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The Catskill recorder. (Catskill, N.Y.) 1829-1849, January 06, 1835, Image 1

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LSGISLATCTRE OF NEW -yOES:. ------------ - -------------- i [|tepori9il for tiw AJbuuy ArgHs.] Tuesday, January 6. S f h e Legislature couTened this day at the iP a p itol. . 9 Iir THE S e e a t e , the Lieut. Governor, and a quorum o f senators, were present. Af­ ter t h ^ e w members bad been sworn in, the usual TOders in'relation to rules, newspapers, ' &o. were adopted, and the Senate adjourned. Ijf THE H ouse , the members were cal' led to order by P. Reynolds, jr. esq. clerk of the last house, and the usual oath was admin­ istered to each by the Secretary of State.—r ^ C h a b i . e s H c m p h e b y , esq., of Tompkins county, was then elected Speaker ; P h i l i p IlEYjifOLDS, j r . re-elected clerk j D a w ie l D y g e b t sergeanl-at-arms; N. M anson , Ir^ door-keeper, and J ames D. M. C a r r isistant door-keeper. After the adoption of the usuab resolutions lalive to newspapers, the House adjourned ilil to-morrow. € ATI§»KIIX RECORDER -IL T U E S D A Y , J A N U A R Y 6 , 1 8 3 5 . 1 GOVERNOR’S [MESSAGE. h'eilouj-CitizeTU of the Senate and Assembly : The people of this State having recently select­ ed me to discharge the duties of their chief magis­ trate for a second term, I ayedl myself of the present occasion to e.xpress xny gratefvd acknowledgments for this renewed manifestation of their confidence, and to assure them that my best eilorts shall be de­ voted to i heir service. At no former period have the United States oc­ cupied a more elevated position than at present, in relation to foreign powers. The claims for depre­ dations formerly qommilted on the property of our merchants have been sustained by ably conducted hegociatipns, and admitted in almost all instances by solemn treaties; our commerce is extended to nearly every region of ihe'globe; and our flag re­ spected by all nations. In adverting to the internal affairs of our coun- , try we find few causes for discontent and many for % congratulation. The general government is ad- r ministered with wisdom, and with a special regard i: to the principles on which it w'as founded; our na­ tional debt IS now extinguished; our public reve­ nues exceed our wants; the burden of taxation has been within a few years greatly diminished; con­ siderable pre^ese has been lately made in recon­ structing the barriers which were etected to resist the encroachments of. federal power, but which Were partially overthrown by the errors of past Je- mdation; and there is now good reason to hope that the general government, in relation to its practical operations, will soon become in all re­ spects what it was designed to be by its wise and petriotic founders. But ycAir attention is chiefly tb be directed to the internal affairs of our own State; it is to them your powers as legislators extend, and to them, in an especial manner, your duties relate. In reviewing the events of the past year, your attention will be necessarily arrested by the extra­ ordinary state of things wmch existed at its com­ mencement, and continued some time thereaTter. Shortly before this period, an unwonted prosperity prevailed throughout the State; the bounties of^ Providence had been showered upon us with a li­ beral hand; We had been favored with a fruitful season; labor in all the branches of industry found a ready employment and received a fair reward; the \characleristic enterprize of the people was stimulated Ip great activity; our internal trade ex­ ceeded in amount and extent all former example, and our foreign commerce presented sure indica­ tions of being in a sousd and healthful state. There was then nothing either in our internal condition or external relations which did not presage, to the Bind of ordinary observers a t least, the continu­ ance of this high state of prosperity; but it sudden­ ly passed away, and w’as succeeded by a period of great pecuniary embarrassment. It is not to the jiresenl purpose to trace minutely the operation of the causes which wrought this change; but all will concur, I think, in ascribing it mainly to the con­ test relative to re-chartering the Bank of tJic Uni­ ted States. This Bank, since its first establishment, has been deprecated by many, as an institution existing without constitutional authority, and by still more, as capable of resisting the public will, and of spurn­ ing the control reserved by the authority which created it—^not necessary to the fiscal operations -of the treasury—pernicious in its general infiuence upon our currency —and dangerous, as a political en g in e , to the principles of our government. A ' great majority of the people, viewing it with disla- vor, had, by electing a Chief fiiagistrate well known to b<> decidedly opposed to a renewal of its charter, indicated their unv\ illingness to prolong its txis‘ence. It was not generally anticipated, though by many it was feared, that an attempt would be made by the infliction of public distress, to reverse this condemnatory sentence, so delibe­ rately pronounced by the sovereign power of the country. But it did not comport with the views of the majiagers of the Bank, nor with the designs of those who had espoused its cause, to submit qui­ etly to this decision. The Bank commenced a rapid curtailment of its issues, and withheld from the public its usual accommodations. Those who directed its operations, as well as those who acted in subservience to its views, loudly proclaimed its ability to inflict on the country universal distress, and announced its determination to do so, if the covernment did not act in conformity to its wishes. It was represented that its pow'ers of annoyance were unexhausted, and almost inexhaustible; that the country was only in the beginning of its trou­ bles; and that a dismal period was fast approach­ ing w hen our channels of internal trade would be soutudes—the surplus productions of our soil would find no market—labor bis without employment— commerce destroyed—bankruptcy become the inev­ itable lot of most men engaged in active business:— when in short, all classes of our citizens would be involved in a common ruin. In furtherance of this design ta bring the government lo the feet of this great inonied power, the banks of this State were made the special objects of attack. Their condition was misrepresented; their ability deri- i!*d; and their solvency questioned. By these exaggerated representations of the ac­ tual difficulties in which we were involved; by these bold and confident predictions of still greateV embatrassntentsabout to follmv; and by the assaults made upoQ the credit and solvency of our local l»nks, a general panic was created; individual cre­ dit was unpaired, public confidence sliaken, and the resource# which the country possessed, and which were sufficient, if brought into use, to re­ lieve it, were withheld. No relief was to be expected from a change of policy on the part of the Bank, without asuomis-. #iiin lo its requirements;— a submission which would necessarily concede to it the power, not only to over-rule the public will, but to impose its com- roaiids on the government by its ability and dispo­ sition to oppress and harrass the people in their bu­ siness pursuits. The advocates of this institution exercised a controlling influence over one branch of the Na­ tional Legislature, and it w as therefore equally^! vain to hope for relief from Congress, without the same degrading submission. Under these circum­ stances, the people of this Stale could look to no quarter but to their State Government, for such re­ lief as their character would permit them to accept .—a relief without ths surrender of their princi[>le«. Acting in obedience to a high sense of duty to its constituents, the last Legislature interposed in thefr behalf its protecting power, by authorizing certain \ comraissioners lo pledge the credit of the State, if the condition of the people should require it, to the amount of six miiiions of dollars, for the purpose of relieving the public distress Provision was madd lor placing the money, in case it should be- coU'C neces>ary to raise any, where it would be most available to counteract the efforts which had already been loo successful in destroyins: our pros- periiy, and from the continuance of %vhich much fului-e injury was apprehended. The wisdom of this measure was rendered most manilest by' the good eilects which speeilily followed its adoption. Tiie panic began immediately thereafter to subside; public confidence revived; the aggressive opera­ tions of the Bank of the U. S. and its partizans, fiBon became ineflectual: as the spring opened, bu­ siness of all kindsresumed its wonted activity; the jiecuniary embarrassment passed away; money at length became unusually abundant; the bold and confident predictions of general ruin were falsified; and the peojile of this Stale have enjoyed, during the past .season, a high degree of prosperity. It will not, 1 trust, be attributing too much efficacy to the Zaan Law, pas ed by your predecessors, to ascribe lo it no Inconsiderable agency in producing this favorable change in our condition. It is worthy of particular remark, that these sig- a 1 benefits have been obtained by the mere prepara- to meet and repel the evila wliich the people Ifeen sufiered, and those with which they were fejaced' I am happy to announce to you, that I r Commissioners have not been under the neces- *v of e-xercising the power* confided to them by law. 'I'be credit of tl» State haa not been tdged I® any amount whatever, nor has any mo- tev been borrowed or loaned by them. The coun­ t y has entirely'recovered from pecuniary embar- LWment.and no unfavorable change in this respect Un be anticipated before the first day of Februa- fv \v!en this law o.vpires by its own limitation; I j^ljutterefore, autltorwed to give the Rioet positive !h^t no &cl uuder u will b« done by the It is conceded that this measure was o f an ex­ traordinary character, and could be properly re­ sorted to only under a strong necessity arising from an ■ exlraordinayy state of things Such was, out situation when it was adopted. The Well-being of the whole State was put in jeopardy by a powerful monied institution, acting apparently on the con­ sciousness of its uiicdntroilabie power, alien to our feelings and Gur interests, and intent on accomplish­ ing its selfish objects by inflicting injury upon the public. The manner ofits attack and the means used to compel submission to its demands were not to be regard^ otherwise than as the aggressions of a public enemy, and as such were to be repelled by resorting, if necessary, to the resources of the State. The promptitude and energy with which the Legislature prepared to resist its fiostilty, aivesfed the progress of its measures of annoyance, and re­ stored prosperity to the State, without using the public credit, without creating any debt, or impo­ sing any burden upon the people; and without en­ cumbering their property or in any manner impair­ ing their resources. When the imperious circum­ stances wliich called for this measure, and the be­ nefits conferred upon all classes, of our citizens in all parts of the State, by its mere adoption, are calmly artd candidly consideredi I am persuaded that it will command a still more decided an'd ge­ neral approbation than it has yet received. Our constituents have a commo.n interest in the prompt and efficient administration of the laws— To secure to them the full benefit of this essential requisite of a good government, of which, to some extent, they are deprived by the great amount of business now devolved on the Coutt of Chancery and the Supremo Court, it appears to me that some modification of our judiciary has become necessa­ ry. My views on this subject were submitted to the la.9t Legislature. I take the liberty to refer you to them, and to renew the recommendations then made, as well in relation to an amendment of the system, as in favor of the justice of providing an adequate compensation for the important and arduous services performed by some of our judicial officers. In the whole range of your duties, there is no subject in whicii the interest of the people are more deei«y Involved, or which calls for higher eflbfts of Lemslative wisdom, than the cause of Education. The fund already provided by the State for the support of common schools is large, but not so ample as the exceedingly great Import­ ance of the object demands. The special subjects in relation to common schoois, to which I am anxious your attention should be particularly directed, are; a provision for suj^plying'competent teachers; improvements in the methods of instruction; and the faithful and ecohumlcal application of the funds to such objects, and in such a manner, as will insure the best re­ sults. An incipient step has already been taken in regard to educating teachers. By an act of the last Legislature, the surplus income of the Literature fund, over twelve thousand dollars, is put at the disposal of the Regents of the University, to be by them distributed to such academies, subject lo their visitation, as they may select; and- Id be de­ voted exclusively to educating common school teachers. The sum which they now have, appli­ cable to this object, is about ten thousand dollars; and the condition of the Lilera^re fund warrants the expectation that it will be about three thousand dollars annually hereafter. A plan will probably be adopted a t the approaching session of the Board of Regents, for carrying into effect, in the most ef­ ficient manner, this wholesome measure; and I in­ dulge the hope tliat it will have an auspicious influ­ ence upon our systetnof common school education. Eight hundred and tl»irty-five towns and wards (the whole number in the State,) have made re­ ports for the year 1833. There were nine thousand eight hundred and sixty-five school districts; the whole number of children between the ages of five and sixteen years in the State was five hundred and thirty-four thousand and two, and the number instructed in the common schools in 1833 was five hundred and thirty-one thousand two hundred and forty. The public money distributed to the common schools was three hundred and sixteen thousand one hundred and fifty-three dollars and ninety-three cents. Of this sum, one hundred thousand dollars was contributed by the common school fund, and eighteen thousand five hundred and thirty-eight dollars and fifty-si.x cents by local funds belonging to the towns. The amount contributed by the in­ habitants of the districts was three hundred and ninety-eight thousand one hundred and thirty-sev­ en dollars and four cents. These sums, amo.upting to seven hundred and lourteen thousand two hun­ dred and ninety dollars and ninetyrseven cents, , (e.xcepling a few thousand dollars expended in the city of New-York on school houses,) have been paid to teachers for their wages. The whole amount expended during the year 1.833 on the common schools, cannot fall short of one million, two hundred thousand dollars. The number of academies subject to the visita­ tion of the Regents of the University, which mede reports last year, was sixty-seven; and tiie number ofntudents in them a t the time their reports were made, was five thousand five hundred and six. In 1827, the Literature fund was greatly aug­ mented; and the Regents were thereby enabled to, increase the sum distributed annually to the acade­ mies, from si.x thousand dollars to ten thousand dol­ lars. The number of academies then subject to the visitation of the Regents, which reported, was thirty-three; and the numbei of students in them was two thousand four hundred ai d forty. The number of students in the academies who have studied the classics and higher branches of English education, and with reference to whom the djsiri- bution of the Literature fund is apportioned, was last year three thousand three hundred and ninety In 1827, the number of such students w'as only seven hundred and nine. Thus it appears that since 1827, the number of academies has doubled; the number of students much more than doubled; and the number of those who have pursued the classics and the higher branches of Engliah sludies, has increased more than fourfold. This gratifying result may be ascribed, in no inconsiderable degree, to'the enlarged and liberal patronage extended lo them by the government. There are seven colleges in this Statje, including the University in the city of New-York; Awo of which are.exclusively devoted to medical instruc­ tion. According to the returns made to the Re­ gents of the University last year, the number of students in all of them was one thousand bne hun­ dred and thirty-five. Upon the whole I think we have rea.«on to be .satisfied with the present condition of our higher schools and seminaries. In regard to the common schools, considering their great importanoe in a po­ litical and moral point of view, the eforhs of the Legislature should not be intermitted until the sys­ tem shall be so improved as to secure to the chil­ dren of all classes and conditions of our population such an education as will qualify them to fulfil, in a ptoiier manner, the duties appertaining to what­ ever may be their respective pursuits and condi­ tions of life. The funds dedicated to education and literature are securely invested, productive in revenue, and efleclive in diffusing among the peftple those bless- ing.« for which they were wisely jirovided. The capital of the Coinmon School fund is now one million seven hundred and ninety-one thousand three hundred and twenty-one dollars and seventy- seven cents, and the revenue from it last year was one hundred and four thousand three hundred and ninety dollars and seventy-five cents, which some­ what exceeds the sum ahuually distributed to the Common schools. The capital of the Literature fund is two hun­ dred and sixty-tw'o thousand five hundred and se­ venty-three dollars and ten cents, and it produced last year a revenue of fifteen thousand five hundred and'ten dollars and eight cents. Of this sum, twelve thousand dollars is to be distributed by the. Regents of the Uriversify to the academiessubject to itieir visitation, and appropriated exclusively to paying the salaries of tutors. The remainder is put at the dispc sal o f the Regen's, for the purpose of instructing teachers o f coinm o n schools. The income from all the canals and jhe Canal Fund for the last fiscal year, was one million eight hundred and thirteen thousand four hundred and eighteen dollars and seventy-three cents. The whole canal debt on the 30th September last, W'as seven millions and thirty-four thousand nine hun­ dred and ninety-nine dollans and sixty-eight cents, of which four millions nine liutidred and ihii ty-four thousand six hundred and fifty-two dollars and six- tj-eight cents is the unpaid balance of the debt created for the construction of the Erie and Cham­ plain canals. For the payment of this balance. Kinds had accumulated on the 80th September last to the amount of three millions and twq thousand five hundred and seventy-six dollar* and thirty cents. The Erie and Champlain eaqal fund has yielded a revenue during the last fiscal year, beyond all the charge* upoh it, of one million and thirty-five thou­ sand six hundred and sixty four dollars'and ninety- two cents: the tolls alone exceeded the*e charges five hundred and eighly-eeven thousand eight hun­ dred and fifty dollars and sixty-one cents. The Bank fund is two hundred and eighty-nine thousand and forly-six dollar* and forty-threp cenls- It has increased during the lat<.year more than one Dllar*. The extent to which half of one percent on thsir respective capitals tV six years only, unless some of it should be needed for the purposes for which it was crea,ted.r-an event scarcely tu be apprehended, considering the pre­ sent stability of these in.'ititlitions,' and the almost certain assurance tlw public has for their prudent management, by reason of ihe iVise supervision to which they are subjected. The General Fund is now reduced to one hun.- dred and ninety thousand five hundred and ninety- six dollars and sixty-two cents. It was rot, I be­ lieve, originally intended that the capital of this fund should be' used to furnish the means of sup­ porting the government. The income from it was never adequate to that object, though it might have been so, but fbr the encroachments made upon it to establish useful institutions, .and to promote ,the improvement of the State. More than seven millions of dollars of its capital, arid of income from sources vvhich belonged lo it, have been ta­ ken for the Canal Fund, and the Literature and Common S c h o o l Funds. From^the origin of our government down to a late period, taxes we-e imposed whenever the con­ dition of the treasury required it, lo raise the means of defraying'our ordinary expenses. Taxa­ tion was discontinued in 1826, not because the in­ com e of the G eneral F u n d ^the capital o f which was then only two millions thirfy-seven thousand nine hundred and thirty-six dollars and thirty-five cents) was supposed to be sufficient to meet the charges on the treasury; but with tke dcliberata intention of relieving the people, from further bur­ dens, until the capital .of that fund should'be ex­ hausted. Th# policy of this course was question­ able, and was decidedly opposed by the officer who then had the charge of the finances of the Stale. What was then foreseen by all as inevitable—the exhaustion of this fund—^has happened ; but not so soon as was anticipated. Without being aided by the avails of any general ta.x upon the property of our citizens, |t ha.<«, for the last eight years, suppli­ ed the principal means not only of supporting the governmept, but of paying the numerous and libe­ ral appropriation# made within that period for oth­ er objects. These appropriations have absorbed a large proportion of it. Since the discontinuance of the' general tax, more than five hundred and eighty thousand dollars have been paid for deficien­ cies in the revenues of lateral canals, for Indian annuities, for draining the Cayuga marshes, and for the support of the deaf and dumb; and three hundred and twenty thousand and three dollars and seventy-four cents, for the State prisons, which have now ceased to beachaige upon the treasury. The sums for these five objects alone, together with two hundred and eighty-three thou­ sand six hundred and sixteen dollars and sixteen cents of the capital of the General Fund, transfer­ red to the Literature and Common School Funds in 1827,, amount to nearly three-fifths as much as the entire General Fund at the time the State tax was discontinued. ■ ' . In this way the treasury has at length become exhausted, and the public exigencies will admit of no longer delay in providing funds to.defray. the or­ dinary expenses of the government,’ and to satisfy appropriations already made, and such as may be made hereafter. 1. do not indulge the expectation that so unwise a course will be taken as to supply the means re­ quired for these purposes, by loans, without creat­ ing some special fund lo pay the debt that will be thus contracted. Such a fund can only be raised by taxation, or by providing at this time for the restoration (when the existing pledge will permit it to be done) of the whole or some part of the monies which have been diverted from the Gene­ ra! Fund to constitute the Canal Fund. These sources have contributed to the Canal Fund, five millions of dollars; and you ought now to settle the question, whether any and \vhat part shall be returned to the treasury. If it shall be determined that none of it .shall be refunded, then, in my opinion, the levying of a general tax is ine- I vitable, and should not be delayed. Proceedings were commenced by the last Legis­ lature, to release the auction and salt duties from the constilutional pledge by which they are appro- priateil to the Canal Fund, and to restore them to the General Fund. As this can be effected only by an amendment of the Constitution,your concur­ rence, as well as that of a majority of the elect­ ors, in the measure, vvilL be neces.sary to carry it into effect. If it should be adopted, and the reve­ nue from these sources'be as abundant, as it has been hitherto, it will be nearly or quite sufficient to defray the ordinary expenses of the govern­ ment; But two years or more must elapse before it can be made available as the means of replenish­ ing the treasury. The operations of the canals for the last year present most gmtifying results: The business done on them ha# exceeded in amount that of any pre- vious’season. Notwithstanding the rate of tolls was reduced in January last, twenty-five per cent on merchandize; ten per cent on wheat, flour, beef, pork, butter and cheese, and considerably on many other articles, the income of the Erie anil Champfain canals, from this source alone, during the last fiscal year which ended on the thirtieth September, was one million three hundred and thirteen thousand one hundred and fifty-five dol­ lars and eighty-four cents. The tolls of the last fiscal year are only eleven thousand two hundred and sixty-five dollars and seventy-nine centaless than those of the previous year; the business on the Erie and Champlain canals has, therefore, increas­ ed nearly in the ratio of the reduction of the tolls. Provision was made a t the last session of the Le­ gislature for 'doubling the locks on the Erie canal, between Albany and Syracuse. I regret that this measure was not accompanied with another, al­ most equally necessary, providing for the en­ largement of the capacity of the- canal: For I deem it important that the new locks should be made with reference to this latter improvement. As the Commissioners have not yet begun to con­ struct them, it is worthy of your consideration whether you should not now authotize this enlarge­ ment, and direct the new locks to be made in con­ formity thereto. On each of the other canals, the tolls of the last year, although the rates were reduced as above stated, ha»a exceeded those of the preceding year; and the business rn them has therefore conskUraiily increased. Although the tolls collected on these minor canals have increased, they have been insuf­ ficient to pay the Interest on the debt created for their construction, and to defray the expenses for repairs. An advance from the Ireasury.for the year ending thirtieth September, has been requir- of twelve thousand six hundred and forty-nine dollars and eighty-three cents, for the Oswego ca­ nal; three thousand seven Imndred and si.\ty-one (lollara and aeventy-six cents, for the Cayuga and Seneca canal; loriy thousand seven hundred and twenty-lhree dollars and fifty-five cehli!, for the Chemung canal; and twelve thousand eight hun­ dred and twenty-nine dollar#and eighty-tno cents, for the Crooked-Lake canal. It is proper to ob­ serve, that these canals receive no credit on ac count of the increase of business on the Erie ca- naL to which they in some measure contribute. 'I'he whole of the Chenango canal, together with all the works connected with it, e.xcepl two reservoirs, (which may not be necessary,) is under contract, and is to be completed before the first of November, 1836. The dicumstances of the times have been very favorable in regard to the expense of this work, and it is believed it will be completed for a sum nut much exceeding one million seven hundred thousand dollars. Your deliberation* on the subject qf internal im­ provements will be regarded by the whole State with interest, and by many sections o f it with in­ tense anxiety. It is important to the.general wel fare, that our system should be carried on pro­ gressively in the manner best caculated to difluse its benefits as generally and equally as practicable. With a view fo obtain the best results in tiiis re spect, your particular attention should be turned towards settling a system of finance in relation to this branch o f public eXj^nditure. Our own ex­ perience on the subjectofinteral improvements, as 'well as that of other States, forbids the hope that any public works hereafter to be constructed by the Slate, w'ill yield an income, for a considerable time after they are completed, sufficient to keep them in repair and -pay the interest on the debt created for their construction. The suggestion now made in relation to a, system of'finance is not new. Every State which has embarked in un­ dertakings involving large expenditures has, at the same time it authorized them, provided the means for p-aying the interest on the public debt to be thereby created. Our treasury was deprived of the revenue from some of its most prolific sources, lor life purpose of constituting a Canal Fund, by the very act which provided for the construction of our first public works. The State# of Pennsylva­ nia and OW q laid a general ta* on the people for the same purpose, when they commenced their svatem, of internal improvements. Such a mea- s'ure was considered necessary, by us and by them, to sustain the public credit, and public credit w'a# rightfully regarded as necessary to insure success to these undertakings. We have omitted this impor- portant part of the system in regard to our lateral canals, and the consequence has been, that the fund for the general support of the government, has had to sustain them for the last five years, and has advanced for that purpose, two hundred and forty-nipe thousand, six h u n d r^ and forty-six dol- ninety-three thousand, eight hundttfd and eighty- one dollars and^ixtesn cents was pqld during the The burden of supplying-the defi<i|yi>cy.Aa the re-; venues of these canals, which is l^m a ted by the Commissioners of the Canal Fund at sixty thousand Iw’o hundred and thirty dollars and fiity-thrbe^nfs for this year, (and it will hotprobabJy be much less fur several years to come,) still rests-hpon the trea-; .sury ; and the treasury will not hive the means, unless j'ou provide them, to discharge it, or even to pay the ordinary o.xpenses of the government with­ out resorting lo loans. The effect of a departure, in this particular,- from our original system in re- uard to internal im.provcments, shovVs the wisdom of that system, and admonishes us of the jn-ct ssity of returning to it. No government that had a pro­ per regard for ift public credit or Jts permanent prosperity, ever contracted a pu'flife debt wtthou! providing a revenue for tl-epayinent of the interest at least, if not for its final extinguishment ; and none that neglects to make Such a provision, hut supplies its necessities, whether onliu-ary ore.^tra- ordinary, fay loans, and provides tbrithe interest on them by new loans, can long prosacute succo-sfutly public enterprizes requiring large expendiiures. ‘l therefore (ieem it essential- to the success of the sjstem o f internal im p rovem ents, th a t you should in some uay provide adequate means for paying the interest on the public debt that must be incur­ red by its further prosecution. Before you authorize the construction of any public w'ork, it will he proper for you to compare the exiiendiiure it will require with the benefits it will confer In. relation to the formfcr it should be borno in mind that every public which we have executed has cost nearly doubte, and in some instances more than double, the estimate at the time it was authorized. In rslation to the benefits, your views should be Ubera! and extended. - They should not be confined to the state of things that will e.xist immediately on the completion of the work, but should have regard to the progressive advancement of the region of the State to be laid open by i t ; to the probable development of new resources ; to the extension and increase of inter­ nal trade ; and even to the local advantages it will confer. Having in my first-message sjated my views of what should b c ihe charaefer, prwiuctive- ness and other attendant advantages of any pro­ posed work which it would be proper, in my opi­ nion, for the State to execute, I take the liberty of referring you to them, as substantialiy those I now entertain on the same subject. The projects for improvements of considerable magnitude, which will probably be presented to your consideration at the present session, are, a rail-road from the city of New-York to Lake Erie, Utrough the southern tier of counties ; the Black River canal; the Rochester and Clean canal; a ship canal from the Hudson river to Lake Ontario ; and another around the Niagara falls. The line of the proprosod rail-road passes through an interest­ ing and rapidly improving section of-the'State, and in addition to the common advantages of such a work, one of a more general character and aflect- ing mots immediately the commercial interests of the State, is urged in its favor. It is anticipated that by this improvement an intercourse, for com­ mercial purposes, with the extensive and flourish­ ing regions of the West, would be opened earlier in the spring, and continued later in the autumn than it now is or can be by the Erie canal. A law passed at the last session of the Legisla­ ture, directed the Executive to appoint a compe­ tent and experienced engineer to survey a route for this rail-road. Such an appointment was made, and the survey has been executed. I am informed by Mr. Benjamin Wright, the engineer selected for this purpose, that the map and profile required to be filed in the office of the Secretary of State, will be completed about the fifteenth instant. These, when executed in the manner required by law, will assist you in coming to a correct conclu­ sion on the subject of this improvement. In relation to two of the projects I have men­ tioned—the Black River canal and the Rochester and Olean canal—^I will only observe, that they are improvements in which a large and enterprising portion of our constituents feel a deep interest, and which they believe to be of great public importance. The Legi.slature, at the last session, directed sur­ veys of the routes for them to be made, and reports to be laid before you. When they are received, you will possess authentic information to guide jQur action in relation to these imptovements. The Governmirnt of the Capadia^ls making vi­ gorous eflbrts torender safeand-easylhe navigation of the St. Lawrence, with a vie\V to direct the business on Lake Ontario and the region above and around it, to Montreal and Quebec. One of the principal object? of the proposed ship canal, is to countervail these eflbrts, and draw' this business to the city of New'-York. The enlargement of the Erie canal will, to some extent, contribute to this object. It will be for you to determine, whethet the additional advantages of a ship navigation are of sufficient importance to call for the construction of such a work. The attention of the last Legislature was directed to the importance of removing the obstructions to the navigation of the Hudson river; but as'this work has been since undertaken by- the General Governmeiiti it will not be necessary for you lb act on this subjecK Other projects of internal improvement than those I have mentioned, have occupied the atten­ tion of the people in different sections o f the State. Shonlti any of them be presented to thq Legislature, I trust they will receive the conside^Uoo which they merit. As contributing in some measure to the same ends for which vvorlm of public improvement are undertaken, I would bring to your.jii^ce the sub­ ject of common highways: I refer;yoti to* t he sug­ gestions in my messa*ge of last year'on this subject, and desire, that it majr receive your ll^orable con­ sideration. I Our penitentiaries have been proptjrly regarded as object# of great public concern, and have occu­ pied for several years the anxious attejition of the Legislature. It# views have been dirt^ted to iht m as the means of diminishing crime's, ^fam ing of­ fenders, ami relieving the .'-fate from 4he burden of Hupportitig convicts Our first ef farts oti this subject w«r# experiments, made w ithout the light of much experience; and the results were qui,fb as favora­ ble a# could have been reasonably a’hticipated— Though our sjstem ha# been progressively impro­ ved, It ha.s not yet been brought to tl|at degree of perfection of which it is susceptih!e.ij The facts disclosed by the officer* who have had the imme­ diate supervision.of ■ u r prisons, aqd hy lhe report# of the Ssveral committee* appointed the Legis­ lature to examine them, w’ili direift ycjir attention lo existing (lefecti, and aid you in appfying proper remedies, and adopting sucJi further imferovemeot# a# have been suggested by i.ur o\yn e.xperiei ce cr by that of otherIftatci. ‘ , •, One of the desirable object#, whiqh w*e have aimed at, has been to make the ayailsifaf the labor of convicts defray all the expense# oFthese esta­ blishments. In order to produce Such k result, -va­ rious kinds of mechanical busincss'havebeeii jntio- duced into them.' The earnings of the convicts during the two last yean have beep m«# than suf- ficieiit to pay the ordinary expens»R of4he prifeot'#, and lo furnish th^means of etilargibg them und ail- diiig to their accommodation*; arid if a regard to the interests of a numerous portion o f our fellow citizens should not require a difierent direction to be given to this labor, the prison# would cease lo be a charge upon the treasury, and probably be­ come a source of revenueto the State: but it never can comport w'ith just and fiiir legislation to pi o- duce such a result by directing this labor in such a vianner as to cause it to operate oppressively upon any particular branches of industry. It is an es­ sential itrinciple of our government, that burdens and benefits are to be ihared equally by all; and I do not doufat that you will consider it your solemn duty as legislators, to give practical effect to this principle. The mechanics in alnjost every section ot the State have considered their interests injuri­ ously affected by the manner ifl which the labor periormed in the prisons is brought into competi­ tion with theits, and they appealed to'the last Le­ gislature for telief. The comjSaint of so large and respectable a portion of opr citizens com­ manded its prompt attention, and it directed com­ missioners to be appointed to examine, into the government, economy and discipline of, the pri­ sons, and particularly into all the matters which constituted the grounds of this complaint. The report of thesje commissioners, which, I presume, will be made at an early day in Ihis session, will faring the whole subject in all its relations and bear­ ings before you, accompanied With suck -sugges­ tions and authentic information as will dfiable ypu to appreciate the extent of the evils complainetl of, and to apply to them an eflectual remedy. Our fellow citizens^engaged in mechanical pursuits con­ fidently rely upon the Legislature to remove any partial burden resulting incidentally from the pre­ sent mode of amploying convicts, and I trust you will readily grant them such protection in this re­ spect as they may properly claim from a govern­ ment founded on the principle of equal rights and common privileges. No consideration# connected merely w ith the income of the prisons should be peniiitted to interpose any obstacle fo removing all just ground# ot complaint. This object, I am per­ suaded, may be attained without abandoning the present system of discipline, or ^he tnain Another efiect resulting from the introduction of numerous mechanical branches of business into our State priSons^ is also a subject of grievance to the mechanics, and is worthy of your Considerate at­ tention The nece.^ary consequence of instruct­ ing convicts in mechanical trades is to bring them, when discharged^ into more frequent association with mechanics than with ,anf other cla-s of citi­ zens. Those employed, in siich pursuits are, in this manner, more exposed .lhan others to the de- Oioralizing effects of this vicious companionship. Vyiiile those who have been subjected to i he dis­ cipline of our penitentiaries should be strengthened in their resolutions to reform their conduct, and 'dll the avenues should be opened to facilitate theii return to a cotrecl course of life, and to encourage them to I'ccoinc useful menihers of society, great '•are should be taken to do this, in such a manner as n4it til Impair the moral condition of any descrip­ tion of citizens, or even to expose them, either in their owq or the public estimation, to any diininii- •lion of the respect a.’.id consideration .due alike to all. The number of prisonera in Ihe .Auburn , prison' on the tvven'-y-fourlh day of Dccembef’, was six hundred and li(>y, and in the Mount-Pleasant pri­ son, on the first day of that month, eight hundred and twi-nty-eight The number received into the two prisons during the last year, is about the same as that of the pre­ ceding year; being in the Auburn prison five less, and in that at Mour.l-Pleasanf, nine more. Tiie number remaining in the Mount-Plea-ant prison on the .first of December last was one less than it was at that time in the year 1833, and in the Au­ burn prfaion thirty-seven* less than in 1838. The earnings and profits of the Auburn prison from all sources during the year ending thirtieth of September last were forty-seven thousand seven hundretl and tw'enty-three dollars and tw'enty-se- veu cents, and the expenses for general support and ordinary repairs were forty-two thousand tw'o hundred and twenty-eight dollars and nineU-four cents. The income of the Mount-Pleasant prison- for the same fierlod was aeventjxsix thousand nine hundred and ninety dollars'aml eighty-four cents. The expenditure for the general support during that time was fifty-five thousand five hundred and ninety-threo dollars and eighty-five cents; nine thousand three hundred and ninety dollar.# and four cents of the balance was paid to the corporation of the city of New-York, to satisfy a demand due to it for supporting the female convicts. There ha<» been expended at the Auburn prison eight thou­ sand three hundred and eighteen dollars and seven­ ty two cents, for additions and improvements, and at the Mount-Pleasant prison for improvements, two thousand four hundred and sixty-six dollars and thirty-four cents. The income of the two prisons over their ordina­ ry expense#, exclusive of the support of the female convicts, W'as twenty-six thousand eight himdred and ninety-one dollars and fifty-two cents, for the last fiscal year; and over all expenses, ordinary and extraordinary, six thousand seven hundred and six­ teen dollars and forty-one cents. In my annual message of last year several sub­ jects, in my judgment, worthy of the attention of the Legislature were then presented for considera­ tion, accompanied with such remarks as were deemed appropriate. I shall merely allude to them again, without- however, detaining you by repeat­ ing what was then said, or enlaiging upon the rea­ sons which induced me to commend them to tha favor of the Legislature. The.se subjects were; The erection of a separate prison for female con­ victs; The exceptionable condition of most of the coun • ty jails, as places of punishment for persons con­ victed of minor offences; ’ The improvements required in the police of most of the county poor-houses; The claims of the blind for assistance in obtain­ ing the means of instruetion; and. The establishment of an asylum for the insane poor. The founding of such an asvlum was then, and is still regarded by me as em object deeply in­ teresting lo humanity; and it was urged upon the last Legislature, not merely for the purpose of fur­ nishing this class of forlorn fellow-beings with a comfortable subsistence, (for this is now done in an imperfect manner by the general provision for the support of paupers,) but as the necessary, and to many of them, the only means of restoring them to mental soundness. JTheir claim to legislative aid iscerlairdy not impaired by delay; ahd I sincerely hope it will receive your favorable consideration. Recent events, and particularly the discussions relative to the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States, have turned the thoughts of the people towards the character of our circulating me­ dium , and the tendency of banking institutions arid other corporations. Public opinion has every w'here accorded a full measure of approoatlon to the ge­ neral views of the national executive on the sub­ ject of a metallic currency;. and the people of this State now call in no equivocal voice upon their Legislature to aid in accomplishing this object, by withdrawing from circulation a portion of the notes of our banks, with a view to facilitate the introduc­ tion amj circulation of gold and silver coin. For thjs purpose it is recommended that provision should be made for prohibiting the issue and circu­ lation of all bank notps-under the, denomination of five d<ill§rs. The benefits of such a measure w'ould be manifold; it would give the public a better cur­ rency, composed in part of the precious metals; it would relieve, partially at least, the laboring clas­ ses from the losses and inconvenience to which they are exposed from uncurrent and spurious bills; it would, in some measure, prevent the ruinous consequences not only to-individuals, but to the public, resulting from the sudden expansions and contractions to which a.paper currency is constant­ ly liable; and it would g-ve greater stability to the business transactions of the country. Attempts hav«' heretofore been made to adopt this measure, but were probably defeatetl by the apprehension that the small bills issued by the banks of adjoining States, although their circulation in this State was prohibited by law, would be substituted for those of our own institutions, and that the evil would be theraiiy continued, while the advantage of the cir­ culation woula be transf. rred from <>ur own banks to those of other State# To remove this ohj<*c- tiori. and to render the measure efective;, the Ex­ ecutive wa# directed by a resolution of The Iasi Legislature, to open a correspondence w’ith th .. Governors of the adjoining States, with a view o, obtaining the adoption of a similar measure in eaci of them. This duty has been performed, and ther^ is rea-ori to believe that the subject is viewed by the. people of those States, as it is here, ia a favti- ratle lijjht, and that they will- co-operate ’with u in this movement liir remedying the evils of a pa­ per circulating medium, and proruring a souni. currerrey. Though I do not unt'cipafe any serious oitjectior lo the mea-sure of suppressing the circulation c small bills, there may be some diversity of opinioi as to the time and manner of efecting it. In de­ termining upon these, particular regard ishould bt paid lo The state of things as it now is, and is likely to be for some time to come. Within a short pe­ riod, the concerns of an enormous monied instit'u- tion, to which the jteopie of this Slate owe several millions of dollars, will probably be-closed, and ii would oot be' prudent to assume that this will bt done with any special regard to public convenience. A oonsiderable portion of thi.s <lebt, and of the bu­ siness which has been done by this instilutinn, will be necessarily and gratinally transferred lo the lo­ cal banks. Such a' transfer, under the most favo­ rable circumstances, would cause some inconve­ nience, and it might become very serious, if the ability of these banks should be greatly imiiaired, or our present extended system of credit rudely shaken by any ill-timed measures in regard to them By a resolution passed at the last session of tiie Legislature, each bank in this Slate is required to reoort to you this day, the amount of the seveial denominations of bills under that of five dollars, which it had put in circulation, as money, and wliich were outstanding on the first day of Decem­ ber last. These are the bills which are proposed to be withdrawn; and the amount of them now in circulation is estimated at about four millions ol ddllars. The object in W'ithdfaw'ing them, is not to diminish the amount of the circulating medium, for that would operateinjuriously, by reducing the wages of labor and the pries of property, but to in­ troduce instead of this jtaper money, a like amount of gold and silver coin. There should be no hesi­ tation in providing at the present session of the Legislature, m>t only against the further issues of e a ^ denomination of these small bills, Vut also for the withdrawal of those now in circulation, at a proper time. The withdrawal should be made at a successive psrisd for each denomination, with the view to secure an effectual substitution of the coins for the paper money withdrawn, and, to pre­ vent a sudden and injurious contraction of the cir­ culating medium. In relation to fixing these periods, it should be borne in mind that we nave now an unusual quan­ tity of the precious metals. This circumstance will facilitate the operation of substituting coin for the paper to be called in, and aJlovv iltobecon- vemenlly done at an earlier period than That which could Be prudently selected for executing this measure if there waa a scarcity, or no more than the ordinary ojuantity of specie in- the country __ It is also proper that you should consider the incon­ venience vvhich might result from a loo sudden connexion with the unfavorable effects which the cbntiuance of their circulation has upon our cur­ rency and bvBiness, and the advantages which their withdrawal will secure to the public a t large. To ensure success to tne measure proposed, it will be indispensably necessary to make eflectual provision for preventing the circulation, in this State, of the small bills issued by the banks of other Stales. I conceive it to be my duly to repeat the recom­ mendation which was made lo your predecessors in relation to reducing the amount of circulation .now allowed to the banks. It should iiot, in iny judgment, be permiUtd, in any case, lo e.xceed the amount of their respective capitals, nor should their credits be a’lowqd to exceed twice that amount. .Charter.*, of bank# are appliol for, and granted up­ on the alleged groundthat they'are required for the ptl'iiic gooo, but'i^is the nalure of such irutitu- fions to\be le|B.^^rdful of this consideration than of their own peeWhiary inleresjs: their conduct is therefore very pfoptfly jan o b ject.^ constant scru­ tiny. .-\ny contriva,ifoea which iMey may re.^ort to, hundred thousand foliar# ■'*.'** * 1 ' ' . ' . ' ' \d '1 . -N- ' ’ 4 . vyith a design to enhance their profits, .should^'^e -pytmiptly suppressetl? ''! have reas.oq> to helieve that irix this respect, the-public have had just grnundsvf colwplailit against some of our banks. Instead of discounting tioti'-s according lo the usual course of business, they have required drafts of thsir customers payable at Some d’stant place, knowing that the drawers had not and did. not e.x- pect to have funds at such place to pay them — When these drafts arrived at-maturily, others wore peered to tlie.same banks, and taken in payment of the former. A discount of one per cent beyond llts jegal rale of interest.ha? heetv exacted on these, .-uccciisive draffs; and by this mode of doing bus! ness, those who have been under the necessity of •.qiplying for accommodations to the banks which have resorted to (his practice, have been subjected to pay an exorbitant sum for the use of the money thus obtained. Such a mode of oppressive extor­ tion did no! long escape the vigilance of the Bank Commissioner.-*, and 1 have reason to believe they exerted, to good effect, all the authority they pos­ sessed to cause it to be discontinued; but I doubt whether their powers are sufficient to enable them to check this practice, and prevent a recurrence to it. You have the power to correct-not only this but all other practices inconsistent with fair deal­ ings on the part of these institutions towards the public, and.l presume you will consider ityottr d u ­ ty fo exercise it promptly, by' applying it directly' yourselves, or through the agency of the Bank Commissioners. The practice to which I have al­ luded is distinct frqm the fair business of discount­ ing drafts, and the remedy to be applied to it should leave the right to discount them, in the regular course of business, unimpaired. To give lo the ordinary business of loaning money the form of buying or selling drafts, for the purpose of taking usury with impunity, or as a pretext for extortion, is the practice reprehended. I have no reason to believe it has prevailed in many institutions, and it should not be tolerated in any. While on the one hand you should act with promptness and vigor in keeping all banks within the sphere'of action allowed to them, and in guard­ ing the public against the mischievou# perversion or misapplication of their powers and privileges, by restraints, ahd, if necessary, by annulling their charters; good faith requires, on the other, that such as use their powers and privileges in strict subservience to the purposes for which they were bestowed, should be protected in the enjoyment of them, without any diminution or modification oth­ er than may be necessary to give effect (o mea­ sures of general policy for the public good.- I ought not to pa.ss from this .subject without al­ luding to the conduct of the State banks during the late period of panic and distress. That they, in most instances, exerted their best abilities to ad­ minister to the necessities of a suffering communi­ ty will not, I presume, be questioned; and as little can it be. questioned- that they would have done this effectually, in spate of the assaults made upon them and upon public credit, with a view lo sub­ serve the interests of a great monied monopoly, and to effectuate the purposes of a political party, had not a large portion of that class of our citi­ zens, most interested in sustaining public confi­ dence in our currency, and most exposed to losses by its derangement, been led, by a strange infatu­ ation, to concur in these mischievous designs, and to lend their active eflbrts to increase-the panic, and spread far and wide its ruinous effects. It is exceedingly difficult to confer particular pri­ vileges on a few without derogating from the equal rights of all others. Public- opinion requires of you more caution in relation to granting corporate privileges than has bean heretofore observed. The right of the Legislature to create corjtorations is re­ cognized by the constitution, and it may be exer­ cised ill many instances harmlessly and even bene­ ficially in regard to the people at large; but in no inconsiderable number of cases, corporate powers and privileges-are sought for as furnishing means not allowed’ to all for acquiring property, or for managing it in a profitable manner without the ha­ zards to which it is exposed in individual hands. Among the various applications usually presented to the Legislature for acts of incorporation, those for banks have been urged with the greatest earnest­ ness, a n ^ it is highly probable several of this kind will be made to you at the present session. One of the strongest arguments that tvil! be offered to you in behalf of them, will be, that banks are attended with many local advantages; that the sections of the State which have none, or not so many as there are in others, and which present better con­ siderations in favftr of«their particular applications than those that have been successfully urged in other cases, are entitled, on the principle of equa­ lity of rights, to a participation m these advanta­ ges ; and that a departure from the course hereto- tore jtursued on this subject, will be an act of par­ tial legislation and unjust towards them. This ar­ gument, which is alike opposed to any temporary suspension and lo a permanent change of the course herelolbre pursued on this subject, will not be less 'ogent at any time hereafter than it is now', and, if- .t is permit ted lo prevail, the Legislature will still JO on as heretofore, multiplying banking institu­ tions, whatever may be the effects ufKm our pre^ ,*ent system, or upon our cuiTency. It must be conceded, I think, that banks hav'e been hereto­ fore too freely granted, and that we have enough •)f them for all the legitimate uses for which the\ ire now wanted; youwiil, therefore, in my opinion, lest promote the public good by refusing to add lo their number. Recent occurrences h a re tended to restore the •nilitia system to the pulKc estimation which it justly deserves in our goverinent. It has been ne­ cessary to resort, more than once within the last vtar, to the military force to aid the civil magis- ;rates in the city of New-York, in p.iotecting the .jevsons and property of our citizens, and in j)re- *erving the public peace. The alacrity with which the several corp.s performed the duty required of them on these occasions, and the efficient support they aflorded the civil authority, in arresting the progress of law'ies# violence, and maintaining the iupremacy of the laws, reflects credit on tnem, and vindicates the wisdom which regarded and provided for a well-organized militia as an essential part of our political »y#t§pi. 1 have heretofore adverted to some changes in the organization of the militia, which, in our pre­ sent condition, might be made without diminishing ils practical benefits, and by which the burdens consequent upon the performance of militia service might be greatly alleviated. These changes can be made only by the general government; and whatever the Legislature could do to impress on Congress the importance of acting on this subject, has, I believe, been done already by your prede­ cessors, 'I'here are, however, some evils result­ ing from the present system', which it is believed the Legislature is fully competent to remedy. The present mode of punishing delinquents operates op­ pressively and unjustly in many cases. The num­ ber of regimental and battalion courts martial an­ nually organized in the State, is nearly mur hun­ dred ; and they have cognizance of all delinquen­ cies for the non-performance of duty, and for de­ ficiencies in .equipments. From the sentence of any such court, an appeal, if made within twenty days, is allowed to the officer organizing the court; but no other or further means of redress are pre­ scribed or allowed, however great may be the in­ justice or error of the decision. Notices to delin­ quents to appear before these tribunals, may, in case of absence, be served by leaving copies Ihere- lof at their usual place of abode ; and it often hap­ pens, that those who have good excuses for not performing military duty, are sentenced to pay fines and penalties without any actual knowledge of the proceedings against them. Before the par- ties.aggrievcd are apprised of the decisions of the courts, the right of appeal 1# frequently lost by the lapse of lime. There are also some obvious objec­ tions to confining the appeal exclusively to the offi­ cers apppinting the courts. Relief'in cases of ma­ nifest hardship, has been formerly sought by appli­ cations to the commander-in-chief; but I have de­ nied them, from a conviction that the law does not confer upon him the power to reverse or modify the judgment of these courts. I recommend that the time allowed for an ap{>ea] should be extended to to be carried to an officer higher in rank than a commandant of a brigade, might not be necessary for the purposes of justice, and would be attended with much inconvenience. Durifig’the last charter election jn the city irf Netv-York, the State arsenal was broken open, and forcible possession taken of the puMic arms by a mob. An act so flagitious in its character, and tendingso directly to bloodshedj called public at­ tention to Ihe exposed situation and insecure con­ dition o f this establishment. The Executive WM directed, b'v a rceofution of the last Legislature, to enter into'a correspondence or negotiation w i t ^ , the common council of that city for an exchanfT of the present site of the arsenal, together W'ith the buildings thrireon, for a more eligible one in the upper part of the city. Such acorrespondenoe has been opened; and it is ascertained that the cor­ poration have several pieces of land eligibly situ ated’ibr the proposed object, any of which they would very willingly exchange, on term# advanta­ geous to the State, for the site o f the present an*- nai. With reference to some measures regarding the police of the city, they desire that the change should be made as soon as practicable; I therefore recommend that you should consider subject at ap early period in the session. I conceive it to be of the utmost importance that you should provide effectual means for executing with rigor the act passed in 1829, “ to preservetha purily of our elections.” The expenditure of mn- ney allowed by this act is.confined to a f e w x ^ jects, under no co n c e iv a ^ tircumstance# could ifoainounl to bufa small part of the. sums vv!hich^tKercris reason!; to believe been expesid- ed in itie recent;blr.ciioKs. The elective franchisn court had not been person­ ally served on the delinquent; and that a furthor ation of its purity.’ Power corrupted source disorders liie whole governments The luo- ral and political condition of the electors.haa hith- _erlo been sufficieritiy healthful to counteract tfa« corrupting ini'ueiice of money, and I hope it may lonjf continue so; but they ought be ifoi^ded, as far as fogislatioii can do it, from all assaults upon their purily. I ant disposed to aacrilte the incretf- ed eforts (hat appear of tale tu have been made to influence the efoctions, by the lavish use of money, to Ihe nature of xorae of the questions involved in our political contests, raiher than to any encour­ agements such a practice has derived from a sup­ posed decrease of virtue in the plecfora; but from whatever cause it has arisen, it is dangerou# to civil liberty, and ought to be repressed by the L«- gislafure. The constitution Imposes on the Legislature the duty of preventing the sale of lottery tickets with­ in this State.. In defiance, of the existing law oa this subject, the buying and selling of these ticket# is extensively carried on in various places. Not only the obligation created by the constitution, but the duty you owe to your constiluents, toaup;ureM public evils, re^uirea you to provide more efleotu- aily for putting an end to this traffic. An enumeration of the inhabitants of thi# State is to be taken this year, and if it should be deemed expedient to procure statistical information in rela­ tion to other matters than such as are now required by law, it will be necessary to provide therefor im­ mediately, in order to enable the Secretary of Slate lo prepare and distribute proper blanks with­ in the period allowed for that purpose. The recent and lamented death of our distin­ guished fellow-sitizen, Simeon De W itt, will de­ volve upon you the duty of electing a successor in the office of Surveyor-General, which he filled with great credit toTiimself and eminent usefulness to the Slate, for the long and uninterrupted period of fifty years. I deem it not inappropriate to avail myself of this occasion to pay a tribute of respect lo the memory of a most faithful public servant, w'ho devoted almost the whole of a long and active life to the service of this State. In the dawn of manhood he espoused the cause of liberty, and be­ came eminent among our revolutionary patriots. He entered into the service of this State in the in­ fancy of its government, and regarded its advance­ ment with parental solicitude. He aided in found­ ing and in building up most of our public institu­ tions, and has left more, if not more enduring, me­ morials of his useful services, than any other of our numerous public benefactors. His many pri­ vate virtues shedTustre upon his public character. A life thus commenced by services and sacrifices in the cause of civil liberty, and well sustained to ils end by unremitting labors directed with single­ ness of purpose to the public good, should be hold in just remembrance by those among whoip it wa# spent, and presented as an encouraging examine to posterity. W. L. MARCY. - M bany, January 6,1835. [From tlie Albany Argus.] GO V E R N OR'S M E S S A G E . Narrow as our space and brief as our time may Be, we cannot aiiow this document to pass to the reader, wilhout a simple expres­ sion of our opinion ofits high merit and sound views. It will be read with more than ordi­ nary attention, and will, we are persuaded, receive the approval, both in its principles and its recommendations, of a ^ reat majority of the people. The political events of the year, which, opening with panic efforts and incendiary la­ bors, instigated and promoted by the Bank o f the U. States, threatening the prostration ef individual and public credit, and the interrup­ tion of the great business operations of the stale, and which were arrested by the avowed determination of the State, as manifested through the salutary and patriotic measure of the Loan Law, to protect its citizens from the power of the Bank and the designs of its par­ tizans ; are sketched with brevity, but with significancy. The picture is drawn with too much fidelity to truth, to please those who participated in the efforts of incendiarism, and who urged the Loan Law, by every means of perversion and misrepresentation, against the re-election ofits author; but it will be found to the taste of the democracy, by whom the candidates and the interests of the people were Iriumphantly sustained. The income from all the canals and the c a ­ nal fund for the last fiscal year, was $1,813,- 418. The canal fund has yielded a reve­ nue fi>r ihe }ear, beyond all charges upon it, of $1,035,664—a result by no means unpro- |)iiious, when we recollect the predictions of evil and desertion with which the year com­ menced. 'i^ie entire earial debt, on the 39th Sept, last, was $7,034,999 : for the pay rient of which funds had accumulated ontha day to the amount of $3,005,676. The Bank Fund amounts to $289,046^ and has increased during the last year more ihan $ 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 . The General Fund,— more than seven mil­ lions of dollars of its capital and its original sources of income having been abstracted from it ior the Canal Fund and Literature and Common School Funds,— and it having beeR expended ahio for deficiences in the revenue# of the lateral C'anals, for Indian annuities, sup- pot I of the deaf and dumb, the state pii- sons, and for the ordinary support o f govern­ ment,— is reduced to $195,596. The Mes­ sage suggest.*!, as the only resource, either the repayment by the Canal Fund of the a- mount divested from the General Fund, or a result to general taxation. The material questions, treated of in the re­ maining portions of the Message— internal improvements, in reference to new as well as existing works; the penitentiary system, and the proposed measures of relief from its op­ pressive and injurious effects, more or leg#, upon the mechanical interests of the state ; and the applications for banking and other in­ corporations— scarcely admit of summary or abstract. They are fully and clearly pre­ sented to the consideration of the legis­ lature ; and will be read with interest, and with very general approval. It will be perceived that the Governor recommends the gradual withdrawal of bank notes under the denomination of five dollars, and a refusal, for the present at least, to grant additional banking incorporations. W hether in matter or manner, the third message from gov. M a r c y may be said to equal, in all respects, the able state paper# which have preceded it from the same source. PotrCHKECPSiE W H A niiso C ompany .— At an election held on the 31st ult., the tollowing gen- tiemen were chosen directors to manage the concerns of Ihis company for the ensuing year, viz; TboiBM L. Davies, Elias Trivett, Alexander J. Coffin, Mat­ thew Vassar, James Mabbetf, Solomon V. Frost, Riceard Pudney, Gideon P. Hewitt, Stephen South- wick— [Rotighkeepsie Tour. ______ _ Bishop M eadk of Virginia has assumed the ree» tot ship of Christ ehuveh, Norfolk, vacated by (fa« re« 4 / f ; J ajppaal in a)l c a i^ ^ ffPIri df\ pf jfJ+v j?

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