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In the state of mind which the pub- lic hns reached regarding Government operation In general and the rail- roads In particular the demnnds of the - railway brotherhoods' that tho roads be not returned to their owner? will not cut any Ice. Mr. Samuel GoMrcns's demands to the same effect from the American Federation of La- bor will not cut any ice. The roads are going back. Politi- cal wirepulling can't stop this. So- cialistic. Incitement can't stop It. Labor union bulldozing can't stop It Any special Interest or class that tries to stop it the American people will spill Into tho ditch. Any National Ad- ministration, inny Congress, any polit- ical party that tries to stop it will be spilled Into the ditch. So the professional strike leader:, tho political adventurers, the whole crew of them, might as well draw a finish lino in 'red Ink through their Government operation programme right where they are ; for right there it stops. Tho American people have so decided and the American people are still in business as the nation. But tho provision In tho Cummins bill to prevent railroad men from going on strike is n different matter. Tho American people do not regard this as- - a practicable or as a sound measure. They have too much sense to imagino that any statute could make a man do good work\ against h!3 wllf. They have too much of die spirit of tho fathers to believe that any btatute should, undertake- - to do such a thing with free American citizens. Except In case of war, where every man, with everything that is his, is subject to the command of our coun- try, the American people will not look with favor upon the practice or the theory of Senator Cumuinb's anti-strik- e measure. In the same way the American peo- ple will look askance at Senator Len-boot- 's suggested substitute for the Cummins proposal a blacklist against railroad men who go on strike. The very word \blacklist\ is hateful to upstanding, independent Americanism. Whether In Us application to em- ployer or to employed, whether official or unofficial, whether lawful or un- lawful, tho principle is cowardly und - vicious. If the American people want blacklist .statutes an.d blacklist pro; cecdlngs Set in motion ttiey'wdnf such statutes and such proceedings to work against, not for, any Eort of blacklist by anybody in any quarter of our democratic community and in any hour of our civil life. The wage demands of the railway workers also are essentially different from their demands for more Govern- ment operation, Government multipli- cation of costs, Government piling up of deficits, Government Impairment of servico to the public. If tho railway workers honestly believe they are en- titled to more pay their claims ought to be considered. If they can fairly prove their claims are Justified they will be considered and they will bo met. But this should not be dono by the Government, which makes a 'glwsily failure out of every practical railroad question It touches. It should be the business of the country's prac- tical railroad managers, who know their work, know their problems and know their men. By command of the American peo- ple tho Government is going to get clean out of this whole business of trying to manage railroads It doesn't know how to manage, trying to deal with workers It doesn't know how to deal with, trying to serve the public it doesn't know how to serve. As long as tho memory of living Ameri- cans runs, tho Government is going to stay out of the railroad business. The best beginning it can make of President Wixson's proclamation to return tho roads to their owners on March 1 tho best beginning for it- self, the best beginning for the roads, tho best beginning for their workers, tho best beginning for tho public Is to- - turn this wage question, whatever the merits of tho demands, whatever the needs of the workers, over to, tho owners of tho roads when tho roads themselves go back. Tho Job of practical railroading Is in large part giving th6 workers a squaro doal and getting from them In turn a square deal. Put that practi- cal Job not up to thoso who legislate for tho roads but up to the men who must rim tho roads with team work all along the line, from president to track walker. Sctaomo or Historical Reading for Senator Williams of Mississippi. Senator Williams is a scholar who cares so much for reading big and serious books that he is about to re-tir- o from tho Senate to get more time to pureuo his chief delight We hope that his pursuit will continue many happy years and that he will bring his reading down nearer to date. Re- cently he declared : '!Thero never was a government by the people there never has been and ihero never will bo. Outsldo tho remoto Greek and Italian cities tho Greek In ancient times, the Italian cltios in tho Middle Ages thcro never was any govern- ment that pretended to be by the people.\ When the gentleman retires to his lolsuro on his plantation near Yazoo City in the county of Ynxoo he must overhaul his library, throw out some of tho dusty old volumes he brought back with him from the University of Heidelberg and make room for more modern reading, wherein ho may learn of absolute democracies, government by the people, In many rt town, and some of these towns bigger than Yazoo City, on tho western slopes of the 'Sierra Nevada. We venture also to suggest that the Senator tako a.course in Bekt Haste. Ho will find that unthor's short sto- ries Interesting if u bit old fashioned lacking a hectic quality now pop- ularbut in them no may learn how 'government by the people produced such security that miners on the banks of creeks safely left gold dust and nnirirfits In their crave! wnshinc nans when they went- - to Sinner or took an afternoon off to sit In at a game of poker. If he will take tho troublo to follow back those miners' family lines for a century or more from 1850 he will find that they desceuded, many of them, from forebears who also took part In government by the people In New England towns. We ore not suggesting to the learned Senator a shift In our form of'govern- - raent. of which he Is a stout advocate, but only, and for his entertainment, a shift In the direction and charocter of his reading. Louisville's Pledge or Loyally. For a moment tho other day Louis- ville, Ky., buspended its customary ac- tivities that Its citizens might publicly pledge their loyalty to the United States and American political institu- tions. The ceremony was arranged by Jefferson Post oftho American Le- gion, which Is conducting a campaign for 100 per cent. Americanism In its home sector. There will be some citizens f un- impeachable loyalty who before they examine tills Incident carefully will think that It was an' unnecessary, the- atrical, useless performance. On con- sideration we believe they will change their minds. One of the potent causes of unjus- tified dissatisfaction with American Institutions among foreigners living here and persons of native birth lies in the fact that what America jeally Is and what it actually offers to citi- zens nnd to aliens are too seldom ex- plained, considered nnd studied. Tho United States has been too busy to advertise Itself to Its own. Many of Us peoplo nccept the good things that go with residence under its government as matters of course, commonplaces of existence in some mysterious but effective manuer con- ferred on them for all time without exertion on their part. In their efforts to reform conditions which might be bettered these persons lose the proper perspective. They have fallen into the bad habit of abuse take Xhn plaos condemnation. In showing their dissatisfaction with an incident of maladministration, too many of them denounce the whole system under which they live. If a Senator offends them they call for the abolition of the Senate in- stead of urging the election of a Sen- ator who will fulfil their ideal. If tho House of Representatives passes a bill they oppose or refuses to pass o bill they favor these thought- less critics cry out that representative government Is a failure. When a Governor or a State legis- lator goes wrong, In their opinion, l4hey deplore the existence of the States and demand that they shall be reduced to the status of Federal ad- ministrative districts. But when a Senator or n Represen- tative or a Governor or a State legis- lator does an honest, courageous, wise act, unless It be one of most uncom- mon consplcuousness, the honesty, courage and wisdom arc notput Into the balance to weigh against the er- rors, follies and weaknesses of public officers but are accepted as n matter of routine. This neglect to give credit for faithful, honorable, enlightened con- duct on the part of public officers is easy to understand, for It is the or- dinary, everyday thing. But It should not be ignored by anybody who puts himself forward ns a critic of public institutions. Violent abuse of failure of Amer- ican Institutions to function per- fectly, not corrected by credit given for their generally high level of ac- complishment, provides ready made ammunition for agitatora who prey on Ignorant men, native and. foreign. \Tills Is what your Congfcse, your .Governors, your legislatures, your courts are, told not by us, who oppose tho system, but by men who uphold It,\ say tho assailants o\f society. Many men do not discriminate. Tho moesago of vituperation is accepted, unrelieved' by any necessary explana- tory passages. Tho assailants of our system are dynamic. Most of its defenders are static. They know It is good, with some details In need of amendment why keep pointing out Its vlrtneB? But Us assailants dwell constantly on its defects, and their hearers are often deceived. Anything which Is likely to correct this maladjustment of adverse crltl clsm and proper understanding Is ad mirable and worth while. Such a tiling Is the public pledge of loyalty which Loulsvlllo made. No man or woman can tako such a pledge with' out giving sorno thought to Its mean' lng. Many persons thus aroused to consideration of the virtues of politl cal Institutions they havo accepted as a matter of course will exomlno them more closely. Some will becomo mis- sionaries for tho spread of knowledge sorely needed. Hero and thcro one will become a leader in defence of the great principles of ordered liberty and freedom under the law. We cannot have too many laborers for understanding of the good, as well as the weaknesses, of the American system. The nation needs all it can get to preserve and strengthen it in peace Just as it needs soldiers and sailors to fight for It In war. North Carolina Election 'Pictures. The special election of a Represen tative In the Ninth Congressional dis trict of North Carolina was interest ing not only In its outcome, the Demo cratic majority of 1018 being reduced by 8,120 to the 1,022 by which Hor.Y defeated tho Republican Mobehkad, but in tho methods employed to keep the district from going Itepubllcan, Tho Highlander, a newspaper pub llshed In Mr. Host's home town, Shelby, tells of the way the Demo crats ran things there: \To vote at tho court bouse one, had to run a gantlet of hangers-o- n. heelers and poll workers, 'who nailed every one aa he entered, thrust a Democratic ticket In hli hand and stood by lilm to bee that lie cast It right.' \It took nerve to force one's way through Hint crowd with a Morehead ticket In hand or In view. \One manufacturer pushed all the Morehead tickets away from the bal- lot box.\ In Madison, the only county which had the secret ballot, the Republican candidate got n majority of 1,128. North Carolina has a law which permits absentees to vote, and the Uilhhntler snys that it was workea to a ll : \One whole family with numerous ions, all but one now living In other counties, were voted under the ab- - ventee law, despite the challenge ot the Republican Judge and watcher. One son, with a famllr ot four, now living In Alabama, was voted for Iloxr. \There seems to have been a pro- miscuous. Indiscriminate and all em- bracing- registration of nearly every- body for the late primary. These voters were transferred bodily to the resular registration books ami voted almost solidly for Iloxr. \There were absentee ballot? handed In by men whom none of the election officials knew, purporting to \be from and witnessed by men unknown to tho election officials, the certificates accompanying which contained neither date nor place. These were chal- lenged, but were voted. \In Polkvllle precinct a sick man's Republican ballot was extracted en route to the polling booth and a Dem- ocratic ballot substituted.\ Early in the campaign it was gen erally understood In the district that tho iseuo was tho Wilson covenant, Evidently Mr. Hoey fouud that tills was a shaky platform, for, according to -- 'ice djscarjjfd the. League of Nations as being In the slightest sense an Issue and substi- tuted that of racial prejudice and hate.\ Did IIokt tell his auditors that the Republican party opposed the unchanged covenant? Not he! Ho told them that the Republican party believed in \social equality and the Intermarriage of the races.\ When in doubt in North Carolina your Dem- ocratic statesman discards Humanity and takes up Bourbonlsm. The Bolshevlkl'i Struggle for West- ern Buiala. A despatch from Dorpat, a town of the new Baltic republic of Esthonla, reports that at a conference there an agreement had been reached between delegates from Esthonla and the Mos- cow Soviet adjusting their territorial differences and bringing about a ces sation of hostilities. This conference was the first into which the Bolshe-vl- kl had entered since the meeting with representatives of the Central Powers when the treaty of Brest-Ljtovs- k was negotiated, and its chief interest was In the fact that it re- moved an opposing force from the Bolshevist western front and opened an outlet for Soviet Russia to the Baltic Sea. The Estbonlans have en strug- gling with much tho same difficulties as the people of the other two small Baltic republics, Latvia and Lithu- ania 'against the forces of Bolshevism from without and against the strong German influences within their coun- try. The land Is largely held by the Baltic barons, who hare been con- stantly endeavoring to turn It over to Germany or to erect a buffer State would be practically under n 1 German protectorate. Tho Esthonlans felt the menaco of the Russian Soviets most eoverely in the recent retreat of General Ytjoenitcii's army from be- fore Fetrograd. Ills forces had been largely recruited from tho BnUlc re- gion and when he fell tack upon their border the Esthonlans arose against his pursuers and checked them. In this exploit tho Esthonlans not only saved the remnant of Yudemtcii's army but preserved their1 country from Invasion. Becauso of 'the strategic advantages It offered for tho control of Petrograd Sovlot Russia especially desired this land at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland and tho port of Reval. Tho conference with the Esthonlans was to have begun early In this month, but It was delayed principally through the Intercession of the Allies, The allied representatives succeeded In persuading the Letts and Lithua- nians not to attend this meeting. Had the representatives of tho Alllos been able to furnish immediate aid to tho Esthonlans they would unquestion ably havo been able to prevent the agreement between the Bolshevik! and the Esthonlans. But theroisno reason to believe that Soriet Russia has by this agreement won Us way Into on undisputed pos- session of western Russia. TheEstlho-nlan- s held out against an overwhelm- ingly larger force and compelled terms that leave to them the strategic con; trol of their own territory. The agreement does not mean turning over to the Bolshovlki the use of the port of Reval, nor Is It the first step In the opening up to Soviet Russia of the Baltic ports of Riga and Ltbau. Tho other Baltic States are holding out against the Bolshevist forces and, having better trained soldiers, have so far defeated them In all engage ments. Their people know that their own principles of nationality would fall before Soviet rule nnd that if they are to live they cunnot compromise with Bolshevism. Why Clothing Coats 'More Proper tlonately Than Food. When the cost of remaining alive and watching the progress of this fre quently undervalued world begun to rise It was the habit to complain particularly of the greater expense of food. But now food Is almost a slacker in the upward war of the prices. Figures complied by the Na- tional Industrial Conference HohixI show that the things of the table in- creased in cost only 1 per cent, be tween July and November, while clothing went up 15 per ceut., thelter 7.8 per cent, nnd sundries 7 per cent. This Is a good sign. Alt prices naturally follow food, and If bread and meat prices have begun to slow down the hopeful may hope. Food has a long way to fall, however, Jot rt Is now 02 per cent, higher than It was In July, 1914. This is not as great an Increase as has been seen In clothing prices 135 per ceut. But the cost of garb has been influenced by vanity nnd the speudlng mania more than have food, shelter and fuel, Clothing has gone up 64 per cent. In the last nine months; food only 1\ per cent. Food tveut up because of lie de mand from Europe, tho Government guarantee of $2.'.'G a bushel for wheat and the lack of funn labor. Clothing went up abnormally becausu the manufacturers, seeing that the public had money nnd wished to spend it, yielded to every demand from labor. What did $2 more in the production of a suit matter when the youtij per-so- n who had Just sold his Liberty bond would pay $10 extra without a murmur? It's lucky that food Is not particu- larly fashionable. Tho Federal census takers will begin their work Friday, and hope to have tho fourteenth decennial numbering ot the people completed In a fortnight. Calculations which put tho probable population of New York In 19a) as high as 7,000,000 persons were made ten years ago by mathematicians who did not figure on wars, epidemics and suspension of Immigration. That mark has not been reached, but every rush hour patron of the transportation sys- tem Will agree there are a sufficient number of persons in the town. General I'nisuiNO is going to make his homo In Lincoln, Neb., but not, his friends make hasto to say, because ho wanta to live near Wiluam J. Bryan. President Carkanza has denied he Is In sympathy with tho \radical ele- ments\ in the United States. Carkanza probably has no sympathy with any- thing in tho United States. The man who drinks stuff labelled whiskey, but of antecedents unknown to him, deserves a place in the hall of fools between tho man who rocks the boat and the roan who monkeys with a buzz saw. One out of every six persons In tho United States has an account In k na- tional bank, according to tho reports mnri n tha\ Comntroller of the Cur rency, the.number of depositors being 1840,10. This indicates a general prosperity no parlor Red can contem- plate without regret Rejection. In London, whers at noon W blood bt sts fast About tht Dnk, ind Alls tho crowded , ways With throbblnc tides of men. the sun's dim rays Seem In one tiny spot to plerco t lasjt The city's psll of smoke. O'er mselitrom vast Of roarlnf trafflc, psst ths miry drays. The fold leek dsnces. Then too low It strays Near angry waves, and 'neath their crlrat has puied. Only a venturous butterfly, that lies With wings by sweeper's broom torn and defiled. But fancy sees a poet's trust, besulled To try tha welcome- of an cca too vise To learn ot childlike Joy; or love re- viled 7or stektnc haven that the world denies. Eliot Whits: DECEMBER 29, 1919. \UR. WILSON INSISTED.\ The rresUeut's Career dammed rjp by a French Statesman. To tub Eoixon or Tn Sun Sir: The editorial article In Tub Bun on the state- ment of the United States Supreme Court that \a treaty Is only a proposal until approved by the Benate\ was Inter- esting, but there was one sentence In a quotation printed In the article that was also worthy of comment. , The quotation from M. Brleuz to the effect that when the President went to Europe Europe hod the right to assume that he had, our word 'In hla valise\ and that he waa authorised to oay \I speak tor America\ deserves very little atten- tion. The Idea that there Is not in the chancelleries of Europe at least some general knowledge of the American sys- tem of government la too preposterous for argument. Mr. 'Wilson rightly said when he asked for an Indorsement In the fall of 1918 that a refusal to give It would bo construed In Europe as a re- pudiation of him and his policies. The Indorsement was refused; but this did not prevent him from boldly asserting In Europe that he had It While tho lino-ra- nt masses may have believed this statement no one else did. There Is Just one thing In M. Brleux's etatoment that Is worth noticing. It Is this sentence: We tried to make him Mr. Wilson understand that he waa wronr, but he Insisted. There you have the whole story. Un- consciously M. Brleux summed up the President's political career. These' words of M. Brleux will come home with special twee to the friends of the President. Itevf many times' since he has been In ofllce) have they gone from him heartsick and weary, baying among themselves \We tried to make him un- derstand that he was wrong, but he in- sisted\? It waa so In the beginning, Is now, and will bt to the end ot the chapter. The only fault I have to find with the Senate Is that It does not recognise this fact and go ahead and end the war with- out any more foolishness, Tou cannot make Mr. 'Wilson understand that he Is wrong: nobody can make him under- stand that he Is wrong. Give It up, gen- tlemen of the Senate, and quit fooling. C. G. II. Gutiiric, Okla., December 24. MR. BURLESON'S SIDE. An Official Reply to a Critic of Toil Office Methods. To th Editor or Tub Sim Sir; I beg to call your attention to the errors In the statements of your correspondent who signs himself \II. C. L.\ In Tub Sun of December IS. Among other things, fce Btutes that the Increased postage rates Imposed by the act of November 2, 191T. to aid In meeting lhe expenses of the world war were Included as a part of the ordinary postal receipts, and but for this faot the deficit In the Post Office Department would have been \startling.\ It Is only necessary to refer to the first page of the annual report of the Postmaster-Gener- al to note the obvious f.-.- ct that the amount, 1113,892,000, de- rived from excess postage, while ac- counted for In the ordinary postal re- ceipts, was deducted from these receipts and paid Into the general treasury monthly as required by law. Therefore this excess postage for war expenses could not have been responsible, cither In whole or In part, for the audited surplus shown by the books of the auditor for the fiscal year ended June SO, 1919. Your corre- spondent therefore Is grossly Inaccurate In his statement that these Increased rates contributed to the audited postal surplus shown In the Postmaster-General'- s annual report. ' Tour correspondent also attributes the surplus In part to the reduction In the payment to railroads for mall trans- portation, when as a matter of fact the railroads are paid pursuant to act of Congress. I may add also In reply to the criti- cism of the International money order service that the Post Office Department Is conducting that business pursuant t the requirements of long established money order conventions with other na- tions. H is true the demoralization of the foreign exchange market affects the International money order sen-ic- e ad versely, as It does practically every business Interest of the world. It will be remembered, however, that every ironey order convention with European countries provides for gold payments by the respective countries, or if pay- ments are made In currency of less value that the difference shall be taken Into account In settling with the payee. ' International money orders in this country are Issued by more than 18,000 International money order offices, which fact makes It utterly Impracticable to follow the violent and rapid fluctuations of the foreign exchange market because each International money order office must have notice ot each change, and the delay Involved In correspondence by let- ter would be unsatisfactory with the of- fices distributed over forty-eig- ht States of the vast territory of the United States. To notify them by 'wire of the changes would be prohibitive In cost. It la the purpose of this Department, however, as stated by the Postmaster-Gener- al on page 118 \oPhls report for the last fiscal year, at the earliest prac- ticable date to relieve the existing chaos In the foreign exchange market In so far as the Pdst Office Department can contribute to .Ibis result. He says in his report : , The effect of the exceedingly unsatis- factory condition of the foralcn ex- change market Is not confined to ths transaction of International money or- der business; practically tha entire buslneis world Is sdversely affected. There Is urgent \need for a atabllltatloa of bualneas conditions, 'and this will re- lievo the foreign exchange market from the violent fluctuations to which It Is now subject. Aa aoon as the buslneis of the world la again on a solid founda- tion this Department wilt propose to foreign postal administrations a read- justment ot the terms ot ths money or- der conventions, , A. M. Docxntr. Third Assistant Postmaster-Genera- l. Washington, December Zt. A ' Editorial VVerrles in Colorado. From (As BMirt Stttltr. This week tho Settler Is a little shy on local news, causa! We havo had ao much Job work and sale bills snd waterworks proclamation to publish, which will be found In this Issue: also hllsxard and short ot help. But ws plug merrily along. Tha Styslery. Little Jack Horner sat In a corner eating his Chrtstmss pie. \Bat where did you get the house and sugar:\ we aiked. Tbe Sopply. ' Knlcker Taxorllo sons sra plentiful. Bocker Tee\ some Ststee even have twins. 1 A, GERMAN NAV FACTOR. A. Definite Dcfanslve L Performed by the HUh SeiMt, To tub Editob ok THBV,flr. The following passage was tn'utt.r from Kerr of the yftl navy published by Tub Bun on I.'mber 19: Suppose ho Jelllcoe . . .ij fought the German fleet, If they ac.4a tn9 challenge, and defeated thet((rr what would have been the ga,0 ,h. Allies' command of tho eeafvj,,,., could bs no gain, as the enemy not a single above water craft on thWn and the Allies' communications w ot being Interrupted by any above tt enemy vessels. . . . There was 4. thing to lose and nothing to gain fo(( Allies In a general naval engagemei Thu innpin to be somewhat mlsi. lng. Similar argument has led cal, ntvai nii.iontu to draw the lntereJ that tha German High Seas Fleet sen nn iiufiil nnrnnsa In the war: wai if men and money spent on It were wasteA aijd therefore that auroper modern naval. defence should rest solely In submarlnesY and mines to the exclusion of battleships, Closer study and reflection, however, re- veal the fallacy of this argument and show, on tho contrary, that the experi- ence of tho recent war teaches a quite iUffftrnt leason. As a matter of fact the German High Seas Fleet performed a definite detenene duty, and without its support the German armies never could have come so peril- ously near to gaining a victory. It Is strange that Admiral Kerr after pointing so admirably that 'fthe com- mand of the sea Is obtained when the enemy's communications aro cut abso- lutely and where one's own communlca-tlon- s are unimpeded absolutely\ should have failed to. note that German sea power by advancing the enemy irontier tn a linn across the North Sea cut allied sea communications to Russia's Baltlo ports, and as access to the BiacK csea ports was also barred at tho Darda-nelle- s created a blockade which effec- tively contributed to the Russian debacle. At tha same time German nayal control of tho Baltlo and the eastern part ot the North Sea kept open enemy trade routes to the northern neutrals, and by holding the Grand Fleet at a distance nermltted German submarines to sally forth and attack the allied oversea lints of communication. Without discussing In any way the Jutland battle tactics. It is intended in this letter simply to point out that had the German iiattle fleot been destroyed In that action It would have brought much nearer a victorious peace for the Allies. A purely coastal defence of Ger-man- y by mines and submarines could perhaps havo held out for a while, but could not have prevented an aggressive allied destroyer, submarine and counter mining campaign backed by capuai shlos. Besides the Immediate moral effect ot a Jutland victory,. It la reasonnme to sunnose as a consequence that allied sen nnmtminiintlan with Russian Baltic norts would have, been reestablished, that enemy trade with northern neutrals would have been restrained, that the enemy campaign would have been greatly hampered, and that points .along the northern and western German coasts would have been menaced by the possibility of allied Invasion. ( It appcurs, In fact, that German sea power accomplished an essential mission In the plan of the Prussian war lords, and. that the destruction of the High Seas Fleet at any time would have con- stituted a most Important allied victory-- . C. C. GltU Commander. U. S. N. Saranac Lake. December 27. KEEP OU1 THE BEAST. And Punish the Natural Cltlren Who \\Shares Ills Infamy. To the Editor or Tux Sun Sir; Now that the process of kicking alien Ileds out ot America has begun It Is to be hoped that Americans will see to It that steamship companies and largo employ- ers of labor do not resume their execra- ble importations of natural brute beasts. Welcome the decent and law abiding. Bar the cooties. But what's to be done with the vilest of all the American citizen who espouses bolshevlsm, communism, social- - Ism, I. W. W.-Is- and every other devil lsra calculated to prevent American workmen from ownership of lands, homes, savings, lawandorder? Of course the existence of the beasts Is nothing new. Something like two thousand years ago St. Peter slied them up In' a sound Judgment as men who despised govern ment, presumptuous and d; 'as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speaking evil of things they understand not\ ; as men and wom- en who should \utterly perish In their own corruption . . . But It shall hap- pen unto them, according to the true prov erb, the dog Is turned unto his own vomit again; and tho sow that was washed, to her wallowing In the mire.\ For punishment of American cltlsens who were born washed and have re- turned to wallowing In the mire there Is a precedent. \Massachusetts thero she Is,\ and there she stood In 1631 without g: \At this court one Thlllp ltatllf, a servant of Mr. Crad-doc- being convict ore tenus of most fpul, scandalous invective against our churches and government, was cen- sured to be whipped, lose his ears, and be banished the plantation, which was presently executed.\ (Wlnthrop's Jour nal, June 14, 1631.) So much for natural brute beasts, both alien and citizen, ' As for Uie alien beasts, Tom Moore set the tune for America : Did Ileav'n design thy lordly land To nurse tha motley 'drega of ev'ry foreign clime; Each taint ot anarchy and blast of crime Which Europe shakes from her perturbed sphere In deep malignity to rankle here? Edward S. Ukacii. New York, December 27. OIL FOR THE ORIENT. Destination ot tbe Standard 011 Com pany's Kuraanlnn Purchase. To tub Editor or Tub Sun Sir: Tiut Sun published this morning what I as sume to be an Associated Press despatch from Geneva reporting the purchase by this company of BOOiOOO barrels of re- fined petroleum from the Rumanian Government. The despatch states that 'the oil will be taken to America by way of Constantinople on ships supplied by the American Government.\ This publication conveys an erroneous Impression which I regard as rather un- fortunate. The oil referf-e- to has not been shipped to this country, but will go to consumers In the East. In other words, the purchase was made on behalf of the markets which would have obtained the oil In the ordinary course of events had not the war's dislocation of trade made special action to this end necessary. C. T. White, Secretary Standard Oil Company. Niw York, December 27. CLOTHING COST LAID TO LUXURY DEMAND President of American \Woolen west Co. Says People Want Only \Best\ Since' War. and and SlTOItTAGE IN SUPPLY TOO Coarser Wools Lower OJlian in 1917, as Few Wear Suits low Made From Them. tha Bmoj,( DeC- - 8. The insistence of In e publ(c upon a cloth maae front An of q Jb & Mge fRctor , tho present fair th' prices of clothing, according io llam M. Wood, president of the Vrlcan Woolen Company. Mr. Wood a out a prepared, statement ht '\Vponse to a request for his views uphe high cost of clothing. In part \S generally thought that the cost ot cl Is the controlling factor in the ccst Clothing, but the fact Is that the cloth t Is les9 than half the cost of a cornea gUt. be An8llowlng figures are irom a the manufa4.er and merchant or cioiniw, of the IiL,, nromlnenca in Boston : tn 1919 of the cloth for a suit of clCjg ot a particular grade la iij.oi. (corresponding cost in i was $24.68 Mowing an Increase of 19.09, \The 9cost of making this suit li $14.47. e corresponding cost In 1014 was $4 showing an increase of 9.i9. . '\These flgV thow that cloth con tributes alight i. than labor and other .materials, increased cost pf clothing. Thertre prices of clothing continue so \'SHroughout tno country Because mo cua 0 labor ana ciotn una otnar maiern continue ao high. Causes of 'Aps n Coats. \Why havo theV, ana prices of everything, anu Aia)iy 0f clothing, so generally IncreLi? without at tempting any analyst B t0 economic or remote cauBes, thertAp a few plain propositions which n state with which I thlnlt everyDOiiu Bgree, \Tn th flrat nlace vni. .luava rnl lowed by a period of Ufprlces. War , means ine uesirucuuu ul0 neces- saries of life in enorhd. quantities, together with the dlvin of the product of industry from casual chan nels. \This awful war has de:t,v(i cloth St. ing and the material of clttns to tho value of millions perliapsnons of dollars. , \These needs now are Insist There t n shortage of cloth nnd tilling In the markets of the world. TbPmand far outruns production. It AAi nn argument to show that when tlh Rnd clothing are scare this scarcltyyvays means lilgn prices. lAnothor factor of conslderablrffCt as In bringing about high prices thc high rato of tixation, both Stand \But beyond tliC3e causes I belIeAre 11 certain factors which have arfecte(Me 12 COSl Ol CIUU1 UllUUk nut...... I IV, ml.. Drill a ml the \licit.' \in the first ulacc. In a measure dl Inr- th war. and to a greater exte' since, there has developed a curious,?, Insistent demand for cloth made from', th finer ami more expensive wools.t no buy madei of the and consequently tWho Federation grades, clothing made from Vt plays for i. sound. and UICOC BUUW id ww... - Before the war tho demand for these finer grades of cloth was chiefly Indeed exclusively fropi the more fas- tidious In taste, but now everybody de- mands the finer clothes nnd nobody will take anything else. \We lecently made up a sample of cloth In which conre wool was used In tho warp bnl. The appearance of tho sample was but slightly different from that mado of finer wools. It had In a marked degree the smooth, soft texture of fine wool. Its cost was considerably less than the fabric made of the finer gradrs. \As a cloth it good, strong ami serviceable. Before the war It would have sold readily, but wc were abso lutely to put It on the markrt. \Our selling agencies told us that there was no demand for It; that peoplo would not buy It; that customers In- sisted on fine, smooth, soft fabrics, and that, accordingly, the manufacturers ot clothing would not buy this cloth If we made It up In because they could not sell clothes made from It. \To our suggestion that when peoph\ wero complaining so of high prices, this cloth that would a difference of $5 or more In the cost of a suit ought to sell readily, the reply was that $5 In the cost of the cloth for a suit of clothes did not count at all these days tho people demanded the best and would put lip with no other. \Now note the effect of this demand on the price of wool. The fine wool comes In part from our own country, hut chiefly from The courser wools aro largely South American and domestic, Wool Prlcea Tlieii and Xow. \In March, 1917, Just before we en tered the war, the different grades of wool were selling at prices somewhat like this: Coarser grades, 75 cents a pound; finer grades (domestic), $1.25 ; finest Australian wools, $1.65. Now these same grades of wool sell at: Coarser grades, 55 cents a pound ; finer (domestic), (2; finest Australian, \While the domestic liner trrndes have Increased from $1.25 to $2, and the finest Australian from J1.C5 to $2.75, the coarser grades have actually fallen In price from 75 cents to 65 cents. \While during the war the supply of coarse wools hns remained about Its normal Increase merely being checked there Is now a shortage In Jhe world's supply of finer wools ot about 200.000,000 pounds. \The action of our own Government also has contributed to keep up prices. \During .tho war Government agents purchased from the British Government some 100,000,000 pounds of AuHtrallan wool. When the armistice carne they re- leased or transferred two-thir- of this wool back to the British Government. The one-thir- d which our Government held it offered only In limited quantities, the keen competition for which carried It to tremendously hleh prices. Itecently the Goveinmen't sold some of this wool In Boston at $2.75 a pound. \I am not criticising Government of- ficials. They doubtless felt justified both In returning this fine wool to Kngland and in getting tha highest price possible for the wools they have on hand. They are selling these wools at prices far In excess of they paid nnd therefore making n' profit for the Government which I assume they think highly creditable to themselves. But when you put the question, why our people have to pay such high prices for jlne clothing which they Insist on having, you must not forget that one of the reasons for It Is that the Government Is holding for a profit the wool which It bought at war prices. \It is my belief that as long as people continue to demand clothing made of wool which costs anything like $2.75 a pound the price ot clothing Is not going to be. much reduced. If our people would consent to wear good, substantial, dur able clothes mado of tho coarser wools clothlntftcould be purchased at consid erably lower prices' than thoso which now prevails The Sun Calendar THE WEATHER. For eastern New York, partly cloudy to-d- ; colder on tho coast ; unsettled ; moderate north winds. For New Jersey. Dartlr clnuilv and mMa cloudy moderate nortVa winds. For northern New England, fair colder on the roast: cloudy, probably local. nu nunc temperature moderate northwest winds. For southern New England, partly cloudy colder probably local snows colder moderate west winds. For western New York, cloudy snd warmer .and probably snow near ths lakes', gentle variable winds. WASHINGTON. Dec. 51Pr..r. la over tho Atlantlo States and along tha north border, with centrea of minimum proasuro over North Carolina, the Canadian Marltlmt'Provlncea and tha region north of Dakotas. The pressure Is high In the ei ana ooumwesi, wiin mo maximum pressure over Idaho. Within the last twenty-fou- r hours there war inn-- mnata the (fit. Lawrence Valley. In the region tha great lakes and ths Ohio and lower Missouri valleys. The weather remained In all other regions. The temperature was considerably lower Sunday in tn region of the gnat lakes, the upper Ohio Valley and tho north Atlantlo States. Warmer weather continues In the North- west with readings twenty to thirty av creea above normal over the western Canadian provlnoea and normally warm weather la again reported from southern ittiuorma. ai ios Angeles, Cal.. tho high- est temperature Sunday waa SS derreea and at San Diego 14 degrees. With the exception oi local snows Monday In tha upper lake region and Tuesday la thn lower lake region northern NewTork and normern New England,- the weather will generally fair Monday and Tueaday In States east of tha Mlailnilnnl nivar. The temperature will be lower Uocday aiong ine Atlantlo coast and It will rlee Monday In the upper lake region and Tuesday tn the lower lake region, the Ohio Valley and the north Atlantic States. Observations taken st United States Weather Bureau stations at I P. M, yesterday, seventy-fift- h meridian time: Rainfall Temperature. Bar laitH Btatlom. Hlrh.Low. omeier. hri. Weather. Aouens., tj (1 S30. .. Clear Albany it JO S.S2 .. Clear Atlantic City,,. 'It 31 a.ll .. Clear People will longer cloth coarser cheaper for although two .i - .rvlrhU unit I J.Hearts\ \The almost was unable quantity, muke Australia. $2,75. station- ary what 3$ O.IJ .. Cloudy 34 a.SJ ., Clear 30 .84 .. Clear 18 N.9I .01 Pt. Cldy 38 80.28 ,. Clear 24 tO.04 .. Olesr it 30 01 . Cloudr 20 29.93 .. Ft. Cldy SS 30.14 .. Clear 10 30.01 .. Clear e: 30.28 .. Clear St 30.1S .. Clear 48 80.18 .. Pt. Cldy 37 10.01 .01 Cloudy 11 30.10 ., Clear 13 30.02 .. Cloir 4a 30.08 Cloudy 48 30.18 .. Clear 3 29 CO ,, Cloudy 5 29.M ., Cloudy 2 29.81 N .. Cloudy 35 30.18 .. Cloudy 21 2.f2 .. Clesr 74 30.08 ., Clear to 30.14 Clear SO 30.09 .04 Cloudy 23 29.83 .. Kaln liaiumore u Bismarck S3 Boston to Buffalo IS Charleston M Chicago,.; 2S Cincinnati SS Cleveland 23 Denver tt Detroit 31 Galveston BJ Helena (0 Jacksonville,... M Ktneas City.,.. ,K Los Angeles.... Ti Milwaukee a New Orleans.., ; OkUhoma City. C4 Philadelphia.... (0 Pltuburr so Portlsnd.Me.... AO Portland, Ore... J8 Salt Lake City. US BsnDlero 81 Han Francisco., to Louis 32 Washington.... 44 LOCAL WEATHER ItECOnDP, A. M. S P. M. IJarometer 29.76 29.81 Humidity 84 42 Wind direction W. If. W. Wind velocity 24 IS Weather Clear PI. cloudy I'reclpltatloa None Nona Ths t&mperature In this city yesterday, recorded by the official thermometer, Is shown In tha annexed table: 8A.M. ..32 IP. 31. . 39 6 P.M. ..8! 9A.M. ..33 2 P.il. ..41 7P.31...S1 10A.M. ..31 3P.M. ..88 S P.M. ..30 A.M. ..36 4P.M...3S 9P.3I...2t M 39 S P.M... 35 10 P.M... 3 1119. 1118. 1919. 1918. 9 A.M.... 13 30 CP. M....33 31 12M 39 Si 9 P. St 26 31 3 P.M.... 36 33 12 Mid 25 II Highest temperature, 41, at 2 P. 31. Lowest temperature, 25, at 10 P, 11. Average temperature, si. EVENTS TO-DA- Child Study will pre- - chlldren, \Tho Queen 'Whprd.\lflt the Pulton Theatre. 3 P. M.. again on Tuesday. rough President-elec- t Curran and Pj, LaVlurla will ha Ih. .1 a rilnnftP . Imnanv II 3112,1 Immnn Mnn Train. ri Division, at Oonfarone'a '\rant. 38 West Klghth street, eve- - \\S AlVey-Oencr- Palmer, Senator need imOO:lnV.Al.a f ahu,ah nlli.r. will spea ,h, annuai ainntr of the Up-V- .? I 8A Association of America at ths WaldoV-torl- a, 7 P. M. MaA,etns for lymen n the lnter-i,h- e Centenary Campaign of the MetnodEu,oopal Church, at the Union Methodl.iv.hurchj Forty-eight- h street near Seventh inut 7;jo p. M. Zlonls Vmj of Engineers and Agrl-- . JSt.- plrd annual conference, 29 V. Thi;a;ln,h ,tre,t, 7:30 P. SI. Munlclpi torum meeting under auaplcea of tno MVs Commute of Women at Cooper UnlA g p jj Arthur lta will nn The Place Lh., Agitator In Hlatory\ at the 31anhati Trade School, Lexington avenue and TCerlty.second street, S.lt Reception lrWlegates to the eleventh annual convert,, 0f the Intercollegiate Socialist Societ Greenwich Home, 21 Harrow street, tyj p j(, Morris N. LV4ann post. Veterans of Foreign Wars, igVe concert and ball at the Twcnty-ff- a iiegtment Armory, Hrooklyn, 8:30 PJ. Adjourned meelt ot the Board of Edu- cation to conjlde,ne matter of school luncheons, hall of f, board. Park avenue and Plfty-nlnt- h str 4 p, m. Alexander Hamllr, Institute, conten- tion. Hotel Blltmor morning session 11. afternoon session 2, Vnquet P. M Society of Dlreetot0f physical Educa- tion In Colleges. HoUAItor; meetlnga at 10 A. Jl. and 2 P. 3 and banquet at 7 . American .Society . church History, meetings In directors' ,om 0f the Union Theological Seminary an A. 31. nnd 3 It P. M.; at Faculty C'lub.f Columbia at 7:30 P. M. Society of Biblical L1tture and convention opens \tjnbu Theoloel-c- al Seminary. William Z. Fontrr on t ,trlk. McIClnJey Square Casino, tUWenlng. Colgate Unlveralty alumntil x,w Tork will have n nmokfr to hti the uni- versity's football team at fA art's Park place, this evnIW. Testimonial dinner to rettl District Attorney Albert O. Fach b ti-- n. of Ptatm Island, Grant City Inn Oant City, this evening. , Dr. W. H. S. Demarest, n'etlrnt of Kutsers Colleg- -. will be llu Uncipat speaker the alumni of Hn, Acad- emy, lilalrstown, X. J.. Rt thdiUnnua! dinner and dance, Hoiel 1'ennsjlVnU, 7 P. M. The Seventh Silver Society catiow In aid of the New York Women's Leiie for Animals, exhibition of all vsrletleijf cati and kittens, Waldorf-Astori- 10 4,wi. to 10 P. M. Charlen E. , Hughes, guest of lion at a dinner of Republican leaders, luy of Martin Sse, former Sta,ts Tax C!,. sluner, this evening. , .Minerva Club, meetlrg and luriW,n, Yalilorf-Astorl- 11 A. M. V uroinpriiouu 01 1 oimnrc lai .iviri, .,t ,....1.1 r I.,..,. - u r iiliiiiri, ..miu.'i.- - r American Supply and Machinery 3 frtnrrr rnprtlnr St 10 A. M.. lunrl ot 1 P. 31., dinner at 7 P. M., Wallf Astorla. Flrat Church rf the Divine Sclrl mitlnr Watrinrf-Aatorl- a. 8 P 3f. Gamma Phi Sorority, dance, Hotrl Alnln 1 M Camp Wynona, dinner. Hotel 3tcAlpltJ I.oyaf Workers, bridge, Hotel McAlii 2:30 P. 3f, Colleglat Socleyl meetlnc. Hotel SIcAlpln. 8:30 P M. Daughters of Founder and l'atrlos, merlins. Hotel 3tcAlnln, to A. 31. I Atlantic Coait Shipbuilders, dlnne. Hotel 3IcAlpln. 6:30 P. M. A. 31., lunchron at 12 30 and dinner at P. 31., Hotel McAlpIn . . The nurses in charge or ti iunerruiois and pre.natal work emong colored mothers anil children of the West Side districts will give a party for their patients and the 'a relatives In the rhllilren'a Aid Society building. 552 West Flfly-thlr- street, this afternoon. FOR MENlN UNIFORM. Dancing Clasn National Emergency ! lief Society. 238 Madlion avenue (near Thirty-eight- h street). 7 P. M. For raaa In aervlca or recently discharged. , v.tinn.l Acarfrmv nf ntatn. . rine ,ria aocietr. .i. street. Free on 3lonaay.