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All checks, money orders, Ac, to ba mads paynblo to Tnn Spk, Published dally, Including Sunday, by tha Bun Printing and Publlshlrir AMOflatlon, ISO ilrotdway, Borough ot Manhattan, J. T. Tresldent. Frank A. Munity. 2S0 Uroadway: Krvln Ward, man; Secretary. It. II. Tltherlngton: Tress-ure- r, Wm. T. Dewart. all of 280 Broadway. London office, 3 Fleet street. Paris office. (I Rue de la Mlchodlcre, oft Rue du Quntre Septembre. Washington ofllce, Munscy Building. Chicago otllce, 20 South La Salle street. Brooklvn office. Room 202, Ragla Dulld. Ing, 303 Washington street. otrr friend irio favor w tetth manw-- 1 kriptt and illustration or publication ic!A tn have nltcteil article returned tilV mv$t in all cate tend sfrwpi for tnat purpote. TELEPHONE, WORTH 10000. . The Peace of Europe Is Not Dcpcn dent Upon Any League of Nations. Two radically different views of America's responsibility for the mud dllnR of pence are now entertained In England. Ono- - opinion Is repre sented very well In tho recent uttor ' anco bv Lord Nouthclifie's Times ' 'concerning tho Senate's rejection of ' (tlio Wilson covenant: \Tho President was accepted In i' Paris as tha spokesman of America. That Is what gave him his excep- tional position In the councils ot the Allies anil associates. The Repuh- - llcans are now explaining that It was a mistake so to accept him; that when he entered Into these obllga-- , Hons, anil Induced others to enter - Into them, he was not the spokesman of America, but ot an American party j which Is In a minority. The cxpla. nation may be sound, but Ita accept ance must manifestly embarrass all other Powers In any similar regotla-tlon- s with America.\ Itednced to Its simplest terms the argument of the London Times and those who, like the Times, are dis posed to hold tho people of the United States at least morally accountable 'for any trouble resulting from tho 'President's falluro or Inability to re- deem his personal promises la this: \He told us this and that. AVe had no means of knowing that he spoke ' without authority. The moral Into which he entered In the iinme of the United States are ! therefore, so far as we are concerned, i blndlng on you. Othcrwlso we cannot regard you as a responsible Oovern-wen- t or people In any future Inter- - national negotiations.\ ' The other, and from the American point of view the more nearly correct : location of responsibility, Is presented 'in sharp focus by the Morning l'ost of Loudon, when It, says: i \The President, to be quite can- did, Is not In a position to deliver , his own goods. . . . We must all regTet the, Illness of the President; but It Is Idle to disguise tho fact . that his enthusiasm for an Imprac- -' tleabte Ideal has got the whole world Into a terrlblo mes..\ In n notable article In the A'orr-- ' American Review for January Mr, James M. IJeck writes with accurate ' Jpelght and In extremely moderate language but with compelling candor of the disappointment and Irritation (which have been caused in some quar ters In Europe by the Senate's rejec tion of the treaty. He says, quoting his own language at a luncheon In New York to Lord Finlay: \If the formation of the League ot Nations had led to any alienation In sympathy between Oreat Britain and the United States It would have been : better that the League had never : been born, and on the other hand, It .' America should refuse to become a ' member of the League, a Just and durable peace Is still practicable as ' long as Oreat Ilrltnln, France and the United States cooperate, not as a formal alllanco but as a genuine en- tente, to preserve the peace of the world. The entente Is not dead, even though the League of Nations be In a moribund condition.\ Here Is clearly stated the broad truth underlying the whole situation about which there Is so much mlsun rlnrvrnnillni- - Until In TCnplnnil nnd In France. So orgnulzcd eupergovern mcnt Is requisite to save the world again, if need be, from the assaults of unscrupulous dynamic or economic am bltlon so long as, In Mr. Heck's very .striking phrase, the best hope of tho world for the of n Just peace lies not so much In a League of Nations ns In the spirit of mutual co operation between the members ot the great alliance of the above mcntlonod .Powers. ThN hope of the world lias been strengthened and not shattered by the fate that has befallen nn Im practicable and preposterous scheme of internationalism which restart, so fnr 'as President Wilson's proposals and promises to Europe were concerned solely upon his own Intellectual Inltl ntlvo and not at all upon any author- - Ity to speak or to promise In tho name of tho American Government or tho American people. So far n there may bo any mo mentary alienation of sympathy or wenfcenlnjr of the spirit of tooporntlon betweon the main factors' In tho fu-tu- preservation of peace, tho mls-fortu- Is duo to utterances like thoso wo havo from tlmo to tlmo quoted from foreign statesmen and newspa- pers. Mr. Dkok, like bo many othor patriotic and well Informed Ameri- cans, Is tired of hearing from across tho Atlantic that the Senate's action on tho treaty constitutes n \virtual re pudiation\ by this nation of promises matlo by President WasoN repudla-atlo- n amounting to tho tearing up of an agreement to which the United States Government wns morally com- mitted by Its Chief Executive. With patience and great good humor and his accustomed lucidity of expression, ho endeavors in his North American Review nrtlclo to make our foreign friends understand that tho European nations had ample and exceptional warnings that tho American represen- tatives at the Peace Conference had no authority to commit their country to any treaty obligations: First, because tho Constitution of the United States, since the very foun datlon of our republic, had been giv- ing explicit notice to all tho world \that no official, however great or Illustrious, could commit tho United States to any treaty obligation except 'by and with tho advice and consent of tho Senate' and 'provided two-thir- ds of tho Scnnte present concur.' \ Secondly, becauso In view of this provision, It was tho plain duty of tho roDrescntatlveo of tho European uov ernmcnts to ascertain whether the ideas of tho American Pence Com mlssloners were thoso of tho Amerl can people, as expressed In the final treaty making organ of our Govern ment, the Senate. lie says : \I quite appreciate the difficulty and delicacy .of such quMtlon ; but the time wr critical, delays were fatal, and It was, at It seems to me, the part of common prudence for the Paris Conference to examine with treat care the credentials of all rep- resentatives to sea whether, they had unlimited or only limited powers.\ Thirdly, because additional and even mora significant warning had been given to tho Purls Conferonco, In November of 1018, In tho direct re- fusal, by a majority exceeding one million votes, of the American people, responding at that election to an equally direct appeal from President Wilson, to give him a mandate to speak for them with authority In tho then pending negotiations. Fourthly, because the European rep' resentntlvos at the Conference could not have been Ignorant of the fact that President Wilson went to Paris and assumed there and elsewhere to speak with representative authority, In deflanco of n storm of protest throughout all America. \It may be doubted,\ says Mr. Beck, \whether the sentiment of the American people wns ever expressed with greater unanimity. No one can gainsay that President Wilson went to Paris in the teeth of almost universal opposition In his own country and without re- spect to party,\ Fifthly, because when the President returned In Februnry to this country with the first draft of the Covenant of the League, \more than one-thir- d of tho Senate which had the power to defeat any treaty gave formal no- tice by the 'round robin' that tho proposed covenant would not be accepted by tho American people.\ It will be observed by those who read this useful article In the North American Review that with careful delicacy Mr. Beck refrains from push ing to tho ultlmato and Inevitable conclusion tho question of responsi blllty for the President's statements to tho Conference regarding his pow era, for his pretended possession of a mandate which die. not exist, for tlio fatal blunders and fateful conse- quences of his exploit In interwenvlng. His moderation In this respect de' tracts In no degrco from the force of his nrgumont; and tho ultimate and Inevitable conclusion would be person ally unpleasant If plainly written. Hcturnlng to the greater question with which we began, the observations of an American known so well as Mr. Beck Is In Great Britain and Franco as an earnest advocate of friendly relations and effectlvo cooperation be tween tho three Powers for tho' main tenancc of world peace ought to carry conviction and relief to quarters now troubled with misapprehension. Few men are in better position to say this with advantage to British and French believers In America's \com mltmcnts\ : \The greatest opportunity to com- bine the liberal and kindred democra- cies of tho world Into one effectlvo entente has been largely wasted. Especially deplorable Is the effect of this mUguldad attempt the Wllionlan interweaving upon Anglo-Americ- an relations. The maintenance of those relations la of more conaeguence than any league of nations. . . . If this great entente did not rest upon a surer foundation than the Paris Peace Conference and tha Loague of Nations, the thoughtful man could only despair of the future of civilization. Fortunately, even the folly of the. League of Nations cannot destroy the strong foundation upon which tho en- tente now rests. That foundation consists not only of kindred Interests and Ideals which will Inevitably make for cooperation; but rests upon the. powerful though sentimen- tal fact of the comradeship of arms. It li cemented by the blood of those Who tell In battle and now sleep In France. No temporary differences or pasalnr Irritation can lastingly de- stroy the sacred blood comradeship of the) treat Alliance.\ This is well said, and It is said by Mr. Beck In tho North American Re view Just at tho moment when, In consequence of tho covenant folly and tho President's obstinate attempt to hitch to a distant star of his own dis covery the wagon ho had no license to drive, It needs most be said. Mr. Samuel Gompers Repudiated by the American Farmer. When Mr. Samuel GoMrtas urged tho President and Congress to con tinue Government operation of tho railroads for a fair trial of fivo years ho declared that he represented both unions and farmers. But ho did not represent tho farmers of tho United States., IIo did not represent the farmers of any considerable part of tho United States. If.Jn fact, ho rep- resented any Amcrlcnn fnrmors at all they must hayo been of tho profes sional political breed. This seems sure, becauso over since Mr. GoMrsns submitted his petition In the name of labor and agriculture the representa- tive farmers and farmer organizations of the country have been Jumping on him with both feet, denouncing his pretension as fraudulent, repudiating any association with hie unions or with him, and declaring themselves against a continuation of Government operation. Tho Now York State Federation of County Farm Bureaus, for cxnraple, at its meeting on December 19 spoke for 70,000 farmers In this Stnto. It unanimously adopted two resolutions on tho subject of Gompebs and tho railroads. One called upon GowrEits to mnkc It clear in n public statement that he had not been authorized to speak In the name of the farmors of New York. Tho other demanded Con- gress action which would result In the prompt return of tho railroads to their owners under such conditions an w'lll Insure reasonablo returns on the value of the property and reason able rates for transportation. From all over tho country havo como similar repudiations by farmers' associations of Gompebb'h claims of representing farmers nnd of Gou-pers- 's scheme to continue the rail- roads in the hands of tho Govern ment. Hoard's Dalrwnan Issue, com menting on the flat declination of the National Grange to Join in a seral-nolltlc- al conference with labor, makes a particular point of tho strong dlsap proval of the Grange of continued Government ownership or operation of both the merchant marine and the railroads. Tho American Agriculturist, In dis- cussing the refusal ot tho Grange to have anything to do with the labor union politicians, had previously used this plain language about Mr. Got- - rERs'a alleged alllanco with farmers and farm Inbor: ' \The farmers' national council announces that a conference( will be held at Washington December IS between agricultural and labor organizations. This 'stuff emanates mainly from one B. B. Hampton, a fellow who talks too much with his mouth. His following Is practically nil among constructive agriculturists of the United States. We had as- sumed that members of Congress were as little Influenced by the mouth-Ing- s of the Hampton-Mars- h outfit as are the real farmers of the country.\ Bluffing Is the prluclpal part of the labor union politicians' game of get ting away with things, and genernlly they do pretty well at it for them- selves. The Gompcrses may bluff Con- gress nnd get away with It. They may bluff the White House nnd get away with It. They may bluff busi- ness men and get nway with It. But when they bluff the AmeriAn fanner they get culled. Admiral Slmg and the Medal. The refusal of Admiral Sims to ac cept from tho Secretary of the Navy a Distinguished Service Medal should bring to the surface any injustice which may cling to the distribution of that particular decoration. If there is to ho scandal about any war medal now Is the best time to have It. There was n scandal over tlwt great est of American decorations, the Medal of Honor, and it lasted fifty-fou- r years from 1805, when n whole regiment wns decorated for no particular valor, until 1910, when Congress withdrew the medals from ,tho undeserving and also Incidentally from some men who had come honestly enough by tho bits of bronze, although perhaps not tech ntcally qualified to receive them. Tho careless awards of the Medal of Honor led to Injustice In the cor rcctlon of the ovll as well as In the evil Itself. So It would be better If there Is to bo any disputation over tho Distinguished Service Medals that It should como now. when .men are young and memories nro' good. Fluid Gold's World Flow. In tho first eleven months of this year tho United States sent to Spain $20,000,000 In gold, to Argentina 000,000, to Uruguay nearly $7,500. 000, to Venezuela more than $11,000, 000, to China $34,000,000, to British India $31,000,000, to the Dutch East Indies ?0,000,000, to Hongkong $34r 000.0Q0, to Japan $80,000,000. All of It In gold I To all countries we sent In tho cloven months more thnn $322,000,000 In gold, receiving from all countries some $04,000,000 In gold. This mnkea a net gold loss for the eleven months of some $238,000,000. But tho thing worth noting about these gold movements Is thnt the grent bulk of what we lost went to countries nnd places like Spain, ' Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela, China, British India, Hongkong and Japan which THE SUN, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1919. havo the closest financial commercial and other relations with Powers Hko Great Britain, which owo tho Unltod States heavily but which in turn nro owod by thoso to whom wo sent bo much gold. In ono way and another, but prin cipally by tho triangular readjust- ments of international banking nnd commerce, tho gold which wo send to the Orient may find its way to Lon don nnd tho gold which wo send to South America may find Its way to Paris nnd perhaps oven to Berlin. But gold not merely Is fluid when It Hows through tho international channels tho world over, but can bo fluid In effect, though it sticks In ono spot. Under more normal conditions, with n wldor and bettor distribution, It might not need to be shipped from Nosth to South, or from Occident to Orient, and yet the shlftlngs of credits by cable, with corresponding book- keeping changes In tho banks of Hong- kong, Paris, London, Buenos Aires and Now York, could, by, tho swapping of debits nnd credits, strike tbo neces- sary balances. The Job and the Man tor It. In its news columns yesterday Tnu Sim said : \ALBsnT Van Nhsb of El Myrtle avenue, Brooklyn, well known In Sing Sing ca a former editor of the Star of ope, the prison magazine, was sent back to that Institution by County Judge Dikk In Brooklyn yes- terday for two years. Ho had been found guilty of petty larceny as a second offence.\ This may offer a solution for a rather serious problem that has for some time confronted tho up rlrer in stitution in which .Mr. Van Ness will sojourn for much of the ensuing two years. The Star-Bulleti- n, which is the successor of tho Star of Hope, has apparently been on tho ragged edge for several months, chiefly from lack of an able directing head. .Tho authorities declared that thero was not a good newspnpor man m the Institution nnd that, despite all tho Inducements which tho editorship of the Star-Bullet- offered, steady em- ployment, agreeable quarters, and free tickets to all tho entortnlnmonts and functions of the Institution, no ono had appeared to fill the post. The warden eald gloomily that unless some capablo man arrived soon ho felt that tho Star-Bulleti- n would bo forced to cease publication. The Sfor-JJuHef- has continued to como out, however, In much tho samo size and appearance as In the paet but with widely different matter. The editorial anonymity Is preserved, for at the head of the column Is the leg- end, \Edited by C. C. E.,' No. C9SC3.\ The editor himself wrote the Thanks giving article in the last number re ceived In which he offers thanks for the sunny faces, beaming smiles and kind words of encouragement of our friends npd superiors here.\ Tho lead ing article Is entitled \Let Psychol ogists, Criminologists nnd Penologists answer, Is Psychiatry Bealy n Medium for Practical Criminal Iteform?\ nnd there are \Important Hides of Health\ among which nre \Seek out of door occupation nnd recreation,\ \Sleep out of doors If you can,\ \Keep serene, avoid nil worry.\ Without any Intention of making Invidious comparisons we might say that In the past there were more de- tails of the ball games, more sugges- tions of some of tho stories back of the lives of the lnmntes, some of the little happenings, kindly told, In cell life nnd rather quaint, unusual bits of prison philosophy that were shrewdly enough put to escape the censors nnd to which n wide circula tion was given by the exchange edi- tors. Perhaps the point Is that the matter was written with the direct view of appealing to readers lu the Institution and was read outside be- cause It was a sort of reflection of the life Insldo the walls. After his somewhat extended vaca tion the former editor should return to his duties with considerable vigor. He should he able to Inject Into the publication that characteristic human quality nnd snap that It has lacked and at the same time recovor the sub- - scrlber- - lost In his absence. Whatever the Job there seems to be one man who can do It better than nny one else, whether In prison or out. Natives Returning at Christmas. If a man Is going to bo great It Is much better for him to bo born. In a small place than In n large city. A great man returning with victorious eagles to this town may ride home unrecognized by the cabmnn, or even the neighbors. But n great man going back to Laclede, Mo., for Christmas, exdhapges thrills with everybody who knew lum wnen no wns a ooy. If a mnn Is going to be a scoundrel he might best choose the city for his nativity. Some of .the passengers of the Buford may be homo for tho old ltusslan holidays, which are two weeks later in Russia than hero. The nttl tutlo of the small town people toward the creature who had his chanco In the United States nnd abused It may be of a nnturo to get beneath tho hide of even a Bolshevlsr. Those wolves seen near Geneva may have been only small boys mas querading as profiteers. Little boj-- and girls who may have doubted that Santa Claub will get around to their homos In tlmo to night will appreciate tho encourage ment that uncle Sam gives, mem in reports from the snowy north, where tho genial Santa keeps his steeds. Ac cording to thoso reports hanta claus b steeds, the reindeer, are astonisningiy fleet footed; at a recent trial two deer pulling a sled and driver made rive miles In fourteen minutes and ten miles in twenty-seve- n minutes. This is taster than a dog or bono can run, and fast enough for Santa to reach any klddlo'a homo bofore Thursday morning. But tho chances. are tho old gentleman can boat Undo Sam's time', he has the pick of the deer of all the herds nnd hU deer havo been In training a year for dash. Ho will bo around nnd ho will bo on time, and besides ho will be, more heavily ladon than for years. And his reindeer are wearing gold bells this holiday Reason. American whiskey going to tho Ger- mans. Headline, They can koep tho watch on the rye, The ability aa well aa the willing- ness of parlor Bolshovlkl to mako largo subscriptions to Bed funds nnd to qualify In largo sums aa bondsmen for comrades In prisons pent excltos Interest, spurs Inquiry as to their preparotlnees for a critical examina- tion In tho creed of Bolshevism. Do' these well to do liberal subscribers and willing bond givers know that tho classes deprived of all property as well as all political rights by Lenlnc-Trotzk- y decreed Include \all persons receiving Interest, rents, dividends or incomes from financial or Industrial enterprises\? Will not the success of their parlor propaganda deprive them of the moans to support and ball their favorite criminals? With Chrlstmns trees nt J5 and stockings at 16, tho preliminaries ex- haust tho treasury. THE HUE OF AMERICANS. Farther Mliapprohenslons Once Com- mon In Europe. To the Editoii op Tiik Sus Sir: Your very entertaining editorial article en- titled \More Precocious Humor,\ with Its reference to the Scotch girl who thought all Americans were \copper colored,\ suggests two amusing experiences of my own showing the curious Idea some for elgnera have of us \benighted\ Amer leans! A number of years ago, when I was a dramatic and musical critic, I had the pleasure of dining with a very distin guished and highly Intelligent Rngllsh actress who had but recently arrived In this country. \How did you like New York city?\ I asked. \I was charmed with It,\ sho said en thuslastlcally, \and so surprised, too!\ \Why surprised?\ I asked. \Well I was told that the streets of New York were full of Indians, nnd that I should always carry a revolver with mo on Uroadway.\ \And you really believed this?\ \Yes; why not?\ Several years ago at a dinner in Lon don I sat next to a very attractive En- glishwoman, who told me how anxious she was to come to America on a visit. \I should like to see what the States are really like,\ she explained, \for some of us English people have such peculiar Ideas about them. My mother believed for long time that all Amer- icana were black.\ EnwAno Hobins. Philadelphia, December 23. A Iteglmcnt of Dolls Sprang Forth. To the Editor of The Sun Sir; So generous and so full of human kindness has been the response of people, oven from distant 3tates'as well as from this city and Its vicinity, to the appeal for dolls In Tllic SUN of recent date to be sent to the girls of a State training school for Christmas time that I am Im- pelled to write you this word which 1 hope may como beforo your readers. The Prlron Association received to Hntn fnr InnnmUalnn tn th.lt Hrhnnl. nnrl latterIy t0 othcr institutions whero small girls ordinarily have no dolls at Christ mas time, a total of 866 dolls of all sizes, garb and even color. Particularly touching has been the assortment of dolls sent by the girls In Industries, dressed by the girls and given in a fine spirit, as indeed has been tho case with all tho dolls that have been received. It has been another demonstration of the Christmas spirit, Unique, far reach ing and worthy, I feel, of being men tioned in your paper at this time. 0. F. Lewis, General Secretary, the Prison Asso- ciation of New York. New York, December 23. No League Needed for Aid to the Starving of Europe. To the EDiTon or The Sun Sir An appeal Is mado to tho United States to go to the rescuo of millions who are starving in Europe. Do we need a League of Nations or Fourteen Points to give this relief? We did not need It when all Europe was trembling for foar of German domination and cruelty. Wo do not noed for world charity what we did not need when the world war shook tho earth. We went to the rescue of bleeding Europe In 191\. We will go to the rescuo of starving Europe In 1915. And we don't need a League to do It. Charlkb II. Skinner. Albany, December 23. Devcry Did Not Ilun In 1807. To the Editor op The Sun Sir, A says that William S. Devery, former Chief of Police, did not run against Robert A. Van Wyck and others In 1897 for first Mayor of Clrentor Now York. B says Devery did run, nlong with six others. t Which Is right? A Pleader. New York, December 23. An Imllinant Kamas Town. From tht Gavlord Sentinel. A Jackrabhlt, evidently attractad by tha ftmoktleM chimneys In our Jown, ambled down Main street on a tour ot Invcstlga Hon. Ha was ipled at once and pursued hotly by abqut fltty cltltont, but managed to dodce them all and aave his hide. This town may be dead, but no darn country jackrabblts can come In and poke fun at us. Miss Gloria Caruso. . ' Mies Gloria Caruso le welcome to our city. . Sho lacked, they say, a trousseau. But li both bright and gritty. For quite without apparel, Unawed by papa's slory, She started to outrarol The greatest ot tenorl. She prodigally poured out Cadensaa In staccato; Lucia's dirge she roared out, To papa's obbllgato. On midnight strolls with baby, negurcltntlng dinner, Tapa will sing too, maybe. But she will corns out winner. But far from being Jealous At triumph so precocious. He'll brag and boaat and tell us Until we grow ferocious. Speed, Time, your gentle fleeting. And 1940 nno, We'll split our gloves In greeting America's soprano! Micucs Moans. THE FALL IN EXCHANGE. Effects o Overissues of Legal Tender Paper Money Abroad. To rim Ttniron of The BUK Sir: Dis cussing In ths press as to tha fall In the Now York nrlce of exchange on tha vari ous countries of Europe lately at war. has not, so far as I have seen, toucnea on former like experiences In Europe and In the United States, Indeed the ordinary reader of newspapers has been led to believe that no suoh thing sver happened beforo. Such Is .not tho case, and tho records of the facts on both sldos of the Atlantic are In print and accessible, When in the nutumn of 19U war broke out In Europe, all the nations engaged therein suspended payments In speclo and put out enormous Issues of Irre deemable paper money, making it isgai tender for all purposes, which Issues they subsequently Increased. The policy of tho United States during the civil war differed radically from that of Europe In 1914. In that the act of February 15, ,1862, creating our greenbaok, while mak ing them legal tender for all ower pur- poses, expressly excepted duties on Im ports, and Interest on Government uona, which continued to bo paid In gold. Our cold, somo 1240,000,000 of It, of course disappeared from circulation. A market for gold, with which to pay au-ti- on Imports and for foreign exchange for thp coat of such Imports, speedily arose. The price of gold fluctuated wildly as the war progressed, tending generally upward. Our goia aousrs soia at Well over 52.50 apleoe In currency, their price averaging higher thsn that In the months of July and August, 1154. Throughout the calendar year iti and the fiscal year onded June 30, 18, as well the average price of gold was over 200, and the value in gold of our cur- rency, legal tender greenback dollars, less than fifty cents, The 'British, gold sovereign was then, as now, Intrinsically worth 14.8566 of our gold money (although exohanga was not then quoted tn those terms), henee for Imports made In that yoar we paid a trlflo more than J9.7S In currency for every pound sterling's worth of goods Imported from Great Britain. But as throughout our seventeen years of sus- pended payments ot specie, 1862-187- 0, foreign exohange was In New York always bought and sold for a price In gold, the quotations thereof never varied greatly from tho normal. During and since the late war, as on former like occasions, the Issuo by Eu- ropean Powers of nat money, made legal tender for all purposes, has of necessity affected and affected very seriously the prices paid In such money for' exchange on gold paying countries. The recent depression In the Now York market of exchange on London from the theo- retic gold parity of to If converted Into terms of our olvll wir experience, would be ex- pressed by there now being In London a price In their legal tender paper money, called \Bradburys\ of about 132 for 100 In gold. Our British cousins are by no means as badly oft as we were In Kits, nnr yet as they weTo during the Nanoleonlo wars, when In 1814 It took moro than 138 of Bank of ngland notes to buy 100 In gold. Then as now tho depreciation (which began In 1799) of their paper money adversely affected their exchanges with all gold paying countries. The fact that exchange wns due to over Issues of Irredeemable paper money Is brought out most clearly In that classic of finance the bullion re- port, mado by a select committee on the high price of gold bullion and ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, Juno 8, 1S10. Tho war with France con- tinuing. Parliament then laid the bullion report on tho table, but In 1819 after Waterloo It took tho question up man fully, and acting on the everlaatlhg verities set forth in that report, effected a rMumDtlon of specie payments In 1S21 and the years following. Our British cousins have a \hard row to hoe,\ as we had In 1865. They have outstanding of Bradburys nearly as many pounds as we then had of green back dollars. But they have what we had not: their own well known experi- ence during the Napoleonic wars and the prestige of success In dealing therewith, nnd a tower of strength In the tried and trusted \Old Lady of Threadneedle Street,\ the Bank of England, which while wisely enlarging its Issues of notes has during tho late war also Increased Its holdings of gold. In July, 1914, the bank's circulation amounted to 29,317,- - 000 ngnlnst gold holdings of about 40,- - 000.000. On September 3, 1919, those were 80,798,000, against 88,- - 000,000. It will take time and cost money (la nation by Irredeemable legal tender pa- per alwiys has and ever will bo for the taxpaylng public an enormously cxpen slvo Indulgence), the exchanges on Lon don may go lower In our market, but thnt given time Great Britain will honor and redeem all Its paper Issues cannot be questioned. Despite the fact that the Bradburys contain no promlso to pay but only ihe statement on tho authority of Parliament that those notes are a \legal tender for tho payment of any amount,\ they will In time rise to a parity with gold, goes without saying that the Bank of England is In no way bound In respect to tho Bradburys. The plight of the other nations of Eu rope lately at war Is different and gen ernlly worse, all of which Is reflected In the greater depreciation of exchange on those countries when paid for In gold, as It Is In New Yorks StutvhsantFibh. New YonK, December 23. How the Chemist Has Tut Coal to Work, From the Chemical Age. The chomlst has endowed coal with multiple lndltpensablllty to civilisation. In addition to Its utilization tn Its primal stat as the cheapeat available aouroe ot heat upon which all Industry and human com fort depend. It ti me raw material or in coal tar chemical Industry which ranges In Ita growing amplitude from the by. product coke oven nnd the production of Industrial fuel ana illuminating gaa, am monla and fertiliser, to the manufacture o dyes, pharmaceuticals, photographic chem Icals, motor fuels and Industrial solvents. A Belated Recognition. Engineer Train cotretponience Watch on Mf W.lne. Tho Train wants to extend Thanksgiving greetings to Sammy Cohen, and hope he had luck this year. We nil most pleas antly remember the twenty-on- e very plump geewe lis \requisitioned\ laa er with the aid of a bag ana a naanugni. tiats on 10 Sammy! Her Complaint. From the A'amai CUt Star. The mermaid to the merman aald: \To Nature I demur! Why should our tails be clad In scales. When Faihlon calls for fur?\ Winter Optimism. From the n'aihtngton Star, When the world begins to ahlver. There's one Item of content. Too can go down to the river And your lea won't coat a cent HENEY SAYS BIG 5 WON REAL VICTORY Calls PackcrB Settlement by Talmor Complcto Surrondor of Bights of tlio rnbllc. WILL NOT REDUCE PKI0ES Lawyer Cites 1902 Injunction as Never Enforced and Urges Drastic New Laws. nr FIIANCIS J. MBNBY. flperiot inviHipator of tha Federal Trad Commission In tht inquiry of tht butne method of the Bill Five Packers. Via Anoklks, Doc 53. The compro- mise agreement betweon the Department of Justice and the fivo big packers theo- retically secures all the remedy that can b srantod by tho Federal courta under existing; laws. Practically, however, It will accom- plish less than nothing and amounts to a completo surrender of tho riBbt\ of the general public, and will help to In- crease and porpetuato tho monopolistic powers of tho Hve biff packers and to eontlnue their oppressive proflteerlns; agalnst both producers and consumers. It will accompusn me aissoiuuon ui nvn bis; packors In form only and will be even less effective than tho Judicial dissolution of tho Standard Oil Company has proved to be. It will not tend to reuuee prijua packing products. It will relieve tne big packers from their fear of criminal nmaeniitlnnn and encouraxe them to continue their audacloua attacks on tho Federal Trado Commission, wnicn i the only governmental agency thus far that has dared to Interfere with and de- nounce their boldly asserted monopolis tic prerogatives. It will leave tho producers of live stock, tho wholesale and retail butchora nn.t tha nnnltrv. airr. cheese, butter and oleomargarine dealers at the mercy of an unlawful combine wnicn nus qoiuodd-a- w nrmilrod Its monopolistic control by methods so flagrantly Indefensible as to make it aurtng me isi iunj' years the constant target for adverse rennrta of committees of Congress and for civil suits ana criminal prunKtuwunD by tho Federal Government. Hecnlla Chance Made In 1SOO. Indeed. Congress enacted the Sher man anti-tru- st law In 1890 In response to lndlimant publlo opinion based large ly on a special report or a senate com mittee which rrlade sweeping charges of monoDoty and conspiracy In restraint or trade against the same Ave big packers except that Wilson & Co. were then known as Sulsberger & Sons Company. Attorney-uener- al palmer's optimistto Conclusion that great things have been accomplished because under this agree ment the Government may take a judg mont by consent against the five big packers In accordance with the terms of the agreement and they will then be placed \under the watchful eyo ot the court\ Is without any foundation In fact because a similar Judgment enJo!n Ing tho same five big packers was so cured by the Department of Justice In 1902 and made perpetual by the Hu preme Court of the United States to prohibit tho five big packers from re training from bidding against each other in the purchase or at the sales of live stock and from combining, con- spiring or contracting to raise or lower prices or fix uniform prices at which meat will be sold, either directly or through their respective agents, or from curtailing the quantity of such meats shipped to thulr agents and from com- bining or conspiring together with each other or others to monopolize or at tempt to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce In fresh meats among the several States and Terri- tories nnd the District ot Columbia, and yet during the Inst fifteen years the five big packers have definitely violated all of the terms of this perpetual In junction with absolute Impunity. Congress and Courta In Contempt They have demonstrated that they hold In 'contempt the power of Congress, the Supreme Court of the united States and tho Department ot Justice, and In effect that thoy are above the law and not answerable to any one but them selves for their conduct. They have con clusively demonstrated that existing laws under both Republican nnd Democratic administrations since 188S are utterly Ineffective to curb their rapacity, and during that entire period of time they have steadily expanded tholr business and strengthtned their monopolistic con- trol and added additional food products thereto until wo are now faced with the monopolistic control by them In tho near future of every staple article of food supply, together with some Important articles of clothlng.such as bootoand shoes, as well as ot fertilizers, condensed dairy feed and other materials which funda mentally affect the cost of production o farm and dairy products. The only thing that can effectively prevent and dissolve the monopolistic control of the five big packers Is addl tlonal and drastic economic legislation by Congress. The Instrumentalities by which the flvo big packers acquired their present oppressive control of tho packing Industry and of poultry, okks. cheeae. butter, fruits and vegetables nnd other commodities, are refrigerator cars, the icing plants along the principal lines of rnllroad, the cold stora'SO plants In large centres of population and the stock yards at the fourteen or fifteen principal centres at which live stock Is sold and slaughtered. Advocates Public Ownership, Publlo ownership and operation of these four lntsrumentalltles of monopoly la the only real, effective remedy for tho present intolerable and menacing comll tlon. Anything short of public own ershlp and operation of the refrigerator cars, Iclrjff plants, cold storage plants and stock yards, without discrimination In favor of or against any lines , of business, will be Ineffective becauso tho tremendous amount of capital nnd credit behind the Ave big packers and the In tcresta of their Individual ownership In railroads, banks and kindred Institutions are so great and ramifying nnd the amount of freight which they can dl rect the routing of Is so enormous that ahy private ownership of these Instru mentalities would inevitably be subject to their evil Influence. The ICenyon-Andcrso- n bill now pond Ing In Congress would help some If tho Attorney-QenoraJ- 's agreement with packers Is consummated, but It nmounts to treating symptoms instead of ro moving the causes of an economic dls ease. Another prolific causo of high cost of living, as well as an additional instru mentality by which the five big packers manipulate the prices or tne rood prod ucts In which they deal la that of per mlttlnir tho public to speculate in fu tures on some of the moat Important food products, particularly grain, cer tain hog products, egga and cheese, Speculation In futures on food product: of any kind ought to be prohibited by law and made punuhable by Imprison ment. r V. S. Deatroyrr nt Corunnn. CoatiNKA, Spain, Dec. SS. Tho Amer lean destroyer Thornton arrived here to-d- to take to the United States the body of Corporal Thlsmorton, who was killed when an American ship was tor- pedoed off thIj,port In 1917. The Sun Calendar THE WEATHER. For Eastern New York . south; probably local snuwa in J portion much colder mnrrnm tain, nnrf l,l. ... V1'\- - ' em,tlr winds. Vor New Jersey Cloudy f.ir ?lr trash shifting; winds. lola\! I'or Northern Nw Enrlnnd ri4 . probably snows- - much ' night; probably Mr and frrh shifting winds. toll,rl For Southern New Kneland-iTn,.- ,.,.. colder fair colder; moderate variable wlnd 01 or western Vork Hnow iturrl,. and co der to.mnrr,,,. moderately cold, probably .now (lurrlta lu. .... -, iicu nurwiwni winjj. WASHINGTON. Dee. ttn, low off the Atlnntlc conn n,i \ St. Lawrence Valley, the lower lake and the western Canadian provinces IV... ot high pressure of considerable mainit,,! Jiava their .centres over northnrn and Utah.' During the la.t twin,\ houra there were local anowa in n, lake region, rains In the north rM. States and considerable cloudlneii and fo. over the Ohio and central MisslaiBS valleys. In other regions the weih,t f, malned fair. The temperature has tin., decidedly along tho north border frJ Lake Kuperlor westward to North Dukoii nnd It has not changed materially In oth regions. Temperatures are relatively m.J over the east slope of the Ilocky Moun. nu K,,c,ir urnr umincts ai, thereof, and are near the normal In thi1 great central valleys and the h.i.i South fltatcs. In the New England sin.. tha weather will be unsettled Wednna,, and fair and conshlerahlv mA.. Thursday. In the middle Atlnntlc states the weather will be cloudy Wednesday nl ue ibit nuu uii inureuay, iq h south Atlantic and east Gulf statea thi weather will be generally fair without m. terlal change In temperature !nsdiv nnd Thursday. In the Ohio Valley mi. Tennessee the weather will be partly oloudy Wednesday and Thursday wild' somewhat lower tomperature. In the region oi wie KTfai inncs inert, will De local snows and much colder weather on' Wednesday and partly cloudy and modcr.l ate- - cold on Thursday. Cold wave warn. Ing& are displayed In upper Mlchlun anil n tho northern portion of Lower Caltfor. nla. Observations taken at United Statea W,nk, Bureau stations at 8 P. M. yesterday, meaty-- ! iliiu uieriuiau uuioi Ilainlill Temperature. Bar- - last U Stations. IIIgh.Low. ometrr. bra. Weather.) Abilene 42 42 M.CO Albany X 16 9.W Atlantic City... 38 32 M.ft Ilaltlmore 41 23 29.03 nitmarck 23 2 30.8S Doston 42 32 29.92 Buffalo 42 !0 29.M Charleston S3 40 90 00 Chicago 34 25 30.04 Cincinnati 3? 20 3D 03 Cleveland 42 30 29 92 Denver 64 34 M22 Detroit 39 24 l'S.92 Oalveston 6 M 3.0 Helena 14 24 S0.M Jacksonville.... 4 li 80.04 Kansas City.... 84 32 30.12 Los Ancele U ' 48 30.12 Milwaukee 82 28 30.04 New Orleans... C2 M 30.03 Oklahoma City id SO 3O.0S Philadelphia... 44 31 29 98 Pittsburg 40 it 29.92 Portland, Me... 88 23 .9 Portland. Ore.. 63 62 30.04 Salt Lako City. 3D 20 30.30 Saa Antonio... 68 46 30.04 flan Diego 68 4 30.10 San Francisco.. 62 4S SJ.ta St, Louis 28 M 30.04 Washington.... 4J 20 29.98 .. Clear ' .. clear - JLW m .. Cloudy Cloudy .. Cloud; ., Clear .. Cloudy .. Clear .. Cloudy .. Clear .. Cloudy .. Cloudy .. Clear .. Cloudy .. Cloudy .. Clear .. Cloudy .. Pi. Cldy .. Clear .. Cloudy .. Gear .. Four .2i Cloudy .. Cloudy .. Clear .. Clear Clear .. Rain Clear LOCAL WEATTTEn RECORDS. 8 A. M. 8 P Jl. Barometer 30.1T 2)11 Humidity 83 II Wind direction N. K. S. Wind velocity 14 i Weather Cloudy Cloudy Precipitation one .om The temDerature In this city yesterday, aa recorded by the offlcl.il thermometer, U shown In the annexed table: , BA.M...38 1P.M. ..40 6 P.M. ..II A, M. ..88 z v. 3i . . . a a ir .. . 10 A. M...40 8P.M.. .46 IP. M...II 11 A.M... 38 4 P.M. ..41 9P.M. ..II 17M 39 6 T. M...38 10 P. M. I) 1919. 1918 191. li. 9 A.M... 38 62 6 P. M. 0 81 12 M 39 63 9 T. M. .88 tl 3 P. M...45 63 12 Mid.. 33 II Highest temperature, 46, at 3 r Jl. Lowest temperature, is, i , a. Average temperature, 31. EVENTS TO-DA- Sneletv for the Prevention of Cruelty t? Children, Christmas entertainment. 7 Fourlft avenue, 4 i: n. New York Press Club, celebration ot tha wiping out of its second niortgaje, 21 Spru's street, 3 to 6:30 P. M.- - , , , Trucks, Deartng niuminmru .,m. \'\-an- d carol aimers from the Julia l\\ High School, dressed In early hew Er jlan.l garb, will carry Yuletifle cheer Into the lonely nelshborhoods of the city, auspices ol tM Community Councils of Greater mw ior. starting from me aiuiunpai j,uim,.. P M St.' Paul's Church. Christmas ere nai; celebrated after the manner of the mass oi the Madeleine In Paris. Clinton and Carroll streets. Brooklyn. 10:83 P.M. h St. Stephens woman i ; \r:; solemn htsh midnight . mass, wun choir of fifty voices and specia music the direction oi ur. o. r. mVs, X \Piano auVpices\ ot To Edtatlon'LlAllLce Straus Auditor urn 197 East Broadway, 8.U P. M. m Aitmm.oo 'res. . ... i fnr rhil- - Playianu. ;;: ci.i drsn. Un very yeu.emc.u - ,rr\het sidTLeaiue; Vfternoon and evening. ,. . ,,,, oil Chrlstmas emr. .;..... . , t m women empioisu '.\; \ \ - era- - East Slxteenin \\; 'ow. '\B.' i-- r ,V. \in Bird\ rsct.rt F. M. . . . , . ti,l IfoAlnln. 12 Klwanla ciud, iuuimouu, rMVpolltan Paper B 3Uaaf.et.refi. luncheon. Hotel McAlpln. . , Unity unurcu, jneeu, Canadian Kur Company exhibit, Waller!- - Astoria, all day. FOR MEN IN UNIFORM. D.ncea-- W. C. C. S. No. 8, 2 West SWJ- - fourth street. 8 P. M. Ktnical uniuni v Club Ty W. H A.. 31 West 110th .trt. men, 25 cents. Vacation Asswiaiwa null, SS West Tmriy-mni- admission. 10 cents. u\ Service Club (W C. C. No 3 , 491 Seventh avenue, at Thirty-sevent- street, p. M refreshments served. K of I tlon Centre, lirwre aim lyn. Christmas party and inoe i HcnOOl tl, Biayiriuti, ni.', ton Community' Club, 8 P. 11. Luncheon, Cmnpllmentary-- St. Josephs Conn ell Service Clnl', (K of L .), Ml nm atreet. 1 to 7 r. M. branch. V t. Soclsl Evenings-Cent- ral A.. 610 Islington avenue, Fifty third 7 to 10 P. M., recreation and lnualc Community Slng-- V. C. C. S. I'nlt Nj- J. Slxtv.fourth street and Central P.tK fourth floor, 7:2 P. M. LIBEL TRIAL SET FOR MONDAY. Delny In Ilenlrd In Mr. Case Afrnlnst XcwMinpcr. Judpe William II. Wndliams dec! n. 1 to listen yesterday to further tun\-men- for postponement in the trial \t publishers and editors of the New Y Timet nnd thi- - New York riibunr urg- ing out of the suit for criminal llb.d In- stituted by Mrs. William Itnrdolrj Hearst, and notified counsel for parties to bo ready to eo on ult'i the case next Monday. The defendants, who were Indlit 'd in July. 1318. ato Adolph S. Ochs. pub- lisher, nnd John I'alne. former nIkM city editor of the Times; Odcen M l\1'1. publisher, and Errol Hart, night Ity editor ot the Tribune. LARGEST U. S. SUB LAUNCHED. The ltl Una n Crtillnr Itiidlus of 12,000 Miles. The 6, the larcest submarine \f the Tnlted Stntni Navy. 200 feet loiiS. nnd with a cruising radius of 1 miles, was launched yesterday from th yards of tho I.nko Torpedo Iloat fnt\-pan- y at IJrldgcrort. Conn. Sho christened by Mrs. Archibald' Mi.Mc Jr.. with n. bottle of rhntnpnttne ' The submarine when fully equlpi-- l will bo capable of flftcn kr - on the surface and twelve knots an ho ir submerged. She will be manned I crew of fifty.