OCR Interpretation


National anti-slavery standard. (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1870, July 21, 1866, Image 1

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tun barb. VOL. XXVII. NO. 11. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1866. * . » w it » i , . u , « M4a.f I b o d ies of th o slain, tlio m o te easily to d e tac h th e Im o rce, im p r o v e m e n t an d th o adv a n c e m e n t of th e P r e s id e n t w o u ld bo nn am iable delusion w h ich tho I g s t i o n a l X a n t o t d ............. .... „ jro, lUal „ « « • ! W ith th is booty tho traders r e t u r n to th e ir negro | b e discarded u n til th o traffic in slaves shall have | vote t).(.y wou],} cfU)t in ,jl(. ,mmo of tllejrr(JC(1 f j ally. T h o y bavo th r a s h e d n n d disqom fited h is censed to e x ist.”—Vol. I I . , pp. 311-814. slaves should h a p p e n to decide th e co n test and ; onomy, w h ich deligh ts him ; th e y p r e s e n t him w ith ! — -------------------- , ‘‘lovntc th e m to pow er. M .h i c h n r r n r r a m a i m o n n e c o n bo o h of E g y p tian travels, published th is y e a r i n j h im w ith joy, nnd a p r e s e n t of a p r e t t y l it tle cap- S T R U C T I O N . I ... 9 „ • • * 1 — L o n d o n , m y a t t r i t i o n wns c a u g h t b y th e follow ing jive girl o f abo u t fou rteen com p letes h is linppi- WHOLE NO. 1,363. T H E E G Y P T I A N S L A V E T R A D E . sentence in th e preface : •1 w ill e x h ibit a p ictu r e of savage m a n precisely ns lie is ; as 1 saw him ; and as I ju d g e d him , free from preju d ice : pain tin g also in tru e colors a pic­ tu r e of th e abom ination th n t lias been th o enrse of th e A fiicnn race, tho stare trade; tru s tin g t h a t n o t o n ly th e ph ilan th r o p ist, b u t every civilized being w ill join in th e endeavo r to erase th a t s tein from d isfigured hum a n n a ture, and th u s open th o path now closed to civilization and m issionary en ter­ prise. T o th e M issionary—th a t noble, self-exiled laborer, toiling too often in a b a rren field—I m u st add t h e w o rd of c a u tion —W a i t ! T h e r e can b e no h o p e of success u n til th e slave-trade shall have [Wo republish by request floury W inter Davis' 1 letter ou universal suffrago, quite agreeing with tho “ B u t business has only com m e n c e d . T h o nc- friend w)io salts n s to do so th a t it is tho most complote gro covets c a ttle, aud th o tra d e r lias now c a p tured nn<i exhaustive statem ent th a t lias been made of the perhaps 2,000 head. T h e y a ro to bo h a d .'or ivory, I a rgum ent, and w illing to benr cheorfnlly tho littlo a u d sh o r tly th e tu s k s app e a r. Iv o r y is daily sneer nt ourselves in whioh Mr. Dnvis indulges nt the b r o u g h t in to cam p in exchange f o r cattle, a tu s k close for tho sako o f the stalw art aid of such a now for a cow, according to size— a profitable business, convert.] ns th e cows have cost n o th in g . ” ased t< \ Should any slave a tte m p t to escape, si: islicd e ith e r b y b r u t a l flogging, or s h o t •>, as a w a r n ing to others. “ A n attack o r razzia, such as describ, ally leads to a q u a rrel w ith th e negro all,' s pun- ingod, • T h e A lbert T h e w o rk h e re alluded N ’y a n z a , G r e a t B a sin of th e N ile, a n d E x p lo r a tion s s|aYCS o f t h e N ile Sources. B y Sam u e l W h ite B a k e r. .lite r ne a r ly five years passed in A frica, M r. B a k e r liis t u r n is m u r d e r e d a n d p lu n d e r e d b y th e trad e r - h i s w o m e n an d c h ild r e n n a tu r a lly becom ing succeeded i u co m p leting th e solution o t th e p r o ­ b lem tow a rds w h ich such im p o r ta n t ndvnueos had A g o o d season fo r a p a rty of a h u n d r e d and fifty m e n should produ c e ab o u t 20,000 lb: of ivory, valued a t K h a r to u m n t £4,000. T h e m e n be in g p a id in slaves, t h e w ages should b e nil, an d th e re h e r e m a d e h r IM * - . S p e k e . « 1 r.rn n l th e w . r o o , j ^ bc , o t „ v0 -a d , ™ , o l th o M o T - . y « r . W !„,v M - I k I ( o t th o ^ 0„ , proflL_ w„ r t l,. ™ »ve™ ge, ..ng g it. of th is m , t tlio In to ™ o r » whose o n in X ’y a u ; equ a to r . H e , m e e ting them o u th e ir w ay hom e , aud having th e advantage of friendly conference w ith them rcsp e c t i'.g tlie ob ject of bo th parti* , , , five t o s ix p o u n d s e ach, u r n x)i e r o \ e . aps ic j,oajg a re accordingly p a c k e d w ith a h u ­ m a n cargo, a n d a portion of th o tra d e r * m e n ac­ com p a n y th e m to th e Soudan, wliilo th o r e m a in d e r - , - . J ’ o f th o p a r ty form a cam p o r se ttle m e n t in th e p e n e tr a ted . region wmeU ,1 ,- j t a d no t been . b k , in a n , , rio,„ , pillu. T “ h ' r >>“ “ \ 7 “ ! « ” • f « k * u n til th e ir „ r « t e r '„ re- w rtb an o th e r g r e a t bo d y o f fre.-h > v ,tor„«h ,cl' bo ^ K l.a r to n f t in th e follow ing n o a e d •• A lb e rt J , y a . s A p r o n g t o . nam e al«. to w M d , tim e th e y are m tpposed to have a th e boo k w h ich describes its discovery. • _ »pi,- . , , , . i cargo of slaves a n d ivory ready f o r s h ip m e n t, in c T h e sentence a b o v e quoted from th is E n g lish h , . ». .t . i ,i *i, i „ i i b n s iuess th u s th o r o u g h ly established. th e sln\es trav e ller show s tliat h e w as w iser th a n those lead- , . , • . ... • , , ____ • 1 ai» landed a t various p o in ts w ith in a few days jo in icy of K h a r to u m , n t w h ich places ar, ag e n ts ers o f th e A m e rican ch u rch e s w h o m a in ta in e d a g u ilty com p licity w ith slavery, and foolishly u n d e r ­ to o k to co n v e r t m e n to C h r is tianity w ith o u t in te r ­ ference w ith t h e ir settled custom s of slaveholding a n d slave-trading. I therefore copy f o r y o u p o r ­ tio n s o f h is d e s c r iption of th o m u r d e r o u s expedi­ tio n s w h ich k id n a p tho im m e n se n u m b e rs of w o m e n n n d ch ild r e n w h o a re a n n u a lly sold as slaves to E g y p tians, T n r k s and A rabs. a k . w. p o w e r to tlio S o u thern States, g in ia w ill serve as m o d e ls; < grow w ith m u shroom rapidity. B u t if i t b e im p o r ta n t that, th o frie n d s and n o t tho enemies of th e governm e n t shall co n tinue to govern it, o th e r m e a s u r e s m u s t bo taken. T h e S tate g o v e rnm e n ts in tho S o u th m u s t lie placed in h a n d s in terested to m a intain th e a u th o r ­ ity of the U n ite d S tates. I t is n o t enough th a t co n q u e r e d people aro w illing to su b m it t o e n title , I them to govern ns. T h o U n ite d S tates m u s t find From tho Missouri Democrat. friondf in terested nnd able to su p p r e s s hostility to I n M a y last, in response to | a u t h o r i t y a n d to dischnrgc all th e function's of g OVorn llcnj) sta l e a n d N a tional, in tlio face every disloyal or h o s tile pow er. A n d th e pow e r of th o s e who rebelled m u s t lie curbed b y those who dul ne t rebel, aided b y those w h o jo in e d th e re- bollio” relu c ta n tly and are an x iou s to aton e for th e ir erro r o r weakness. T h is c a n be done only b y reco g n izin g th e negro population as a n in te g r a l p a r t of th e people o f the Sont .crn States ; and by refusing to p e r m it a n y State g o m e.iT,e it to he organized on a n y other basis III 'ffrage H o m y W in ter D a v is w rote a le tte r sotting fo rth w ith his characteristic clearness and cogency his views up o n th e pro b lem o f reco n s tr u c tion . T h is le tte r has r e m a in e d u n p u b lished. T h o ,c o n s e n t of M rs. D a v is to th e publication havin g been obtained, a f rien d n t W a s h in g ton tran s m its to u s th e m a n u ­ script, a n d w e hav e th u s th o pleasure o f p r e s e n tin g to o u r r e a d e r s a d o c u m e n t w h ich strik e s u s a s r a n k ­ in g am o n g th e m o s t m a s terly expositions of tlie subject involved, th a t has y e t a p p e a red . Follow ­ in g is th e le tte r : B altim ore , M a y 27, 1805. M y D ear S ib : P lease a c c e p t m y acknow ledg­ m e n ts f o r y o u r k in d note. 1 w ish I could give y o u a s h o r t an d satisfactory' answ e r t o y o u r b r ie f nnd p r e g n a n t qu e s tio n to u c h ­ in g o u r prospects u n d e r P r e s id e n t Joh n s o n . T lie fu tu r e of th e n a tio n is sum m e d u p i n tho restoration of p o litical pow e r to th e S t a te s lately iu rebellion. O f w h a t th e P r e s id e n t's policy )3 o n t h a t to p ic I know no th in g . T h e conditions of th e p r o b lem are plain, and tho consequences of th e several possible s o lutions fol­ low w ith logical certainty . I t r e s ts w ith th e P r e s i­ d e n t, in th e S t a te in w h ioh C o n g ress has left, th e questio n , to tak e th e initiative ; nnd th e m o d e in w h ich th n t is do n e w ill d e term in e a ll th a t follows. W h a tever S tate go v e rn m e n ts lie allow s to bo or­ ganized a n d to elect R e p r e s e n tatives an d Senators to Congress, w ill b e recognized b y Congress in D e ­ cem b e r, in all probability. N o n e ex ist now in any S t a te w h ich rebelled ; none can bo o r g a n ized legally w ithout th e „ ^ _ <1 equality before tho lain. W h a tever anom a lies m a y have b e e n w inked nt d u r in g th e e ra of slavery, i t m a y well bc do u b ted if, w ith o u t n seriou s blow a t o u r principles, any govom m c n t can bo recognized as repu b lican in form w h ich excludes from suffrage an d equal laws a m a jo r ity of th e c itizens o f th o S tates, as w o u ld ho tho, case in S o n th C a rolina an d M ississippi, or h n lf tlio citizens, as w ould b c th e case i n A labam a , G eorgia, L o u isiana nnd V irginia, if th e negro c iti­ zens b e disfranchised. I t is certain th a t governm e n ts w h ich declared th e m equal before tho law, a n d recognized un iv e r ­ sal suffrage, w o u ld be r e p u b lican in form a n d s u b ­ stance also. I t is e q u a lly certain t h a t such a con­ stitu tio n in th e S o u thern S tates is th e only one co n s is ten t w ith th e natio n a l peace a n d safety ; and C o n g ress h a s th e rig h t a u d , I th in k , o u g h t to re­ fuse t o recognize an y S tate gov e rn m e n t in those S tates n o t on t h a t basis. B u t th e w h ite people of th e S tates w h ich rebelled w ill n o t organize g o v e rnm e n ts on th a t basis. No considerable p o r tio n o f tho wliilo po p u latio n of S i r : I have th e h o n o r to sn b m it th e follow ing . Yho Itov, M r. I r e n c h , w h o is also a ssailed, car- reply to tliat p o r tio n of th e r e p o r t of G ens. Steed- '* ,,n W a s h ing to n a stro n g letter from Gen man an d F u llerto n of th e ir inspection J the affairs j S teedm a n to th e Presid e n t, r e c o m m e n d ing h is re- of th e B u r e a u o f R e fugees, Freed m o n a n d A ban-1 a p p o intm e n t. Y e t in Ju n e , nearly five m o n ths doned L a n d s , w h ich relates to m r a d m in istra tio n ! ^ I|a,l left th e D e p a rtm e n t, w ith such and \n S o u th Carolina an*1 G e o rgia : , like rep o r ted proceedings go r a g on after I was - - - .r th o s e S tates is in favor of it, T h e loyal iu« no of th o U n ite d S tates ; a n d n o s tep s to secure th a t nm c h aga;n8t i t as tho r e b e l leaders, assent c a n b e tak e n w ith o u t h is perm ission. | N o n c wi)I |1(lo t it of ,i,ems<Jive8| n o r wiU th e y T h e P r e s id e n t s on ly pow e r o v e r th e q u e s tion mlo.)t i t o n fche m iu e 8 t a n d u n d e r th e influence ofuffering. rests m h i s r i g h t to refuse p e rm ission for any eon- th o P r e s id e n t volition o r e lection to bo h e ld u n less o n term s satis- B u t a ll win sni,m it to ifc if exacted, a n d a c c e p t i t factory to him ; b u t th a t p o w e r a decisive. I f h e | if unavoidable. refuse to p e r m i t a n y election or any c T o su b m it th e q u e s tio n to tlie loyal voters of th e A fter d e s c r ib in g th e S o u d a n provinces, th e cap ­ ita l of w h ich is K h a r tou m , on th e N ije — w h e re a G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l rale s w ith despotic p o w e r ; w h e r e , from th e h ig h e s t to th e low e st official, dis­ h o n e s ty a n d deceit a re th e r a le ; a n d w h e re m isery is th e g e n e r a l asp e c t of th e cou n try— th e a u th o r proceeds : “ U p o n e x istin g conditions th e S o u d a n is w o rth ­ less, h a v in g n e i t h e r n a tu r a l capabilities n o r p o liti­ cal i m p o r ta n c e ; b u t th e r e is, nevertheless, a reason th a t first pro m p ted its occupation b y th e E g y p ­ tian s , a n d th a t is in force to tho p r e s e n t day. T h e S o u d a n supplies slaves. “ W ith o u t th e W h ite N ile trade, K h a r to u m w o u ld alm o st c ease to e x i s t ; a u d th a t trad e is k id ­ n a p p in g a n d m u r d e r . T h e c h a r a c ter o f th e K lm r- to u n 'crs n e e els n o f u r t h e r com m e n t. T h e am o u n t of ivory b r o u g h t dow n from th e W h ite N ile is a m e re bagatelle as a u e x p o rt, th e ann u a l value b e in g ab o u t £40,000. “ T h e people, f o r th e m o s t p a r t engaged i n th e nefario u s traffic of th e W h ite N ile a re Syrians, K o p ts, T u r k s , C ircassians, a u d som e few E u rope­ ans. S o closely c o n n e c ted w ith th e difficulties of m y e x p e d itio n is t h a t a c c u rsed slave-trade, t h a t the so-called ivo r y trad e of tlie Wrh itc N ile requires an ex p lan a tio n .” * , * * * “ T h e r e a re tw o classes of W h ite N ile traders, th e o n e possessing capital, th e o th e r b e in g pe n n i­ less ad v e n tu r e r s . T h e sam e system of operations is p u r a n e d b y b o th , b n t t h a t of th e form e r will be e v id e n t from th e d e s c r iption of th e latter. “ A m a n w ith o u t m e a n s form s an expedition, a n d b o r ro w s m o n e y for th is p u r p o s e fit 100 p e r c e n t , a f te r t h is fashion. H e agrees to rep a y th e le n d e r in ivory a t one-half its m a rk e t v a lue. H a v ­ in g o b tained th e req u ir e d sum , h e h ir e s several vessels, a n d engages from one h u n d r e d to th r e e h u n d r e d v illains from d istan t countries, w h o have found -.asylum from justice in th e obscurity o f K h a rtoum . H e p n r c h a s e s g u n s a n d larg e q u a n titie s of am m u ­ n itio n for h is m e n , to g e th e r w ith a few h u n d r e d p o u n d s of glass beads. T h e p ir a tica l e x p e d ition b e in g com p lete, h e pays h is m e n five m o n ths’ w a g e s i n advance, a t tlie rate of forty-five piastres (nine s h illings) p e r m o n th, a n d agrees to give them eig h ty p iastres p e r m o n th f o r a n y p e rio d exceeding five m o n th s advanced. H is m e n receive th e ir nd- vance p a r tl y i n cash, an d p a r tl y in co tto n stuffs for clo th e s a t a n ex o rb itan t price. E v e r y m a n h a s a o tr ip of p a p e r , u p o n w h ich is w ritten b y th e clerk of th e ex p e d itio n th e am o u n t h e has received, b o th in goods an d m o n e y , and th is p a p e r h e m u s t pro­ duce a t th e final settlem e n t. “ T h e vessels sail ab o u t D e c e m b e r, a n d o n a r - | rival a t th e desired locality th e party disem b a rk an d proceed in to th e interio r, u n til they arrive a t th e v illage of som e negro chief, w ith w hom they estab lish an intim a c y . C h a r m e d w ith his new frien d s , th e pow e r of w h o se w eapons h e acknow ­ ledges, th e n e g ro chief does n o t neglect th e oppor­ tu n it y of seeking tlieir alliance to attack a hostile n e ig h b o r. M a rchin g th r o u g h o u t th e n ig h t, guided b y t h e i r neg ro hosts, thoy b ivouac w ithin a n h o u r ’s in a rc h o f th e u n s u s p e c ting village doom e d to an a ttac k a b o u t half-an-hour before break of day. T h o tim e arrives, an d quietly urro u n d ing tho vil­ lage w h ile its occupants a re still sleeping, th e y fire th e g r a s s h u ts in all directions, an d p o n r volleys of m u s k e tr y th r o u g h th e flam ing th a tch . Panic- stricken, th e u n f o rtu n a te victim s rash from their b u r n in g dw ellings, and th e m e n are shot down like p h e a s a n ts in a b a ttu e , w’ He th e w o m e n and chil­ d r e n , b e w ildered in th e d a n g e r and confusion, kid n a p p e d aud secured. T h e herds of cattle, still w ith in th e ir k r a a l or zarceba, a re easily disposed of, and a re driven off w ith g r e a t rejoicing, ns tho prize of victory. T h o w om en an d children are th e n fastened to g e th e r , th o form e r secured in nn in s tru m e n t c* iled a sheba, mnde of a fo rked pole, th e neck of th e p r is o n e r fittin g in to th e fork, cu re d b y a cross-piec w rists, b r o u g h t tog* o r pin c h a s e rs w a iting to receive them , w ith dollars prep a re ,1 f o r cash paym e n ts. T h o purch a s e r s nnd dealers a i ' fo r th e m o s t p a r t A rabs. T h e slaves a re th e n m a tc h e d across tho c o u n tr y to different places ; m a n y to Sennaar. w h e re th e y are sold to o th e r dealers, w h o sell th e m to th e A rabs n n d to I b e h e ld , t k —^ ___ ...... ni-mnm-miP8 H U P Wistence ^ f f i r n rf ■- th e T n r k s . O the. s aro taken im m e n s e d istances I f lie p e r m i ts thei a g g reg a te w h ite p o p u la tio n of j a m l ^ '^ n ^ t i t a t i o n ^ ^ n i o g th e rig h t o f'suffrage] to p o r ts on th e R e l Rea, Sounkim an d M asow n , I R>e So iith , qualified to vote■ u n d e r th e old govern iin(] m a k in g loyalty a condition, th e re to be shin n e d f. A rabia nn d Persia M a n y nlcu ts a b rog a ted b y th e rebellion, to organize S tate B u t th e re a re no s u c h co n s titu tio n s i u any S tate th e re t o be sh ip p e d fr A rabia a n a L ereia. filany p0Vernmen t 8, t h a t installs th e r e v d u ti o n a r y faction w| lich rebelled. T h e U n ite d S t a te s have refused arq se n t to C a iro, and in >ct th e y are dissem inated in pow e r m th e S tates a n d fills C o n g ress w ith th e ir | to rPOOgnizc ftllv s t a t e go v e rn m e n ts in an,, of those th r o u g h o u t t h e slav e - d c a lii.t E a s t, th e W h ite N ile R e p r e s e n tativ e s a n d Senators. I s ta te s . T lia t is to place th e sceptre i n tlie h a n d , from J T h e r e of its a ffairs ii F i rst. I am ch a r g e d witli issuing a “ m u c h larger nu m b e r of ratio n s than w o uld havo been required had I pursued th e wise policy since inau g u rated by G e n . Scott, of em p loying p r o p e r m e n u s to induce th e freedm e n to labor, in s tead o f -encouraging them to dep e n d up o n th e govern*/,ent f o r supplies.” T o show th e incorrectness of t h is statem e n t, I w ould respectfully call y o u r a tten tio n to o r d e r s in tlr> ac­ com p a n y ing list appended, m a rked “ L , ” “ M ,” \ O , \ “ U .\ T h e w h o le -.pint o f m y in s tructions was ag a in s t idleness and dependence ; nor d id I know ­ ingly auth o rize tho iosne of ratio n s e x c e p t in cases of extrem e s I was obliged to b u s t moro o r less to tlie hon e s ty of others, as I only a c ted on th e certificates of m y com m issary officers. p a s s ing away, anw d Sp p r ing a g s w ill a w a it th e solution of C o n g ress | S t.lte nss1UU fch 0 e x o a S tate g o v e rnm e n t m p p ly ;, h e retofo re, n o S tate governm e n ts and b e in g th e g i- e a tnursery f o r ti>, ai-MMij. i , r v , \ T h e am iable table,- re,.-,* Ihe W h ite t f ™ p k ' S ' I t a * S tate ,- N ile to K h m to u m ; h a n d s over to h i s c r e d it OTffi- loyni from t h e disloyal, a n d OTcludeYrom vobTigaU hoUl know n to th e C o n s titution of th o U n ited c ie n t iv o r y to liq u idate t h e original loan of £ 1,000, w h o have given aid a n d co m fo r t to tb o rebellion, a sta te s , a n d , already a m a n of capital, h e 'c o n m c n c e s a s a n m e re han d ful of th e p o p u latio n w ill r e m a in , w holly • in c o m p e ten t to fo n n o r m a intain a S tate govem - m d c p e n d e n t rac . m o n t, nnd s u r e to b c overw h e lm e d b y th e political “ S u c h w as th e W h ite N ile trad e v.b . I pre- J c o u n ter-revolution a t th e n e x t e lection, w h ich w ill p a r e d t o s t a r t from K h a r toum ou m y c x p tv ‘t ion to r e s tore pow e r to th e lenders of th e rebellion. ♦Lo v : i „ B/uinuK F v o r v oi»„ to TGuirtonm v iH . W h ile it stand s u n d e r th e p r o tection of th e U n ite d tho N ile sources. E v e ry o n e m K h a r to u m , v . t l 8tatoSt it co n s titu te an odious oligarchy, dis- th e exception o f a few E u r o p e a n s , was i n favor o f p o s ing 0 f th e lives a n d p r o p e r ty of th e g r e a t m ass th o slave trad e , a n d looked w ith jealou s eyes upon | u f tlieir fellow -citizens, w itho u t a n y resp o n s ibility, n s tr a n g e r ven tu rin g w ithin th e precincts of th e ir i n n d con tro llin g th e natio n a l legislation b y th e poo- lioly l a n d ; a la n d sacred to slavery, a n d t o every P 5?_f°r t !lcY v o to'., . , ,,,, , , . . .. T h is resu lt is unavoidable. T h e w h o le m aas of ab o m m a h o n a n d villany t h a t m a n can com m it. th e . „ p u latio n of th e S o n t h lias given aid a n d cem- “ T h e T u r k ish offi-ials p r o to n d - d to disoonnte-1 f 0!> *• vct.r-Hion. T h e w a r was m a d e b y th e n a n c e slavery : a t th e sam e tim e everv h o u s e in I accession of tlie U n ion m e n to th e rebel faction. K h a r toum w as fu ll o f slaves, an d th e E g y p tia n » is id le t o talk o f a q u i ^ n t m a ss o f lo y a l m e n „ . • • , ■ overborne by violence. I t w as th e U n ion m e n who officers h a d b e e n in th e lia b it o f receivin g a p o r tion lhp or,Ul.:,nec of [^cession in V irginia, and of tlie ir p a y in slaves, precisely as th e m e n em- w]10 n,nde it effect m l a f te r i t w as passed. I n no ployed on th e W h ite N ile w ere p a id b y th e ir cm -1 S tate w as th e rebellion d a n g e r o u s w itho u t th e i c- ployers. T h e E g y p tia n a u th o r i tie s looked upo n I L '-e a id of tho s e opposed to secession. ; m , , ................. B a t th e U n ite,! S t a te M n o tn e n . i . ,n t Bio exploration o l th e W h ite N f c S j a E u r o p e a n | r c b p j\ ngninRt th o .o S t a te ,, a n d I h n Jo traveller a s a n in f r in g e m e n t of th e ir slave te r r ito r y none to-day. th n t resu l ted from espionage, a n d every obstacle i T h e U n ion m e n of th o S o u th p r e f e r r e d U n io.' wns throw n i n r a v w a y .\ Vol. 1.. pp. 17-24. l a n d peace to d isu n i o n ; th e y d e p lored th e out _ . I b r e a k of w ar, b u t th e y n e v e r hesitated a momen! T o w a rds th e close of th e second volum e of J l u s w h ich g jjj, to tak e I{ th e r c was to b e w ar, th e j very in te r e s tin g book, th e a u th o r says, a f te r a des­ cription ol th e degradatio n w ro u g h t b y slavery alike in oppressor a u d victim : “ T h u s is A frica a c c u rsed ; n o r can she b c raised to any s c a le app ro a c h in g to civilization u n til tlie slave trad e sh a d b e totally suppressed. T h e first A n d th e negroes a re ns in te g r a l a p a r t o f th e peo­ p le of th e S t a te as th e w h ites. B o th a re citizens ; n e ith e r has a rig h t to exclude tlie o th e r ; n e ith e r can sp e a k in th e nam e of the S tate for th e o th e r ; it is th e eq u a l r ig h t o f b o th to b e heard a n d r e p r e ­ sen ted in co n s titu tin g th e ir com m o n governm e n t, aud any proposal to su b m it tho q u e s tio n o f the p o litical o r civil r ig h ts of th e negroes to th e a rb i­ tram e n t of th e w h ites is a s u n ju s t a n d as a b s u r d as to su b m it th e question of th e p o litical r ig h ts of tho w h ites to th e arb it r a m e n t of th e n e g roes—w ith th is difference, t h a t tlie negroes a r e lo y a l everyw h e re nnd th e g r e a t - b - d y *.f th e w h ites disloy.d every­ w h e re. ____ m p le ap- illing to a id th e U n ite d S tates in com p e lling sub ­ m ission to th e C o n s titu tio n , a n d th e r e a re none note. AU su b m it to force. M a n y a re w illing to acquiesce in th e unavoidable. A l l aro w illing to govern tho U n ite d S tates a g a in, since ind e p e n d e n c e is iinpos- . . . . . ,, sible ; b u t all w ere a lso w illing to aid th e reb e llion ; rte p n e c e s m r v to lh« im p r o v e m e n t of th e « v n g o | „n J „„ „ llU um, com m itted for tribes of t h e W h ite v ile is th e an n ih ilatio n of th e th e U n ite d S tates from th e P o to m a c to th e G u lf of slave trade. U n til th is be effected, n o legitim a te M exico. a b lished • n e ith e r is th e r e nn T h e U n io n m e n of th e S o u th d id n o t m e rely ’ bow to o v e rbearing force, b u t th e y h a s tened to T h e problem therefore is solved b y a peal to th e people of th o Stato. No election can be h e ld , no c o n v e n tion a ssem b le, no p o litical a u th o r i ty be legally exercised in any of those States b u t b y th e w ill of tho U n ite d States, ajul for tho presen t, till C o n g ress speaks, b y the w ill of th e Presiden t. If, therefore, th e P r e s id e n t w ill declare th a t no election shall b e hold unless th e neg ro population have* a free and eq u a l voice, t h a t no convention shall assem b le w h ich th e y have n o t h e lped to elect, th a t none shall proceed to fram e a g o v e rnm e n t u n ­ less in th e beginn in g u n iversal suffrage a n d e q u a lity . i , ,, •, , - I before th e law b e d e c lared its f u n d a m e n tal basis, w ere f o r t h e i r S tates a u d a g a in s t th e U n ite d States. | “ t n n 1* . * « « u * > ' . i k « » c ™ * * . * . . will be presented to Congress, and th e governm e n t .recognized w h ich i t form s. I f th e y be n o t accepted, th e P r e s id e n t w ill h o ld t h e S tate till Congress declare how th e y shall be governed. I f th e problem b e n o t d e a lt w ith in th is somo such way, it w ill b e solved in an adverse com m erce ________________, ,, oiiening for m issionai enterp r is e ; th e co u n try is m e n , com p o sed of A rabs an d ran-aw a y 1 , , ° , , , . , „ . ’ , I sealed a n d closed agains. all im p rovem e n t. N o th in g w o u ld bo easier th a n to sup p r e s s this infam o u s traffic, w ere th e E u r o p e a n pow e rs in earnest. E g y p t is in favor of slavery. I have never Been a governm e n t official w h o did n o t in argum e n t uph o ld slavery as a n in s t itu tio n abso­ lutely necessary to E g y p t ; th u s any dem o n stration m a d e against th e slave trad e b y th e g o v e rnm e n t of th a t c o u n tr y w ill be sim p ly a p r o f o r m a m o v e m e n t t- blin d tlie E u r o p e a n pow ers. T h e i r oyes th u s do s e d , nnd th e question shelved, tho trad e w ill r e ­ sum e its c h a n n e l. W e re th e rep o r ts of E u r o p e a n consuls s u p p o r te d by th e ir respective governm e n ts; a n d w e re th e consuls them selves em p o w e red to seize vessels laden w ith slaves, an d to liberate gangs of slaves w h en upon a lan d jou r n e y , th n t a b o m inable traffic could n o t exist. T h e h a n d s of th e E u r o p e a n consuls a re tied , a n d jealousies in te r ­ woven w ith th e T u r k ish question a c t as a b a r to un ite d action on tiie p a r t of E u r o p e : no P w ill b e th e f ir s t t o d istu rb th e m u d d y pool. Tho A u strian C o n sul a t K h a rtoum , H e n : N a ttorer, told m e , in 1862, t h a t h e h a d vainly rep o r ted th e atro c ­ ities of th e slave trad e to his g o v e r n m e n t; no r e - ply had been received to his r e p o rt. E v e r y E u ­ ropean g o v e rn m e n t knoirs th a t th e slave trad e b im m ense exten t in U p p e r E g y p t, and (h a t th e R e d Sea is th e g r e a t Slave L a k e by w h ich these u n f o rtun a te creatures are transported to A rabia and to Suez ; b u t th e jealousies con c e rn­ in g E g y p t m u z z le each E u r o p e a n Pow e r. Should one move, th e o th e r s w o u ld interfere to cou n teract und u e influence i n E g y p t. T h u s is im m u n ity i n ­ sured to tlie villanous actors in th e trade. W h o can prosecute a slave trad e r of th e W h ite N ile ? W ltnt legal e v idence c a n bc p ro d u c e d from C e n tral A frica to secure a conviction in nn E n g lish co u rt of la w ? T h e E n g lish C o n sul (M r. Petherw ioki arrested a M a ltese, tlio nephew of D e b o n o ; the charge could no t b e legally supported. T h u s are th e consuls fettered, and th e ir a c ts nullified by im p o s sibility of produ c ing reliable e v id e n c e ; . facts a re p a ten t, b u t w h o can prove th e m log! lashed behind, while th e “ titop th e W h ite N ile trade : p r o h ib it tlu advance of th e body, i p a rtu r e o f any vessels from K h a r toum f< seek places i n th e L e g islatures, th e Congress, th e E x e c u tive M a n sions, a n d gave i t a cou n tenance and sup p o r t w ith o u t w h ich it m u s t huve fallen in a y e a r ; a n d w h e n its cause w as hopeless th e y wore q u ie t a n d subm issive, nnd d id n o t riso to aid the U n ite d States. I t is certainly to th is class of th e w h ite popula­ tio n th a t we m u s t look for aid in resto rin g civil f 'o v e m m e n t in theso S t a te s ; b u t i t is a g r e a t do- usion to su p p o s e th e m e ith e r bo ld o r strong e n o u g h to m e e t a n d d e fy tho u n ite d a n d energetic faction of revo lu tio n ists w h ich drove th e m in to r e ­ bellion. I f th e y b e in pow er, th e y w ill again do th e w ill o f th e r e s o lute and reckless m e n who stood b e h in d an d aro u n d them , a n d no legal line dis­ c rim inates th e m from th o r e b e l mass. I f th is d iscrim ination bo a ttem p ted b y tlie oath to s u p p o r t th e Constitution of th e U n ited States, everybody w ill take i t n n d n o b o d y w ill b e excluded. I f th e leaders of tho rebellion, civil an d m ilitary, be excluded, th o u g h w illing to sub m it and tak e the oath, th e m a ss of th e r e b e l faction will b e a d m itted ; an d th n t w ill b e th e con trollin g an d determ in ing elem e n t in co n s titu tin g th e S tate govern m e n t a n d selecting R e p r e s e n tativ e s and S e n a to rs ; a n d tho p r a c tical resu lt is th e sam e n s i l nobody w ere eluded. ,s I f e ith e r o f these form s be accepted by th e P r e s i­ d e n t and recognized b y C o n g ress, i t w ill in s tantly change th e balance o f political pow e r in tlie U n ited States. . y- I t is p r o b a b le th e peoplo w h o have saved the tio n are n o t c o n tent to accept its consequen w ithou t a m u rm u r. N o n e of th e w h ite p o p u lation o f the Sou thern | 1,1 States is in terested in paying the pu b lic d e b t im p o s ing taxes to m e e t its interest. T h e y ho sense. I f i t bo n o t solved rightly it th r e a te n s to degene­ rate in to a barren a n d b i t t e r a g itation , sure to re­ su lt disastrously to those w h o propose th e political enfranchisem e n t o f th e negroes, and to consolidate tlio un io n of th e enem ies of th e govern m e n t i n tho loyal and th e reb e l S t a te s in to a n irresistib le pow er, :. h ich m u s t w rest th e gov e rn m e n t from the h a n d s o:' those w h o have saved it. T h is coalition is p r o b a b le in any e v e n t,; b u t on th is question i t is certain a n d fatal. T h o negro po p u latio n m u s t b e recognized b y tlio Pre s id e n t an d Congress as a n in te g r a l p a r t of tho people <>f th e State, in tho view of th e C o n s titution of th e U n ite d States, w ith o u t w h o se concurrence and full p a rticip a tio n i n pow e r n o S tate g o v e rnm e n t w ill be r e c o g n ized in an y S t a te w h ioh rebelled, or it will rem a in ostracised a n d o u tcast f o r (m o ther generation, and th e enem ies of th e govern m e n t w ill w rest i t from th o s e w h o saved it. T o p e r m i t th e w h ites to disfranchise th e negroes is to po r init tho s e w h o have b e e n o u r enem ies to ostracise o u r friends. T h e negro e s a re th e only persons i n th o s e S t a te s w h o have n o t b e e n in arm s against ns. T h e y liavo alw ays an d everyw h e re been frien d ly an d n o t hostile to us. T h e y alone hnve a deep in te r e s t i n th e c o n tin u e d s u p rem a c y o f th o U n ited States, f o r tlieir freedom depends o n i t . ' O n them done can we d e p e n d to suppress a now insu r r e c tio n . T h e y alone w ill be inclu d e d to vote for th e friends of th e g o v e rnm e n t in nil tlio S o u th­ ern St.-ti *. T h o y alone have sh e ltered , fed and pion* -rod o u r starved an d h u n te d breth r e n thro u g h th e am p s a n d woods of tho S o u th , in th e ir f light fron those w h o now asp ir e to r u le them . ! 'nc sham e a n d folly of d e s e r tin g th e negroes are Ted b y th e w isdom of r e c o g n izing a n d protect­ io n pow er. -y will form a clear a n d con trolling m a jority gainst the un ite d w h ite vote in S o u th Carolina, of it. I t was created to sub jug a te them th e laws. I t h a s b e en c o n sum e d in th e ir o v e rthrow I t is to be p a id in g r e a t p a r t o u t of t h e ir Hub.st-.:i<-< I t has a n n ihilated th e ir pu b lic debt. I t 1ms filled th e lan d w ith ostracized officers, w ith wm mb d soldiers, w ith 1111 odious free negro p o p i ' lately th e ir slaves, nnd still u n d e r th o ir p control. I f tlie w h ites bc restored to political p ow er, the representatives nro interested in r e p u d iating tin M ississippi a n d L o u isiana. W ith a v ory small a ccession from th e loyal whites. 1 1 y will form a m a jority in A labam a , G e o rgia and U n a ided in ull those States, th e y w ill b e a ma- , , , I jo r ity in many eongnwMiounl a n d legislative dis- I tr icts, nnd t h a t a lone suffices to b r e a k th e terrib le ! a n d m e n a c ing u n ity of the Soutlie are tied to the pole. T h e children a re th e n fas­ tened b y th e ir necks w ith a rope attach e d to th e women, and th u s form a living chain, i n w h ich or- t o they . r e nm r c h .d to tho hcodq u .rtoro , in com ­ pan y With tho captured Lord*. - - T h i . iu tho cuinm o u ccm c n t of huuinesu. Should th e re be n o r y iu uny of tho hute n o t destroyed by th e lire, it i . o p ,,ro ,,tid e d . A g e n e d plunder U k o « ptaee T h e tuuler . d ig „ p ib„ of th e h u h , to ucureh for i , „ „ h 0 „ , . h i * erully th u s conceded, w, the g r e e ted 0 ,0 negroes. The g r e n . r ic , m overturned „ d w a n to n ly destroyed, end the b e n d s e re c u t e f t the South, an d le t th e E g y p tian governm e n t gru concession to a com p any for th e W h ite Nile, je e t to certain conditions, an d to a special s i r , vision. T h e r e a re already four steam e rs a t K t tow n . E stab lish a m ilitary post of 200 m ei G o u d o k o ro, an equal num b e r below th e Sbili trib e in 1 3 ° N. latitude, and w ith tw o stem cruisin g on th e rivor, n o t a slave could descend W h ite N ile.” “ I f A frica is to bo civilized, i t m u s t bo offe* b y com m erce, w h ich, once established, w ill < th e way f o r m issionary l a b o r ; b u t a ll ideas o f & ■ If organized and led by m e n hav in g their I faience, tho negroes w ill prove as pow e rful nnd I al n t tho polls ns th e y have a lready, in tho face 1 < jual c lam o r a n d equal prejudice, proved thorn- .i-l\ i-K u n d e r such leaders ou th e field of battle. ! ili-.ise who say th e y aro unfit f o r th e franohiso, i- i reply thoy aro m o ro f it th a n secessionists. ■0 If thoy bo ign o r a n t they are no t Snore so th a n u lnrgo m asses of tlio w h ite v o ters o f th e Sonth, r- th e rab b le w h ich is tum b led on th e w h arves .y N ew Y o rk and r u n s s tr a ig h t to th e polls. H o w ever ignorant, thoy know enough to bo - I tho side of tlie governm e n t, and tho intelligence of - tho m a ster lias n o t vet ta u g h t him th a t wisdom. T h e y m a y bo influenced by tlio m a ster, b u t the m a ster m u s t touch h is h a t to th e m a t least, and it will bo nn open q u e s tion w h e ther they will vote a ith th e m a s ter any m o re th a n thoy fought, onAlia *ide. I t is c e rtain tho N o rthern im m igrant will find th e negro a safo a lly, and a rgum e n ts o n liis lips will 1 I.,se no w e ight b y tlieir Yankeo origin, n I t is said n o t to be safe for th e m a ster to visit lus plantations in G e o rgia ; w h en lie does I10 w ill Inii'dly c a rry m u c h influence politically. I repeat t h u t in this problem aro involved th e m- luea o f life nnd death. I f th e negro population be recognized os a n in ­ teg ral portio n of th e people of th e S tates w h ich I*.,*: 1 , ” *\ belled, and governm e n ts bo organized, on the b a sis | f o r wages t T co,ntfac^ ng t o work o f 11111 venml suffrage nnd eq n n lity iW o re th e law the.** 5 . r Un(t \ b c n l f o u n d th a t th e j»olicy of G o n g rom o u g h t to recognize them , nnd t h e problem d iatalv to i ' l b n ^ i K ’1 1 ®D^ eavorf <1 is solved forever. m \abuse th e ir m inds of these ideas. See I f governm e n ts bc allow.-,1 b y tlio P r e s id e n t to A n d “ C r ’ “ E e >\ “ bo organized on th e b.......... a s is of th e exclusion of the e to c o n t r a c t “Way ,‘('y wore c o m m encing ^ ----------------- -• 1 ' , n tr a c t> and w ere w o rking diligently. As :d generally f o r m a k ing m a y account in some m e a sure for . caviuw u u 01 w 01 th e negro popnlntion, th e n C o n g ress o u g h t refuse180 rcco8nis’'u t,lem i b u t I fear it w ill not If tho question be s u b m itted to th e voto of any C S X ”};T i l S T 1*1'0’1 \ i5 pn'a i' 7 ,n « • * b a rren ag itation in- stood o f a beneficent s e ttlem e n t. I t c a rries w ith i t a division of th e friends o f th e g o v e rnm e n t and th r e a tens to elevate its e n e m ies to pow er F o r p r e m a tu r e ag itators, I have sm a ll sym p a thy. I hev arc cocks w h ich crow a t midnight*; they do n o t herald th e daw n , b u t m e rely d istu rb natural r e s t by un tim e ly clam o r. Jill f fl,III in o .......rt4r - z I t it b e n o t r ig iitiy solved now, it w ill find n o ft* lution fo r a gen e r a tio n , and possibly none the W1fi TlJ*' r<'uewed civil com m o tions. O v e r th e r* su it I have no pow er. I can only ho p e am i fear, v H. W inter D avis . Tm.n.„-v « . ,• worKJn g D iligently. A s fcurle *'Xfid generally f o r m a k in g th e dim !in r ‘ w.lay ,’m c o u n t in som e m e a su re fo r m o n th 11 m : )8SU° o f ration8 llfter l m , long after th e plan tin g season h a d l*ir r \ a s apiK i.rib.l A ssistant Com m issioner l of 8 o ,,lh Carolina, G e o rgia, a n a I Ion d a ; b u t a severe illness p r e v e n ted m e ir 1 iisoiuning a c tive charge u n til A u g u s t I n th e ,, , „ , ' ■ “w iu u tu con iro i 01 (o o r g i a , Col. O sborne of F lorida, a n d C a p t. K e tchum o f . t h e fiea-Isk n d s of G eorgia. T h e s e cLu-g 80 ID ,,r r c 8I>cctivu ‘IwtrioU u n d e r my B u t th is is a q u e s tio n of p o litical d y n a m ics, w h ich 1 On 'th e Kin, a* 1 u r• -r. ■ ressos n o w f o r solution, a n d on it d e p e n d s th e 1 Drived wifi, 1 Sep tem b e r G en. D avis T illaon lief f ruits of th e w ar. ' 11101 (‘' r i''c.l w ith orders from G e nving . H o w ard, giving him Y o u r o b e d ien t servant, ,, ......**wiu u u u . n o w a r u , g i h ' a ... ' n iri i ' l l p o t B e was soon after I a | ’poin ted full C o m m issioner f o r th e State. In I' ' l“ u“ Oh I was discharged nnd G en. Scott ap p o in ted in m y place. T h u s G en. S c o tt h a s been ■ uui.v a . A w ist a n t Com m issioner in S o u th Caro- irly five m o n th s when G ens. Steedm a n and T H E F R E E D M E N ’S B U R E A C . P h i la d e lp h ia , June I* Hon. E. M. Sta n to n , Secretary o f W a r - I860. 1 F u llerton made ,h*-ir i, =p*ct,on, and G ™ i l C n nearly nine m o ntlia, while I was A ssistant Commio- I s ioiier for South C’arolina practically b u t five I » n d :for G e o rgia only one m o n th. W ith Brig.-G o n . E ly s app o in tm e n t I h a d n o th in g t o do. I , mim e d on no p lantations while I h a d control I o f a floirs. I w o n la respectfully r e f e r yon to orders , m a rked show ing m y views on th e subject. See “ E e, ’ “ W ,” “ F f . ” j o rders m a rked “ As th e W in ter v discharged from th e B u reau, th e rep o r t says found G en. S c o tt an able a n d efficient officer, laboring to co rrect th o blu n d e rs and m istakes of h is predecessors.” I do n o t m e n tion th is to de tr a c t a u g h t from G en. Scott, w hom I reg a rd as a m o st f a ith fu l a n d effi­ cien t officer, b n t sim p ly to p o in t o u t th e anim u s of G ens. Steedm a n n n d F u l lerto n 's rep o r t tow a rd myself. I respectfully snb m it th a t th e sum m ing u p of w liat a re term e d “ tho causes o f th e f a ilu re o f Gen. S a x ton’s ad m in istration ,” is ns u n tr u e a n d illogical as th e prem ises on w h ich i t is based. T h e logic of th o ir la s t conclusion is p e c u lia r : “ T h e failure of G en. Saxton's adm inistration, am o n g o th e r causes, — ......... - --------- — , r. —■•vi — u u u g I fronti' th e freedm e n ’s inexperience i n pro- fru i ts and vegetables w ere com ing on, a n d eon- j VK*uig f°r tlieir own s u p p o r t a n d in m a n a g in g busi- trac ts for labor w ere bein g m a d e , th e re was, of npau f''r ” course, less necessity f o r g o v e rnm e n t aid. I issued, how ever, uo m o re ratio n s th a n w ere necessary to prevent s tarvation, as th e wholo ten o r of m y orders on the s u b ject w ill bear w itness. T h e sam e officer w h o h a d charge of th a t d e p a r tm e n t is still w ith ^reu. Scott, I believe. T lio n e x t criticism is th a t I b r o u g h t aw a y tlio records of m y ad m inistration. I do n o t u n d e r ­ stand u n d e r w liat r a l e o r law I sh o u ld have le f t w ith tho Com m issioner f o r S o u th Carolina th e records of my o p e rations in th a t State, previous to m y c o n ­ nection w ith th e B u r e a u , o r i t s existence, and when I was u n d e r special instru c tio n s from yourself, to 1 w h o m I was a lone resjionsible. ne ss f o r them selves. '1 he follow ing considerations w ill show t h a t th e rep o r t is in tentionally un ju s t a n d generally illogi­ cal. I t rehearses a long list o f irregularities, w h ich it claim s are s till existing u n d e r th e wise a n d ju d i ­ cious policy of th e present Com m issioner, w h ich, if they d id exist it was h is d u ty a n d i n h is pow er to c o r r e c t; y e t i t gives him unqualified praise. I t only h in ts tliat I issued too m a n y rations a n d th a t I b r o u g h t away m y records—n o t proving even these. I t m a k es m e responsible fo r G en. S h e r ­ m a n 's o rder, w ith w h ich I h a d n o th in g to d o ; and y e t m y w hole official a c tion is c o n d e m n e d , and my successor is pictu r e d m a inly a s occupied i n correct­ in g m y blu n d e rs a n d mistakes. W ith reg a rd to the r e c o rds after th e organization I V G ens- S teedm a n an d F n llerto n h a d w ished to of th e B u r e a u , i t sh o u ld b e bo r n e in m ind th a t for | arrlv'° tlie tru th , and to do sim p le justice to all p o r tion o f th e tim e I wns nom inally th e Com-1 P arfcies i they really ha d th e interests o f th e freed- 11061/11, 01* f/*v n,i-nn Claim* o*wi *i.*.>-i ......i*1 i>„ .... 1 m e n a t licai't, w o u ld th e y n o t have r e d e e m e d the d a rk p ictu r e they have m a d e of m y adm inistration by m e n tion in g som e o f its brig h te r features ? T h e y wore silen t as regards th e thousands of acres of cotton raised for th e g o v e rnm e n t on th e lands aro u n d B e a u fort d u r in g th e years 1862-3 a n d 4, while th e w ar w as go in g on, by w h ich som e half a m illion of dollars was realized (cultivated b y the old m e n , th e women a n d children alm o st e n tirely), w h ich w as sufficient to p a y all th e expenses of m y a d m inistration of affairs for th e freedm e n in the d istrict o f w h ich I was th e m ilitary com m ander, a n d th e H ilto n H e a d district. T h e sam e f u n d also p a id all th e expenses of my a d m in istration a s Com ­ m issioner (except rations and m e d ecines for the d e s titu te), and of w h ich f u n d th e re is now a b a l­ ance of n e a r ly fifty thousand dollars i n th e U n ited S tates T reasury, T h ey w ere silen t in reg a rd to th e Savings B a n k I established in Beaufort, w h e re tw o hun d r e d m issio n e r f o r th r e e State s, a n d th e re could b e w h y I should leave m y records w ith th e C o m m issioner for S o u th C a rolina th a n w ith th o C o m m issioners of G e o rgia or F lo rid a . U n d e r no ru le of m ilitary law, reg u latio n , or pro p riety w as I obliged to leave m y records w ith G e n . Scott*. T h e y w ere necessary to me, to explain m y official nets, 11 e v e r c a lled upo n to do so. B u t, still further, I am confident th a t th e in ­ form a n ts of G ens. S teed m a n nnd F u l lerto n havo been m istaken in th e ir s tatem e n ts. I gave spcciid o r d e r s to m y A d jutant-G e n e rals. who also rem a in ns A d jutant-G e n e r a ls of G e n . Scott, to reta in all th e papers, and have copies m a d e, if th e y desired, and w h e n th e y h a d done w ith them , to send m e th e copies o r originals, j u s t ns th e y or G e n . S c o tt desired. T h e y (lid so, a n d th e p a p e r s w ere s e n t to m e a fter I left. I n th e office of C a p t. J . P . Low , A. Q. M ., who was m y cliief A. Q . 51. oml i l u h n n i n g ofceor.’ *>'\ h » v . 1i-po«itcd ovor • h o tho chief i). M. of (lr „ . Seolt. th e In s p e c to r , I U ,o u « ,„J Jolinre, wh.ch „ n r a t a d * c n iM h n v c -ee,, th e a e c o n n t. of overvoe, it receive, 1 l-ondw I t was th e ftnrt ono ,« a n d di»b u r w d u n d e r ,„v a d m i „ i » h i i o „ , an d ,u l , , iw n ^ d tho e ^ b l u h m e n t o f o thers th r o u g h o u t th e rec o r d , of every em p loyee u n d e r me. ’ i f G e n s S teedm a n a n d F u l lerto n w ish th e inference to bo draw n th a t I h a d an y th in g to conceal, they do me n g r e a t injustice. T h e r e is n o official a c t of my wholo ad m in istratio n i n th e S o u th e r n D e p a rtm e n t h u t w liat I sh o u ld b e glad to have published. If th e w h o le 'tru th is over know n of m y w o rks, I shall b e fully vindicated. A n o ther com p laint is th a t freedm e n w h o were able to p a y f o r r a tio n s f u rn ish e d w ore n o t required to do so. I req u ir e d all th e r a tio n s issued to the freedm e n colonized u n d e r G e n . S h e r m a n ’s order to bo charged to them , t h a t th e y m ig h t reim b u rse th e go v e rnm e n t f o r ita ch a r ity ; b u t on th e occa­ sion o f G en. H o w a r d ’s visit to th e D e p a rtm e n t, w h e n it was d e term ined to r e s to re tho S e a Islands to t h e i r form e r ow n e rs, lie directed m e n o t to re­ q u ir e th e freedm e n to pay f o r theso rations. T h e charge t h a t I discouraged labo r is untrue. T o p r o v e it so, I appeal to th e w h o le s p irit of m y orders and circulars, w h ich a re ap p e n d e d — to th e peoplo u n d e r m y charge, to all th e rep o r ts of m y operatio n s w h ich a re on file in y o u r office a n d a t th o Com m issioner's work. i th e resu lts o f my m tion w as mode of th o regim e n ts of color­ ed soldiers I b r o u g h t into th e U n ited S tates service, of the orphan asylum s I aided, aud th e schools I established, w h ere thousands of th e freedm en havo been ta u g h t to read nnd w rite. T h e s e are th a records th e y m ig h t have found in S o u th C a rolina had i t s u ited th e ir purpose to do so. The w h ole o f th e R e p o r t r e f e r r in g to m e seem s to betray an indecent h a s te to condem n m e . F o r m y labors in S o u th C a rolina I know t h a t I have the confidence of th e freedm en w h o se cause w as com ­ m itted to m y hands. Sustained b y yourself, I stood u p for nearly four years ag a in s t th e falsehoods a n d m is representations of moil q u ite as able ns G ens. Steedm en and Fnl- lorton. T hnve sufficient e v idence th a t I was honor­ ed by th o a p p roval o f P r e s id e n t L incoln. M y ad m inistration w as not a failure. I t was honest. I t stood for th e equal rig h ts of all, n o r over s o u g h t to gain an end a t th e expense o f tru th nnd justice. I t was the first to p u t colored soldiers in th e field, and h e lped in a large m e asure to de­ m o n strate th a t th e y could serve tho country i n its hour of need. I t never recom m e n d ed after the . . . w ar was e n d e d th a t th e p lighted faith of th e gov- T lie Insp e c to r s also ^ ttaek m y m a n a g e m e n t oi i e rnm e n t s h o u ld b e broken to its loyal subjects. I t in Sea Islands. F o r G en. Sherm a n s hielcl O r- t]u>m to jje tru e to th a t g o v e rnm e n t, nor iribed th e policy pu r s u e d t h e __ dor, No. 15, w h ioh p on th e Sea I s lan d s , 1 a m n o t responsible. 1 was ordered to carry i t o u t nnd endeavored to d o it, i n good faith. I was ord e r e d to give tlie people th e Sea Isla n d lands, and pled g e d th e g o v e rnm e n t f a ith th a t they s h o u ld be m a intained m tlieir possession. Seo o rders a p p e n d e d m a rked “ V .” U n d e r th e provisions of th a t o r d e r som e forty th o u s a n d freedm e n w ere provided w ith hom e s on th e Sea Islands a n d riec-field s ; fifteen thousand en tirely de s titu te who had follow ed G e u Sherm a n s ; arm y , passing th r o u g h B e a u f o r t alone. P u b lic m e e tings of theso freedm en were held, anil every exertion m a d e to carry th e o r d e r into effect, a n d encourage em igration to the Island. G reat success a tten d e d tlio m o v e m e n t f o r though th e season was far advanced for plan tin g ere the colonists c o u ld be located, a n d destitu te of c lothing, food, seeds, anim als, nnd im p lem e n ts, and having to d ig ui), w ith hoes I furnished, a soil r u n to waste by th r e e years’ neglect, y e t thousands of were cleared u p and p lan ted b y those who located in season to plant, and provisions enough wore raised to provide for thoir own sup p o r t, b e ­ side large a m o u n ts of Sea-Island cotton for sale. Considering th e circum stances of th e case, h is­ tory does n o t furnish nn exam p le o f a new com m u ­ n ity w hich h a d m a d e a fairer sta r t th a n these colonists of th e Sea Islands. B u t the p e rsistent efforts o f tlieir form e r m a sters to regain th e ir lands, and thoir boasts tlint they were soon to be p u t in possession, anil tho freedm en driven o u t nt the point, of tho bayonet, a n d afterw a rd m y own dis­ charge from the B u reau, com p letely unsettled those sim p le people. T h e y had not f o rgotten tin trad ition s of th e past, whose e x p e riences had not tended to increase th e ir h o p e fulness, n n d thousands becam e disheartened, an d retu r n e d to tlieir old T t r a s t th n t those who are still left, will be m a in­ tained in their possessions, and th u t o n r govern­ m e n t will n e v e r b reak its solem n pledges to these, I ita loynl subjects. T h e settled belief th a t they w ere to have tlio lauds, was the reason w h y the blacks were unw illing to co n tract for labor for others. W h ile th e rebellion was in progress, th e y heard from tlieir m a sters a s a reason u r g e d for g r e a ter a c tivity, th a t th e “ Yan­ kees, if successful, w o uld divide all tlieir lands am o n g , tho uegroes.” . , . O u r own acta of Congress, particularly the act creating th e Freedm e n 's Bureim ( ,n p u n ,im n e o of w h ich somo five hundred anil forty thousand acres w ere seized by m e in South further strengthen e d thorn ta u g h t L - ------------ - . - feared tho consequences of any expression of tn a t sp ir it of gratitu d e w h ich m ig h t p r o m p t on e m anci­ pated race to do honor to th e m em ory of th e ir de­ liverers. Ita b e s t reco rd is iu tho h e a r ts of those whom i t had in charge, w h o se rig h ts i t endeavored to protect, and whose claim s to m a n h o o d i t helped to vindicate. I am , S ir, w ith g r e a t respect, your o b e d ient s e rvant, , R. S axton , Captain and A .Q .M ., B t. Col. U.S.A . „.ux)lii>a alone) still i tho belief th n t they wore to have th e lauds. P R O V I S I O N F O R R E A S S E M B L I N G . S everal m o n ths w ill elapse before th e usual tirno for Congress to re-nssemblc. W h a t startling a n d perilous events m a y not in the meantime occur? H ow entirely th e aspect of afihirs m a y c h a n g e ! As m u c h ns b y th e sudden d e a th of P r e s id e n t L in ­ coln ! As m u c h as by tlio transform a tion of the loudest invoker of vengeance upo n traitors into th e ir p r o tecto r a n d best f r i e n d ! As m u c h as b y the secession o f S o u th C a rolina and th e bom b a rdm ent of F o r t S u m ter ! A n d rew J o h n s o n m a y m a k e a n ­ o th e r descent in liis terriblo fall, and h is prim e m inister m a y be in ecstaeies over ifc. T h e r e may be a m o re sham eless desertion by tlie governm e n t of “ tho n a tio n ’s w a r d s ,\ now so inadequately protected. T h e r e m a y be tlie o u tb u r s t o f a more open nnd bloody persecution of loynl m e n a t the South, or of th a t new resistance to n a tio n ^ au­ thority w hich has been threatened. W e w ould not anticipate e v i l ; b u t wo o u g h t to be ready t o m eet it a t once, if i t shall come. W h e n A b raham L incoln was o n the President!a w atch-tow er, he could bo trusted to give faithful w a rning of national danger, and to summ on, if neededf \10 N ational Legislature. B n t now the l’rc i d p n t fa tl,.' very .me O.rongh w t a d m j g t » to be especially feared ; nnd can ho bo tru s ted to call Congress together for tho express p u r p l e of acting against him self ? Yes, w h en a general will send notice to tho opposing arm y of au intended n ig h t a ttack—when wolves will rouse tho shepherds to defend the flock a g a inst th o ir assault. T h e Constitution m a k e s tlie following provisions n regard to th e assem b ling a n d adjournm e n t o f C o n g r e s s : \T lio Congress shall assemble nt least onoo in every yonr ; and such meeting shall he on the first Monday in December, untoss thoy shall by law appoint a clifter- inl day.— Art. I , See. 4. \N e ither IIouso, during the session of Congress, shall, without tlio consont of tbo other, nfljouru for ore than three days, nor to any othor place than that which tho two H ouses shall he sitting.—Art. L , See. 5. Ho (tho Prosidont) may, on extraordinary occasions. L e t h is disappointed hopes excuse a little hesi- convene both Houses, or either of them, and, in caso

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