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The journal. (Ogdensburg, N.Y.) 1971-current, November 08, 1971, Image 3

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United Nations Dependent On Member Nations THEJOURNAL Editor's Note—The United Nations, pledged to \live together in peace ... as good neighbors,\ is at a crossroads. What w'.ll be the impact as mainland China adds its counsel to U.N. deliberations? An AP writer who has closely followed the United Nations since its inception deals with these and other questions in this and two suc- ceeding articles. By WILLIAM L. RYAN AP Special Correspondent UNITED NATIONS, N.Y. (AP) — To unite humanity in peace... to banish war forever ... Twice in this, century, each time from the rubble of military destruction on a stupefying, scale, the dream took shape in the mind of an American president. Woodrow Wilson's dream became the League of Nations, but it died a lingering death, unmourned by its members. Franklin D. Roosevelt's dream became the United Nations. It now is 26 years old. Seldom in robust health, it has been infected by the same germ that did in the League. Conceivably, that same germ could kill it. Exhausted by the unprecedented carnage of what had been history's bloodiest war, 41 nations put flesh on the Wilsonian vision of world unity for peape. The League formed in 1919 would grow to a membership of 63, but its glaring weaknesses'would prove fatal. The United States, fearful and suspicious of the international leader- ship being thrust upon it, retreated behind an isolationist wall and never joined the -organization its wartime leader had inspired. The Soviet Union' demanded entry in 1934—only to become the first and only member to be ex- pelled, because of the attack on Finland in 1939. The Japanese and Germans showed supreme contempt for the League's admonitions\ against their aggressions. They walked out. By the time of World War II, the League was dead, though it was not given a decent burial until 1946 when it finally dissolved itself. It had been killed by the \national interest\ germ. The United Nations had its beginnings in January 1942, in a declaration of 26 allies. The principal aim then was to win the war against Germany, Italy and Japan. The same ideals as those of 1919 brought'51 nations together in 1945 to form \the United Nations.\ The aims of the charter written at San Francisco were: to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, reaffirm faith in fundamental rights and the dignity ' of the human person, promotd respect for treaty obligations; protect the rights of all nations, promote social progress. To make sure that great nations would not have the will of small ones imposed upon them, five permanent mem- berships were created for an action-tak- ing body, the Security Council. Each would have the power to veto any action. The- permanent members would be the United States, the Soviet Union, France, Britain and China, then ruled by Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang. Even its most ardent supporters agree it has fallen far short of its goals. Today, after 117 vetoes, after crises, walkouts and paralyzing debates, the organization is at best, in the view of Secretary-GeneralUThant, a \hesitant almost reluctant instrument of nations for world peace and unity.\ At worst, in the eyes of American detractors, it is not worth the effort and should be boycot- ted. Throughout the quarter-century of its life there have been wars of conquest, civil 'wars, conflicts without end. Freedoms have- been crushed, League Of Women Voters Reports On Health Clinic territories annexed, human rights mocked. The peacekeeping organization has been bypassed or ignored in crisis as big powers went their own ways, ways. The story of the atoms-forpeace ef- forts spotlights a major U.N. ailment. The organization can be only as strong as the superpowers are willing to make it. \With some notable exceptions,\ Thant has said, \member governments have been more preoccupied with using (he U.N. as an instrument to promote their own national policies than as a new kind of organization in which the nations in cooperation could forge the solution to -world problems.\ The organization had hardly been launched before it ran into the first of what would be an endless procession of crises. Soviet troops had been in war- time occupation of Azerbaijan Province in northern Iran. They refused to get out. A debate, in the Security Council produced, the first Soviet walkout. But the council had provided a safety valve. • The nations opted to talk rather than fight. Eventually the Russians Withdrew and the crisis faded. But now the cold war was on, and it would overshadow all U.N. activities for years. Stalin attempted to take over West Berlin by his blockade of 1948-49. The crisis was placed before the Security Council, but the United Nations was too slender a reed for the Western allies to lean upon. The blockade was broken by direct U.S. action in the form of a massive airlift. Still, once again the United Nations had provided a meeting place where contending superpowers could talk rather than fight. The Russians walked'out of the council again in January 1950, protesting its failure to oust Chiang's representatives after the Communists overran China. That was a Soviet tactical blunder. Moscow still was boycotting the council that June when Communist North Korea invaded the South. With the Russians absent, the council could vote 9-0 to condemn North Korea. Military resis- powers agreed the fighting should end. In 1967, U.N. action contributed to the start of the war. Egypt, in what seemed a propaganda gesture for home con- sumption, demanded removal of U.N. buffer forces. The organization com- plied, probably to Egypt's dismay. Israel thereafter humbled the Arabs in a six-day war whose backlash haunts the world organization up to today. The United Nations was helpless when vSoviet might crushed a Hungarian revolt against Russian domination in 1956 and again when Russian arms suffocate a Czechoslovak reform movement in 1968. The organization could do nothing when Red China gob- bled Tibet or when India seized Por- tuguese Goa. The world organization could con- tribute to restoring peace between India and Pakistan in a 1965 clash because the superpowers wanted that Asian danger averted. Now that threat is much alive again and the U.N. role has been limited to humanitarian aspects involving the refugees. The world organization has been shut out throughout the history of the seemingly endless bloody conflict in Vietnam. It was bypassed in the case of the U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, although that was given the look of a regional intervention under the banner of the Organization of American States. The organization has had' a better record oh the economic and social side of the ledger where cold-war super- power politics was less likely to in- terfere. But now with Red China coming in and new complications emerging, activities in that sphere, whether suc- cessful or not, will be insufficient to insure the organization's life. Few at the United Nations deny it has fallen far short of its stated ideals, and the secretary-general, preparing to retire next month, has left behind a solemn warning for the organization: \It will fail if governments scoff at it and continue to tread their isolated, divisive paths.\ In other words, it seems tp depend upon the superpowers. MONDAY, NOVEMBER 8,1971 PAGE 3 Conservation Experts Support Sport Hunting Canton - After 16 months of studying the mental health needs and services of St. Lawrence County, the League of Women Voters of Canton and Potsdam recommends \that the St. Lawrence County Board of Supervisors and the St. Lawrence County Community Mental Health Board should: Fulfill all the obligations set forth by theNYS Department of Mental Hygiene, Consider alternative approaches to meeting the mental health needs of St. Lawrence County, and Provide avenues for interested citizens to participate in deterniinirig the mental health needs of St. Lawrence County and in planning to meet these needs through involvement with such groups as the Association for Mental Health.\ . Included in this overall statement are the following recommendations: \The St. Lawrence County Community Mental Health Board and the St. Lawrence County Board of Supervisors should, in conformity- with the March 1969 resolution No. 49 of the County Board of Supervisors evaluate the mental health needs and the present programs serving these needs in the county. In addition, the Mental Health Board should consider how mental health needs are being met in othei rural areas. On the basis of the evaluation needs and programs and the con- sideration of other approaches, the Mental Health Board should formulate an overall philosophy for a mental health program, and then initiate new approaches for St. Lawrence County based on this philosophy. Such approaches should include: Interaction with and in-service mental \health training for community resource people such as: school personnel, police and probation officers, Department of Social Services workers, clergy, etc.; and Cooperation with the schools to provide increased services for children. To implement new approaches, the League suggests that the following be considered: Hiring at least one \child develop- ment specialist\ to fill present staff vacancies- Utilizing such de-centralizing facilities as mobile units and satellite centers; Using volunteers and paraprofessionals; and Investigating, in conjunction with educational institutions in the county, the feasibility of offering paraprofessional training in the field of mental health. The St. Lawrence County Board of Supervisors should assist the Mental Health Board in meeting all the obligations of the NYS Department of Mental Hygiene by requiring that an- nual narrative reports, evaulations, and plans be submitted to the Board of Supervisors, as well as to the Depart- ment of Mental Hygiene. It is the opinion of the League that, because the Mental Health Board is a LOSE UGLY FAT OR MONEY BACK Odrinex can help you become the trim slim person you want to be. Odrinex is a tfny tablet i and easily swallowed. Contains no dangerous : drugs. No starving. No special exercise. Get rid < of excess fat and live longer. Odrinex has been ; used successfully by thousands all -over the country for over 12 years. Odrinex costs -S3.25 j and the large economy size SS.25. You must lose , ugly fat or your money will be refunded. No I questions asked. Sold with this guarantee by: ADAMS PAGA«o PHARMACY £ 422 FORD ST. J MAIL ORDERS FILLED policy-making body that administers public funds, its meetings should be publicized and open to the public; and the minutes of these meetings should be publicly recorded. In addition, there should be a limit of two consecutive terms to be served by members of the St. Lawrence County Mental Health Board.\ START WALKING CALIFORNIA ' SACRAMENTO, Calif. ' (AP) - Californians will pay about two cents a gallon more for gasoline beginning next July l<due toJegislatioasigned Thursday by Gov. Ronald Reagan. The new law extends the present five- cent state-local sales tax to gasoline, levying it on top of the present 11 cents- agallon state and federal gasoline taxes. Gasoline is exempt from the sales tax. The tax, will vary from about 1.5 to 2.2 cents a gallon. The measure is expected to raise $180 million a year for cities and counties. tance to the invasion, with the Americans bearing most of the burden, Love Gift Settlement could be mounted under a U.N. banner. But intervention under a U.N. shield Made Ollt Of Court took place only in the absence of a Security Council veto. Interventions thereafter would depend either upon the superpowers' agreeing or upon bypassing the council by means of General Assembly authorization. When a nation disagreed with peacekeeping efforts, such as those in the Middle East, Cyprus and the Congo, it refused to pay a share of the costs. The Soviet Union and its allies have done this; so has France. All this has helped to develop acute financial trouble for the United Nations. • For a quarter-century, since its- at- tempt to partition Palestine, the United Nations has struggled with the Middle East problem! Despite its efforts that cockpit of superpower conflict has seen three major shooting wars; a fourth is threatening now. The United Nations could act-as in 1956-only if the super- On Alert: The Famine Watcher ROME (AP) — In 70 countries around the world international civil servants are practicing a new profession- famine watcher. They are regional officials of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) who have been assigned the additional duty of standing guard in an early warning system against disastrous food shortages. FAO set up the system on the basis that although man may be able to do nothing about cyclones and ear- thquakes, the perennial disasters of famine stemming from floods, drought or plant and animal diseases can be foreseen. By early warning, the suffering and damage that these cause in crop failure, hunger, starvation and widespread po- verty may be lessened or averted. These disasters seldom are felt any more in the richer, industrial countries of the world! But throughout the- two- thirds of the earth that is poor and predominantly agricultural—the developing countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East and . Latin America- disastrous crop failures are frequent. Hunger is commonplace. And the dividing line between hunger and star- vation is thin. The FAO early warning system seeks to spot crop failures in the making, and predict their extent, arid consequences in time to get emergency relief to the scene. This relief is largely in the form of food aid obtained from the surplus of the over-producing countries, such as the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Within the past year early warnings from the famine watchers have forestalled famine disasters or eased the suffering in four parts of the world. The warning system foresaw the failure of maize, rice and millet crops this year in the little West African nation of Gambia in time to send in enough emergency food to feed 15p,000 people, more than a third of the population, for 40 crucial days. Iraq was hit by one of the worst droughts in its history. But the famine watchers spotted signs of the disaster in reports of livestock mortalities and increasing food shortage among the Bedouins in the rural areas. Within two months, $1.3 million worth of emergency food supplies was on the way to the stricken regions. The FA0-U.N. world food program^ which acquires and distributes the* surplus food supplies, has $10 million a year for such emergency aid. But the organization has to appeal to governments for more money when frequent or major disasters make this amount inadequate. LONDON (AP) — An American millionaire and a British society belle, who paraded their love life and fought publicly for a week over who gave what gifts to whom, suddenly called off their row and settled out of court-Friday. Lawyers for Ralph Stolkin, 53, of Los Angeles, told Justice Melford Stevenson he had agreed on a settlement with his former fiance, Mrs. Patricia Wolfson, 32. Details were-kept secret. Justice Stevenson, who has shown asperity with the principals during the weefelong parade of intimate testimony, told the lawyers: \You need not tell me anything about the terms. It is fortunate for the parties and their advisers that I am relieved from making any com- ments about this case.\ Stolkin sought to recover jewels and other things he gave Mrs. Wolfson amounting to $600,000. He said he game them on condition they would be married. She said they were outright and she jilted him when she found he was not divorced as he claimed. Mrs. Wolfson contended she speeded up her divorce from the heir to a British textile fortune, received no com- pensation from it, and had depended on marrying Stolkin. But she testified she then found he still was married. Throughout the trial, neither of the principals looked at each other, even when Mrs. Wolfson testified to being intimate with Stolkin or when he gave evidence that he was in love with her. All this was back in 1967. The deal came out of two hours of private conversations Thursday night and this morning between the lawyers. When the judge closed the case, Mrs. Wolfson arid her mother ducked out a basement exit into a waiting car. Stolkin also departed hastily. We all know that 50 million Fren- chmen can't be wrong, but could 5,-600 professional conservationists be off their rockers? When the 5,600-member Wildlife Society announced recently that it was in favor of sport hunting arid opposed to ajiy measures that would restrict hunting, a lot of people did a double take. Why would 5,600 men who were devoting their lives to conservation and wildlife support hunting? Everybody knows that hunting is bad for wildlife. Isn't it? Fred G. Evenden, executive director of The Wildlife Society, says no- \Sport hunting poses absolutely no threat to the well-being of any game species,\ Mr. Evenden said. \Infact hunters provide the bulk of the support for m\ost of the wildlife conservation and game man.agement programs in effect today.\ Hunters, together with fishermen, provide over 1300 million for wildlife conservation programs each year. No other group can match the contribution to wildlife, and no anti-hunting group has offered to pay the $300 million if hunting were stopped. \In addition to the millions that hunting provides for conservation, hunting is also a desirable wildlife management tool,\ Mr. Evenden said. Sport hunting is regulated to maintain desirable balances in wildlife populations. This regulated hunting keeps populations in balance with available food supplies, preventing overpopulation and the widespread starvation that would result. The new voices that call for an end to hunting should keep in mind that, without the hunter, there would be little- -if any-Wildlife left in America to worry about. If hunting weren't a desirable conservation tool, 5,600 professional conservationists would have to be off their rockers to support it. HANDGUNS ARE FOR SPORT Handgun enthusiasts and congressmen who call for an end to handgun ownership don't have much in common-except for a new booklet by the National Shooting Sports Foundation. In the latest addition to the NSSF literature line, \Handguns for Sport\ 20 pages are devoted to the numerous sporting and recreational uses of han- dguns. It's of great interest to the \beginning and experienced handgun shooter and an eye-opener for those who are not familiar with handguns. Written by popular outdoor writer, Ted Trueblood, the fully illustrated booklet . -includes sections on selecting a han- dgun, learning to shoot, handgun- shooting games, Handgun safety, hunting with handguns and more. Single copies of \Handguns for Sport\ are available for 25 cents from the National Shooting Sports Foundation, 1075 Post Road, Riverside, Conn. 06878. Gun clubs and other organizations can purchase cartons of 600 booklets for $35.00 per carton. You don't have to be a Harvard graduate to enjoy plinking with the .22 rimfire-but it could help. By adding a new twist to their plinking gariies, some shooters have made brains as important as a keen eye or steady hand. For these shooters, the challenge of dreaming up tricky targets is just as much fun as the plinking itself. Instead of plinking at the traditional tin can, this new breed of plinker aims his .22 at a candle flame the hole in a life saver candy or a tic^tac-toe board 50 yards away. What these shooters have learned is that the range of plinking targets is limited only by the imagination-and the Harvard grad may have a slight edge. Any target is fair game as long as it is safe irid is placed in front of a safe bsclcsfcoD RUSSIANS LEARN A LESSON An oddball Russian antelope makes a prime example of the perils of pure protectionism as opposed to modern game management. Seems the Saiga, a sheeplike creature of the Bet Pak Dala region of the Soviet Union, distinguished by a curiously inflatable trunklike nose, Was some years ago reduced to the near extinction level by commercial killing for its horns, thought to be medicinal. Under total protection, the prolific antelope multiplied to the million mark and began eating Kazakhstan Province back to desert. Now with a population of two million starving antelope projected for the near future, authorities plan what should have been started years ago, a methodical cropping of the in- crease. What somebody in Russia evidently forgot is that sport hunting is a con- veneint and controllable-form of cropping. .22 RECORD-KEEPING STILL WITH US More than 35 congressmen have in- troduced or sponsored bills to remove record-keeping requirements from retail sales of .22 caliber rirrifire am- munition, but the red tape is still with us. Rep. Al Ullman's H.R. 3599, in- troduced early in this Congress, is still in the House Ways and Means Committee. This is expected to be the main bill considered in the House. A similar bill introduced by Rep. Ullman last year passed the House but failed to clear the Senate before adjournment. On the Senate side, Sen. Gale MCGee's S.144 remains in the Senate Finance Committee. This bill was co-sponsored by 25 senators. Legislative experts report that passage of these bills rests with the nation's hunters and shooters who will have to bring them to the attention of their congressmen. If they fail to pass again this year, the bills will have to start all over again next year,. NATIONAL HUNTING AND FISHING DAY RECEIVES HOUSE SUPPORT Efforts to win approval of a \National Hunting and Fishing Day\ were given a big boost recently with the introduction of a House joint resolution by Rep. Robert Sikes, Fla. Rep. Sikes' resolution, labeled H.J. Resolution 798, is identical to the Senate joint resolution introduced in late June by Sen. Thomas J. Mclntyre. Both resolutions ask President Nixon to declare the fourth Saturday of each September as \National Hunting and Fishing Day\ in recognition of the conservation contributions made by the nation's sportsmen. Sen. Mclntyre's S.J. Res. 117 is in the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Rep. SJkes' H.R. Res 798 is in the House Judiciary Committee. GOOD SHOW CAPE KENNEDY, Fla. (AP) — A Russian spy ship had a ringside seat Thursday when the nuclear sub Nathaniel Greene conducted the. finst above-water submarine launch of a multiple-warhead Poseidon missile. The Soviet trawler, equipped with radar and other electronic gear, stood about half a mile away as the Greene fired the Poseidon While cruising on the surface of the Atlantic about 10 miles off Cape Kennedy. Russian ships often monitor missile laurichings here. 1,0& STOP^MDRAFTSf HACKETT'S HARDWARE i Ogdeiisburg, N. Y. 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