• 7 myrlcelt, for He rut*! vrodudsofihe soil.\ frhfle the BSCSSSHBW of Paropa obliged b*r to receive tho grain and flour of ttie middle and western states, the sWaiiogM* 6 ] rest of those states was highly prorperou: • but these, necessities having long since ceased to C*CIM, the ports of that quarter of the ^lobc for tho last nine years, with the c-ception of about three months, have been our policy. The repeal by Great Britain, in 1G2C, of nearly all the duty upon foreign wool im- ported into that country, has had the elfcct tj destroy the salutary effect of the law of 1824, so far as it relates to the woollen man- ufacture, whereby the intended protection is frustrated. The duly in Great Britain is only one penny per lb- on wool at or above one shilling sterling, and one half-penny on wool below that price, while ours is nearly one third of tee value, amounting, on the fi- ner qualities, to from 30 to 50 cents per lb. By this state of tilings the farmer it whol- ly deprived of the advantages intended to be given him by the increased duty on foreign wool, and the American manufacturer of that article is so far depressed by the great quantity of English woollens bro't into the country, that he cannot continue the busi- penlv promulgated in aud out of congress.! 0 f anv nnwpr It might have been expected, that the uni- &encra l government, to protect domestick l ? te Tl,e interDal competition, which takes . form exercise of this power, in favour of manufactures; the protection of manufac-1 plaCC ,' soon , does \ wa y every thing like mo- agnculture and commerce, as well as manu-' tU res not being among the grants of power I TS?t and bj i dc ^ rees red \ces the price of factures, from the very commencement of to that government, speci6ed in the consti- t,ie artlcI<? to the minimum of a reasonable he government, would have laid the ques-: tution of tbe United States-and also against | pr ° fit ° n the Ca P ital employed.\ r at fu St ' * *« -. c , ^ 'the operations of the act of congress passed! In our confitmation of this sound For the protection of commerce, the first May 22d 1824, entitled, \an act to amend' principle, it cannot be denied that as congress in 1,83, imposed a tonnage duly the several acts imposing duties on imports \far as the legislation nf .hi™ . 't on foreign vessels, engaged in the foreign ^eraBy csdledTKhT law, w£Tv«VUodW doe nrot« ° U > i ?n trade, ot ^0 cents per ton for every entry the distribution of the proceeds of the la- P i ! protection to our skill while American vessels paid but 6 cents- hour of the community, in such a manner as i a \ d Inc ! ustr >'» \ has operated to coun- four entries in a year, paid 800 dollarT tS ^^^^1™!}, \^ » I J d . « |f« estab^hments ; w hereas \^ y I^:^^0^\^ W \ e tl-se doctrines carried ^o^^^^^^^ coasting trade, and making ten entries in a T > T £*\! ^^f T* •«««»«* «•»« itSeThl ^5^ year, paid750doOars-nWsau Ameri- they ought to be, they would produce „ a c , ^3 of bette Sual S can vessel, of (he same, size, and making the most disastrous concequences, not '.„„„.,., ; n ,i la ' ,! \ quality the same tiumherofentr.es , paid but 9 dol- merely to the manufacturing states, but 11 • „i ! V , * ! S ' boots > and '-\ \ M 1 --~ = ' — ' '- • Union at large. We° should be ' S }™1&\> ***\* arl, 5. les ' naiIs >P a - lars. The duties imposed at that period on to the Union at large. We should be ! „„ ,u •, tea-imported in foreign vessels, averaged r nn«tau'lv HpnpnHpnt nn f,,™;™ «.,»;„.,o i p ' courser articles of ironmongery only twelve-being a protecting duly to the 2\£\5 d ^ endent on f ' re S n nat 'ons, and ma ol , wrs j , h . fc > * American shipowner of one hundred and *° r the raost e ^ntia articles of our , tion of lb ^, \ ne renec twentv iTvc 'x;r cent. clothing, cottons, woollens, linens, and j reader will furnish him. The duty on cotton, for the purpose si!ks > and f « r most of the manufactures I | y confirmed' bv the ^1\ C ° mp,ete ; of encouraging the culture to the south \»'the various metals, which never oouldL rea t Britain, where the dutTe^have was three cents pei pound, which is be ca.^ •-*-^ r «^ct.„ n , or to any ex-| hp<Jr , 1)n if n . m ,' v w , a , e .. ... ues / a Y e now from forty to fifty per cent, on Hie '—' •dequate to so ,,»,iy uu. ueuianus, er country—and vet she is enabled to actual prices for which the article sells w 'thout protection by duties ; and thus ;underseU almost ^.j Qtner natJons ^ in Alabama. The duty imposed in notwithstanding we are blest with as- tueirown markets. 1789, on manufactured tobacco and many natural advantages as arty nation j The case of coarse cottons with us snuff, was sis cents per pound on the and with more than most, a large por-; on whicn the du . ies are pr))hibi ' former and right cunts on the latter ex- t>°n of those blessings would, by a poll- j mav here be a , so referred , 0 m § ^g prrsslv intended to secure the stinsump- c y. s0 erroneous > be lav,shed on us ,n j king corroboration of thistheory. They tion of the country to our tobacco plan- vai \; c , . are now sold at half the price thev bore teis. This end it has fully accomplish-' l hat our manufacturers owe their es- , yhen i mporteci) and ar e of double val- ed ; as the importation of foreign snuff tahl.shment to protection by duties, is| ue in int 0 f durability, makine a dif- and tobacco has been insignificant— P ,a,n ,rom t,,e fact » that Previous to fetence of 75 per cent in favour of the On brown sugar, a necessary of life, 1811, when there was no protection, ol, American consumer# Had no othp ^ and subject to a heavv freight of about that description, all attempts to estab-j instance ever occurred hpre thls a|on g 15 per cent, the duty is three cents per l,sh the cotton manufacture, though we I would be sufficieritt0 s< , ule J he queslion pound, varying according to the prices possessed the raw material in such a-. witnoutap , in the West Indies from 50 to 85 per ^ ndance ' had almost universally failed. The atlemptg t£) estab i ish tbe WOQT . cent, for the protection of the sugar The whole number of mills in 1808. in ;i en manufacture during the first 20 planter. The constitutionality of the Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Isl- years of lhe operalioa ° f our govern . protection thus afforded to the commer- antJ > ,he ch,ef and almost the sole sf,ats j ment, had so whollv failed that in the cial and planting interests has never! 01 \ the manufacture, was only fifteen,I ear , 8l2 W(J were *unable to furnish a been questioned. I working 8000 spindles, and consuming j , of Wanketg fa fc Indian (p So far as regards manufactures, the 300,000 Ibs.t of cotton annua.ly ;mj the amount of six thousand dollais so right of congress to protect them in 1810, we exported 9^61,462 Ios.butj that the secreta of war , ied to that mode, was not only admitted inj consumed onI y 3,000,000 .bs. ITms COB grt« to repeal the non-intercourse the first congress, but strenuously id- • natlon n,a y P ossess ,he utmost ab!,n -,law, to enable us to procure them from vocated by the most distinguished dance of a raw material, and skill, taJ-| Gr eat Britain, members of that body—Madison,Ames, ent > industry and capital, and yet be' - - Fitzsimons, Carroll of Carrollton, Law- ! u »erly unable to establish an important rence, Clymer, VVadswortb, Boudinot, lmanu,actljre > or lo compete with for- &c. &c. many of whom were members ei 5 n ,iVals > without government protec- tion. additional duty, to countervail the advan- tage given to the English manufacturer bv the reduction of the duty on the importation of foreign wool. It has been estimated that in cur woollen manufactures there is a capital invested of $50,000,000. In consequence of the stag- nation that has taken place, some of those , -, . . . _i , j , „„ . .engaged in it have been ruiued—others have ciosc:'a^;.>nst those imported productions ; ,. °.° , - , . , , , °? , iuyuiw»i -..discharged many of their workmen—and so that, wbde those states consume from 1U|,, • .._?__ Jt L .. , . , to 12,000,000 dollars of the manufactures ol Europe,n annually, they producee scarcelvs of the convention that fiamed the con stitution. The right, let it be most dis-1 ° ur \ports notwithstanding we oe^u.Jes.tbeoririnalmtentiot.of^^Unctly observed, was never once called manufacture at least $25,000,000 per be earned into effect by the enactment of an I in question in that congress. I alinum , of cotton and woollen goods, any important article which will be received i return.- displaying a mor ruinou want Uf reciprocity between those portions ot the United States and Europe, than perhaps has ever occurred in the history of commerce The whole export of flour from the United j those who conlinue the business, do not de rive from it a maintainence It is obvious that the prostration of a branch of industry, which puts into circula- tion such large sums as arc necessary to em- ploy the above capital, must produce very injurious results to the nation at large.— Should no salutary alteration take place, a States in 1%5 to Great Britain andTre-1 considerable portion of this capital will be land, was 27.-272 barrels, aud to France, 102. j lost, by the great depreciation of that part Of the injury resulting to the nation from which is invested m buddings and machine- the closing of the European ports against' ry- Thousands oi persons will be deprived, tlicir cflbrts m e way tlia , sha u appear our bread stuff*, some idea may be formed j of employment—not merely those immedi-, c |,gjbi e . Ought our country to remain de- from the following facts : In the vear liilT,! atelv engaged in tbe branch in question, but tho export of flour from the United States «i the variety of branches wholly and col- The first act for impost, passed Jul ded— \ Whereas, it is necessary for the support of government, for the discharge of tbe United States, and the ENCOURAGE- MENT AND PROTECTION OF MAN- UFACTU RES, that duties be laid on goods, wares, and merchandise imported.\ In addition to these strong facts, gen- eral Washington, who had beel presi- dent of the convention, in his message of 1796, particularly recommmded to congress the encouragement »f manu- factures:— \ Congress have repeatedly and not without success directed attcnion to the ENCOURAGEMENT OF MANUFAC- TU RES. The project is of to> much con- sequence not to ensure a coJtinuance of was 1,479,193 barrels, valued, according to the treasury returns, at $17,752,3*<6. At the close of the year, the ports of Great Britain were shut against our bread stuffs, and have so remained ever since, except for three months in 1818. The export of the latter year was reduced 320,000 barrels, aad amounted only to 1,157,697 barrels, laterally dependent on it On the farming interest, already greatly depressed, it will operate very severely. It will diminish the market for wool, and lower the price, so as to destroy in a great meas- ure the inducement to raise sheep, and ren- der of little value those in the hands of the farmer. This serious injury to farming, the pendent on foreign supply, precarious, be- cause liable to be interrupted ? If the nc- value, $11,570,917. The export of 18191 occupation of at least 7,000,000 of our citi was reduced to 750,600 barrels, value §0,- j zens, is enough, alone, to call for the iuter- 005,200. In the year 1825, it was 813,906! position of government—but this is by no barrels, value $4.212,126—although in that] means the whole of the evil lo that impor- •aar ne exported 252 ; 786 barrels to Soitbjtaot interest. In addition, numbers of par- sessary article should in tbis.nude cost more in time of peace, will noUhe security and At the commencement of the war, our soldieis were destitute of suitabled clothing until provided for, and that but indifferently, by the violation of the laws of the countty, enacted against an intercourse with the British nation, and until subsequently the establish- ment of our woollen manufactures pro- vided a domestic!; relief. The views thus presented, are left, with little illustration, to the publiclc dition, to import this large amount of 'judgement;—trusting that although those articles I Our farmers could not there are man y |, 0 nest and enlightened raise cheep to advantage—our grain | SU pp 0r ters of different principles, yet raisin? a revenue by are insufficient to preserve a favoura y 4,1798, was head-' b!e course of exchange. What then 1 would be our situation, had we in ad- would be a greater drug at home and abroad, than it is at present—our iron and other minerals, would remain im- bedded in the earth—and we should be destitute of any consideiable articles to exchange with the foreign world, for the manufactures which would be indis- pensible for our comfort. There can be no doubt that the mul- tiplication of our sources of industry, by a proper encouragement to the great variety of labour to which our various soils and climates are adapted, must veiy materially benefit each vocation ; because the consumers of every article produced, would then bear a greater proportion to those employed in their production. F And it is exqually clear, that the in- *Mr. Hayne a member if congress from'crease of commodities, which would be South Carolina, in an addess to the Cham- thus produced for exchange with for ber of Commerce of Charleston, has recent ly recommended to the stithcrn portion of tbe country, \ to rouse fr*n their apathy\ and oppose the further Jrolcction of the woollens, or any extension of the protecting sx stem, \»a» cvminerciat c\la>nity command with which tear itseff tcoifd almoil tone Ut icrnmrs !\ eign nations, would give an additional impulse to foreign commerce: and great- ly inciease our coasting trade, already much enlarged by the present stale ci our manufactures. T Galatia'j Report on Manufactures. such facts and experience can hardly fail to make good their true impression. The subject is of the first importance. The period has arrived for acting upon it. Concentration of effort is indispen- sable ; and this society respectfully sub- mit, that they have proposed the most effectual method by which the country may attain the highest degree of pros- perity. Charles J. Ingersoll, Mark Richards, J. J Borie, B. M'Credy, Isaiah Hack- er, Lewi: Wain, Benjamin Jones, Wm. Young, Samuel Richards. George M'- jCalmont, James Molt, John Savage, James Martin, Matthew Carey, John Diamond, John Homes, Seth Craige, Nathaniel Banker, Samuel 1*. Wether- ill, Thomas Fisher, Thomas Gilpin, James M'Alpin, Mordecai D. Lewis, .Joseph Ripka, Geo. Wilton, James L. Mifflin, Redwood Fishe*-— Committee, PhUadeJpbta, May IP, 1887, The undersigned gentlemen of Troy, con- clude a letter to the farmers. U'ool growers. Manufacturers, and others, i.i the severaf era! counties oi the state of New York, who

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