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New-York semi-weekly tribune. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1845-1850, September 29, 1847, Image 1

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T H E N E W - Y O E K SEMI-WEEKLY TKIBUKE I s i ’liblislieil ev e i'y W etUiestUsy lu 'd Satiu'jla.yj AT TH E TRIBUNE BULLDINUS, comer of Nassau and Spruce-streets,opposite tbeCi^^ Hall. Price $3 per annum. Two copiesfor $5. T H E N E W - T O K K H A I L T R I B U N E Is published every morning, Sunday excepted. Price $5 per annum. T H E N E W - Y O R K . W E E K E Y T R I B U N E annum. Ten co- ty S 'p T .S o ? S '“ a moonlight i tair St. Pei’'-'s, ou the Abbey gtifti Lo ! the lamp^,’ like fiery serpents, go winding tar away; Or, like glow-worms, scattered, twinkle and wink up from below— [niSht we go. B u t’t is not to gaze on this fair sight that through the Not a builded brick, or stone, or stick, on. tliose wide acres But hears a tongue within it—hath a language of its own ; In street and square and alley bare, with its growth of hu- m anseef, , , . [and read! Is a great book spread benebth us—X jook down, my lord. In steeples^ upward springing _ read prayer struck ^into In pri8ons\’arred and hastioned read crime and curse and In lighted West-end houses read mirth and warmth and In foul^Str briles’s hovels read squalor, want and wo. There’s a homily—hark to it. ’Tis the voice of Saffronhill “ I suffer, how I suffer from my freight of human i l l ! *• All is filthiness without m e ; all is ignorance within; I ache with cramps—I shake with damps—Oh the warmth of glorious gin !” And now for proof—off goes a roof—is that a house or hire ? Each bed’s a room, each room a town, so packed and yet alive! \ [horde, Lo, the maggot life of London! And that hopeless, b a r’ “ In foulness bred, in foulness fed, is work for you, my 1 Another and another, and the sight is still the same; • Suffering that knows no solace, and sin that knows no shame. [schools; Hunger by thousand tables; savage life ’mid thousand Here are human hearts to frame anew—Bethink you of the But hark! another voice is up, and pompously it booms From well-spread tables, easy beds, and trimly furmsht rooms. “ i am R espectability; things must not go on s o ; _ There ’8 nowhere I can drive my gig) brit something calls out wo. “ Then your sanitary meddlers, all agog for drain and For my part, all I know is, I wish the drains were fewer; Poor folks w ill throw things down ’em—as for unwhole- ir street’s extremely sweet, and that’s all my af “ You ’re right, my mow our hereon chimes ,in big worthy friend: time this stuff and nonsense were brought unto an end .s ------ forthepoor—youshouldsee mely sweet, i Bumbledom, There’ the Union Workhouse for the poor—you si how we have broke ’em Into temperance by short diet, into industry by o rk 1 that hoarse and hollow voice—’tis froi tide of crime [stern endeavor; rn, and mocks my _ , _ ____ led crime for centuries, and feeble all I feel, Though my hones are hones of granite, and my sinews ‘hammered steel. “ Ye little wot how hard and hot the ____ j a playt ;allows-tree. Mother Church she c a n ; them club ither C to help m e; let Saint School do all ----- I grown man, me the full- UNE, BY GREELEY & McELRATH. OFFICE TRIBUNE BUILDINGS. THREE DOLLARS A YEAR. VOIi. l O . NO. 36. N E W - Y O K I t , W E D N E S D A Y , S E E T E f f l B E R »*», 1 8 4 7 . WMOEE NO. 244. Give them child-crime to fight with, and leave me the fuU- Or soon the evil saps my walls, and dpwnforth will ye fall. Master Bumble, Sir Respectable, gig, mace, cocked-hat The stern sounds cease, the stars look peace on the streets so still and gray— [yon m a j ; And now to Downing-street, my Lord, with what appetite And bethink you of the Lesson of London read anght. When, with PujicAfor guide, you listened to the Voices of the Night. ________ ____________ OEATION ON THE DEATH OF DANIEL O’CONNELL, Delivered at Castle Garden, Sept. 22, 1846. BY WILLIAM H. SEWARD. There is sad news from Genoa. An aged and weary pilgrim, who can travel no farther, passes beneath the gate of one of her ancient palaces, say­ ing with pious resignation as he enters its silent chambers, “ W e ll! It is God’s will that I shall never see Rome. I am disappointed. But I am ready to die. It is all right!” “• The superb,” though fading d u e e n of the Med­ iterranean holds anxious watch, through ten long days, over that majestic stranger’s wasting frame. And now Death is there—the Liberator of Ireland has sunk to rest in the Cradle of Columbus. Coincidence beautiful and most sublime ! I t was the very day set apart by the elder daughter of the Church lor prayer and sacrifice throughout the world for the childron o fthe sacred Island, perish­ ing by famine and pestilence in their homes and N a p o l e o n in the brilliant scene of his Coronation in NotjK Dame, or when taking leave ofhis veterans at Fontainebleau — but you are transported with awe or pity when you contemplate him among the soli­ tudes of the frozen Alps or looking off on the im­ prisoning sea from the iaaccosgible cliffs of St. Helena. You perceive the serene dignity of W ash ­ ington iuthepiufcure that commemorates his accep­ tance of his dangerous commission in the halls ofthe Continental Congress; and you weep when he is seen dismissing his unreward ed-though triumi>hant army on the Hights of the Hudson. But your soul is overpowered with his greatness when you come to the uncanopied place where G beenough ’ s accurate taste banishing even the drapery of the living age, presents to you the F a t h e r of his C ountry in colossal marble, alone. Prom the beginning there have been tw’o condi­ tions of Man, and these in perpetual opposition— Force and Resistance; two agencies working out his destiny. Power and Freedom, and these in un­ ceasing conflict; two elements of Government, Aristocracy and Democracy, and these in everlasting war. Nations inspire us with awe, or bate, or rev­ erence, or sympathy, as they sustain one or the other of these conditions, exert one or the other of these agencies, manifest one or the other of these elements. The Man who for a time becomes sub­ stituted for a Nation is clothed in our regard with the national attributes. The people of Ireland, during near 700 years have maintained a conflict for our common race, of Resistance against Force, Freedom against Power, Right against Usnrpation. Through more than 20 y e a rs o f th a t conflict, D an iel O’CoNNELi. w a s the impersonation of th a t p eople, “ A Nation in a Man comprised.” In this consists the secret of the interest he ex­ cited while living and of all his fame now that he lives no more. It is his Country, therefore, and only his Country—as she was, as she is, and as she is to he—that must ha regarded, if we would fully comprehend add truly Itnow the chai'acter of O’C on - Ireland was long ago an independent nation, governed by a King and Council or Parliament, and was divided into inferior Kingdoms and subordinate Septs or Clans. It had population and revenues equal to what were generally possessed by other States in the same age. One of its inhabitants thus described the Kingdom a thousand years ago: ‘ es an isle of ancient fame, 3d—Hibernia Is her name 1 books—exhaustlesB Is her store Of veiny silver and o f golden ore. Her fruitful soil forever teems with wealth, W ith gems h er waters, and h er air with health; Her verdant fields with milk — ' ------- ”— Her woolly fleeces vie with ^ Her waving furrows float wil And arms and arts her envied sons adorn. No poison there infects, nor scaly snake Creeps through the grass or settles in the lake; A nation worthy of its pious race— In war triumphant, and unmatched in peace.” Ireland had then a Court in which Learning was honored n ext to Royalty; a Church that sent forth Missionaries who' converted a large portion of V/cstern Europe; Laws that divided estates ofthe qual justice; that gave the trial by J ury ■Saxon’s b o ast; that ordained inns for the entertainment of travelers at the public ex­ pense, and that knew only one capital or unxiardon- able crime. And it was treason and sacrilege to lange those laws. There were trained bauds which were sworn to resist even a seven fold foe; Knights who won renown for valor and courtesy on the Plains of Palestine, and Dames who were hou ored by admiring Bards and Minstrels in strains like these: ‘‘ The Daughlor of Moran seized the harp! And h er vuico of music praised the strangers ; Their souls melted at the song Like a wreath o f snow before tbo 1 speak no interested, no partial, no imagiuativ eulogy. It is the testimony of General History, a accredited by modern Learning. A las! How unlike is this picture to Ireland now in an age tenlbld more enlightened and humane ! were O ’C onnell ’ s fitting knell; his soul went forth ^What has wrought this change ? Has Ireland de- on clouds of incense that rose from altars of Chris- generated, or has she been degraded and debased in^ their native fields, and ou their crowded paths of exile, on tj||^ sea and in the havens, and on the lakes, and along the rivers of this far-distant land. The chimes rung out by pity for his countrymen /’'k .X ft. r.T T f A .i-1....... 1 I tiau Charity ; and the mournful anthems which re­ cited the faith, and the virtue, and the endurance of Ireland, were his becoming requiem. It is a holy sight to see the obsequies of a soldier, not only of Civil Liberty, but of the Liberty of Con­ science—of a soldier, not only of Freedom, but of the Cross of Christ—of a benefactor, not merely of a race o r people, but of mankind. The vault lighted by suspended worlds is the temple within which the great solemnities are celebrated. The nations of the earth are moumers, and the spirits of the just made perfect, descending from their golden thrones on high, b reak forth into songs like this: “ Tears are-not now thy due. From the world’s toil. Come to assume in Heaven the brighter b ir th : A winged angel, from thy mortal coil Escaped I Thy glory lingers y et round earth. Christ’s hallowed warrior, living, thou went’st forth; Christ’s champion didst thou die. And now, blest . shade I The crown and palm of righteousness and worth Thou wear’st, with joys unspeakable repaid.” The Priesthood of Genoa, grateful for the honor of dismissing the lofty spirit from its mortal conflict, cover the departing bier with sad funereal weeds. Rome, ever avaricious of relics, though she has gathered into her Urn the ashes of the great and good of near thirty centuries, reverentially claims and embalms and shrines with her soul-subduing litanies, the heart of y e t another— “ Who through the foes has borne her banish’d gods.” Behold now a Nation which needeth not to speak its melancholy precedence. The Lament of Ire­ land comes forth from palaces deserted, and from shrines restored; from Boyne’s dark water, wit­ ness of her desolation, and from Tara’s lofty hill, ever echoing her renown. But louder and deeper yet that wailing comes froig^ the lonely huts on mountain and on moor where the people of the greenest Island of all the seas are expiring in the midst of insufficient though world-wide charities.— W ell indeed may they deplore O ’C onnell , for they were his children; And he bore them from their rightful x’ossessiuns, and on the other by the native Septs into whose hands they were driven, were thus rendered houseless and desper­ ate. Outlaws by statute and by proclamation, they formed themselves from nece.ssity into predatory bands, and descending from the mountains, made reprisals on the Pale and carried the war of fierce retaliatioi# to the very gates of its cities. The lust of power soon discovered and opened that fountain whoso bitter floods no art can stay nor purify. Ambitious Dublin robbed Armagh, the Arch-Episcopal see, of its treasures and sacred relics. The King of England rewarded the sacri­ lege with ecclesiastical authority over the Island— proscribed! from the ministry the natives who de­ nounced the usurpation, and the English Church within the Pale set the stamp of its approbation on the policy of the Government by the atrocious dog­ ma that it was not a sin to kill an Irishman. But it remained- for the Tudors, the Common­ wealth and the Guelphs, to sound the depths of Fanaticism. Although the Parliament of Eng­ land vacillated long with the policy and caprice of the Conrt, the conversion of the People of that country to the tenets of the Reformation, resnlted from a conviction that the Religion of Luther was true. Thei Catholic Church there was subverted. But England was in some sort connected with Ire­ land, and she must be converted in order that a su­ perstitious prophecy might be fulfilled, which taugh t t h a t t h e Chair of St. P e t e r would fall when Ireland should cease to sustain it, and to the end also that Rome should not regain her ascendency in England through the agency of Catholic Ire­ land. England sent to convert Ireland not mission­ aries but the sword. Rejecting the Catholic Rit­ ual because it was expressed in an unknown tongue, she sent the English Prayer-Book to a People ignorant of that language and employed a ferocious soldiery to illustrate its real simplicity and beauty. The Parliament of the Pale, like the sun-flower,I turned its revolving face to catch the Royal smile, and received from Henry VIII. Ed­ ward VI. Mary and Elizabeth successively, a dif­ ferent religion -with the same cheerful loyalty that it greeted “ the new superscription and image of each on the coin of the Kingdom.” The Irish pre­ ferred their own long cherished religion to that so rudely and inconsistently recommended to them by their enemies. Thenceforth .ensued a war of con­ fiscation and massacre reaching far downward to- word our own time, and in which, although the parties remained unchanged, the hostility of races was lost in the terrible conflict of religious sects. England, exasperated by the firmness of Ireland, determined to extirpate her heresy by extermina­ ting her People, and to supply their place with more orthodox colonies from Scotland as well as from the regions South of the Tweed. The genius of the versatile Bacon was taxed to make the new plantations grow, and the funds to early on the ex­ terminating war were obtained by mortgaging the lands to be conquered. No mercy was shown even to women or children in this war of Faith. The Irish Peoiile fled before the destructive armies and took refuge in caverns. Subsisting there on the fruits of the pasturage and on the spoils taken from their invaders, they multiplied like the blades of grass, while their obnoxious F aith became as firm as their mountain homes. Then cam e new armies, driving the natives down upon the plains; and when it \v,as found that famine volved both parties in common destruction, the mer- . concession was made that the enti ilation of Ireland should be allow single; iirovince, there to remain lerred a Catholic Parent’s estpte lo his abjuring -gave a separate maintenance to a renouncing and emancipated from parental control all Catholic children who would forsake the family al­ tar-subjected Catholic property to seizure for pub­ lic purposes without compensation, and finally pro­ vided for the execution of these dreadful laws by iciary responsible to the King, by Bishops with prisons in some cases, by Magistrates in oth­ ers with the rack instead of the Jury, and in others with Juries authoriz* d to render verdicts at the so­ licitation of corrupt informers and on the.testimo- of convicted felons. Thus did the Religion )se test is the mutual love of its disciples be­ come under Human Policy — “ A plea for sating the unnatural thirst For Murder, Rapine, Violence and Crioie.” No language loss copious, elaborate and accurate than that of Edmund Burke can express the char­ acter of this extraordinary code. “ It is (said lie) a system full of coherence and con­ sistency ; well digested and well disposed in all its p a rts; a machine of wise and elaborate contrivance, well fitted for the impoverishment and degradation of aueoplo, and the debasement in them of Human Nature itself.” This system continued in its utmost possible efficiency until the year 1778, and, although then what modified, remained in oppressive opera­ tion until the y ear 1829, a period of one hundred and thirty-nine yearp. And what were thd effects of the Penal Code and of the system which preceded it ? Ireland groaned under the burdens of a foreign Govern­ ment and of foreign landlords. Commerce had grown to be a mighty power in E n g land, and Com­ merce strnok hands with Fanaticism. Ireland was forbidden all foreign trade, while its manufacto­ ries were undermined to favor English monopoly. Notwithstanding tho I'Esonrces and fertility of the itry, its wealth was exhausted in payin^ to English landlords, tithes to English Priests, prof­ its to English artisans and taxes to the English Government. “ For foreign Lord* her People sow their native land.” Poverty stalked through the Isle. Half the in­ crease of population was given up to America to fell the forests and plant cities there, and the re­ mainder was reduced to subsist on an esculent root the cheapest yielded by Nature to the cultiva­ ting hand of Man. W e re not the natives then ex- t'npated 1 Did they not now renounce that odious Faith? No! Ireland had increased its numbers by three-fold. W e do not know that one parent had relinquished his creed,—one wife had forsaken her husband,—or one child had abjured the altar of its forefathers. Protestantism though nourished on plunder^ had declined, and the Religion of Rome, watered by tears and fanned by the blasts of Per­ secution, flourished in unwonted and vigorous lux­ uriance. This was the condition of Ireland in 1775; and now our inquiries arq answered. Tho People of Ireland have not degenerated. They have been degraded from their high estate, not by their own act, but by the Aristocracy of England. They oye of Uio sun.” and pestilence in- li parties in common d« clful concession was made th at the entire Catholic population of Ireland should be allowed a refuge death if found beyond its borders. At length, in the year of the Gospel of Peace by foreign power ? Did Ireland. stmgp resign herself to ruin ? Listen, and you shallhear- struggle, or did she That neither age c Again and again, with excess of sorre iorrow, they p lead: “ If yet we keep echo groan for gre The pageant pauses. Next to the Chief Mourn­ er, space is opened for America, eldest of the new­ born Nations. W h y shall not America accept that Separated by only an ocean channel, and colo­ nized originally by the same Celtic race, the Isl­ ands of Britain and Ireland have been distinguished by fortunes as wide as the Poles. Britain, con­ quered by the Romans, the Danes, the Saxons, and the Normans, derived from that severe experience- the consolidation, discipline, ambition, and energy which have enabled it to grasp the empire of the world. Ireland, devoted to Piety and Learning, re­ maining long uncouquered and unconquerable, and unmoved by cupidity or ambition, was early dis­ tracted by factions and finally betrayed by them to a conqueror. In the twelfth century, Henry 11. a Norman, King ol England, who held the refinements of life in much contempt, “ cast in his mind’’ to conqu( the adjoining Island, “ because it was commodioi for him, and its people seemed to him savage and rude.” Invited by a native Prince who had been dethroned, he appeared in Ireland with a real or forged grant under the seal of Breakspeare, an Englishman who occupied the Papal See at Rome under the name of Adrian IV. Early converted to Christianity without the blood of Martyrs, the Irish had nevertheless been the last to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome. Having received that article of faith, they have held it fast at the cost of ages of want, of millions of lives, and even of national ex­ istence. Ireland denied the pretensions of the Pope to teiWOTal power, and resisted the invader. Hen­ ry d i ^ b t reinstate the Irish King, but he estah- ished bn the coast a martial colony, and by virtue of this acquisition, which was henceforth called the Pale, he claimed to be conqueror of the whole Island. A Royal Deputy governed the Pale with a Council of Nobles and Clergy, which after­ ward became a Parliament, -and the little do­ main was parceled out by the King in great estates to \Court favorites and military adventurers. Tho Aristocracy of England was thus by fraud and force planted in the Island of Saints, as it was then reverently called. Thenceforth its veins of silver and its dust of gold, the rabies of its lakes, the grain in its waving furrows, and the flocks on its thousand hills were to p ass away from its harmless six hundred and ninety-one, just live hundred and twenty years after the invasion by Henry, the wars which he began at first for conquest, and which afterward became a medley of Rapine and Faiiaticisnu, came to an end by tho Treaty of Lim­ erick after the Battle of the Boyne. “ Wearied with tedious war they cease. And both tho kings and kingdoms plight tho peace.” O’C onnell was acham- pion of Univeral Constitutional Freedom. That is her own cause—all her own. She arms and in­ structs and sends forth all its chieftains; and when one of them falls in the ever-continuing conflict, be his faith, his tongue or his lineage what it m ay; whether he die on the snowy plains of Poland, among the classic Islands of Greece, under the right skies of Italy, among the vine-clad hills of t skies of Italy, among t France, or in the green valleys of Ireland; be he Kosciusko, or Bozzaris, or L aFayette, or O’Connell, America hastens to bear witness that he was her Soldier, Citizen and Representative. Panegyric commonly begins its picture by calling up revered ancestral shadows from long-forgotten graves, to fill the background; and then surrounds its hero with contemporaneous forms of kindred greatness. But there are figures so majestic as to exclude from the canvas all living companionship, while they derive no grandeur from being grouped with even the awful forms of the illustrious dead. Such is every one who, by permission of Providence, the devotion ofhis own soul, and the consent given by his fellow men or extorted firom them, losing hig own individuality, becomes for a period the repre­ sentative of a race, a people, a nation, or it may be\ of many races, peoples patiop?. You recognize people, to pamper despotic and insatiable Lords. That august Court, those ancient seminaries, the valiant bands, those chivalrous Knights, that Cyno­ sure of Beauty and the Bards who so worthily cel­ ebrated it, faded, declined and were lost forever. The establishment of the Pale enfeebled Ireland, although the Colony was utterly incompetent to lorn. The Colonists claimed to subjugate the Kingdc be masters of the Island. The Irish, with the Brit­ ish Power in the h eart of the country, asserted their sovereignty and independence. Hence resulted a division which, p erpetuated until now, has involved both in a common ruin.' Tho distinction between the natives and the invaders was graven broad and deep'by these conflicting titles, perpetual wars, in- iterate policy and clashing codes. The Govern­ ment of England acknowledged only the English inhabitants of the Pale as lawful subjects, and de­ nounced the natives a s ' “ Aliens,” “ Wild Irish,” and “ Enemies.” Magna Cfaarta and the Common Law were introduced within tho Pale, but their protection was denied to the natives while they were subjected to ike power of the^^Engliah Courts. The Irish language and costume were inhibited— intermarriages forbidden and naturalization under English laws denied. It was made lawful to kill an Irishman on suspicion without trial or process, and unlawful to entertain an Irish minstrel, to keep an Irish servant, or to feed an Irish horse. The native Princes, Nobles and Knights within the colony were trodden down, and the wretched peo­ ple expelle^ on the one hand as aliens and rebels 1 pain of ti and Good \V I toward Men, one thousand- wars? Ireland was conquered at lasi It, and was despoiled. The Aristocracy of England Were own and masters in Ireland, and its native posf ors were tenants, servants and’slaves. The c try contained eleven millions of acres of tillable land. One million were possessed by Englishmen who, having come to convert Ireland to Luther, had relapsed to Rome. Ten millions of acres were the pi'opjgrty of English Protestant Lords, and not one acre was left to the native Celtic Irishman. But the People of Ireland had not been exterminated. They constituted three-fourths of the population, and wore more numerous than ever. W h a t then ? Had Ireland saved nothing? Had England gained everything? No! The Aristocracy of England bad gained a country they could not fill— Ireland had saved her Faith, and England bad gained nothing, not even the security she had deemed essential. The Catholic Religion remained unshaken in Ireland. Liberty of Conscience was a condition of the capitulation at Limerick, and was solemnly guaranteed by W illiam of Orange and Mary the daughter of James. Policy as well as well as public IFaith now re­ quired that the conquered kingdom should be left in peace, tliatits wastedstrength should be repaired, that the rankling wounds opened daring centuries of persecution should be healed, and that Ireland should be admitted to free enjoyment of the civil rights guaranteed by the British Constitution. But F e a r and Fanaticism know no policy suggested by Humanity and keep no covenants, though they be written in blood. England still feared the return of her Catholic Princes, and therefore willed that the People of Ireland, although inflexible in their faith and always loyal \yhen not driven to rebellion, and although they were reposing on the Treaty of Limerick, should nevertheless be converted to the Reformation. The object of E ngland remained the same, only the means were now changed, and P er­ fidy was added to Persecution. The Army gave place to the sterner Despotism of the Law, and the Sword to the Scaffold—a more certain engine of destruction. Ireland Tvas already subjected under a constitu­ tion admirably adapted to the introduction of the Penal Religious Code. Her only Legislature was the Parliament of the Pale—and this semblance of a legislature had been deprived of Life by the Poy- nings law, which forbade it to assemble without the previous consent of tho King, or to pass any law not first approved by him. Petitions from Ire­ land were inhibited unless first sanctioned by the Royal Deputy residing there, and Irishmen were forbidden to leave their country lest by their com­ plaints they might annoy the majesty of the King- or disturb the equanimity, of the Commons of E n g ­ land. The Penal Code banished the Bishop, the Priest and; the Schoolmaster from Ireland—forbade attendance on Catholic worship on pain of death for perseverance—made the converting of a Protest­ ant to the Catholic F aith a felony—annulled exist­ ing marriages between Catholics and Protestants and interdiicted them in future—transferred Catho­ lic children of living jparents to guardians in Chan- eery—closed against Catholics every office of trust or profit in the. State, in tho Army and in the Na­ vy, and in every Corporation, mercantile or munici­ pal-deprived them of the right to be freeholders, the right to vote, to maintain actions at law, to be Jurors, to keep arms for self-defence, to travel even within the kingdom, to be executors or guardians, and even of the • righi: to keep a horse worth more than five pounds-robbed the Catholic child of its estate if even unwillingly or unoonscioujiJy in­ structed h;y k Catholic at home or abroad—trans- forgectiug the injuries of six hundred years. Did ever the earth exhibit a scene of truer National Magnanimity 1 But Ireland in 1782 was only independent, as America was in the samele period.erio It yet remained p in each country to establish and secure the liber­ ties of the People. This was done here by the erection of the Federal Republican Constitution o 1787, which, although reared amid doubts and fears, has gained stability with time, and has, as we ar­ dently hope, become eternal. But the Parliament of Dublin remained in Ireland. It was no less nowiihan before the engine ofthe usurping aristoc­ racy of England. Its virtues had expired in the throes of its birth. No Constitution could be ob­ tained without the consent of the Parliament of the Pale—a Parliament in which three-fourths ofthe People had not a shadow of representation and the other portion had only a shadow. In the face of an armed convention of the People, and iu the midst of universal commotion, the Parliament of Dublin refused a Constitution to Ireland! Already all that had been gained was lost but the shadow of inde­ pendence, and that was sure to follow soon. The patriots of Ireland hastened from the hated halls of the Parliament of the P ale with deep disgust, and, rushing to the altars of Liberty, applied themselves to -wake again its sleeping fires. The Revolution was once more set in motion, but the ball had near­ ly spent its force. The men of ’98, brave and true, attem p t e d under circum stances o f e x trem e difli- culty to prepare a doubtful w a r . The Irish P e o p le were again dissevered by the same everlasting cause of faction—the foreign aristocracy in their bosom. Although the gallant leaders were Protest­ ants, yet the mass of Protestants supported the Parliament. The Catholic clergy saw the hope­ lessness of conflict and shuddered at the calami­ ties it portended to a faithful and already deeply wretched peCplei England had recovered her giant energies. The thunders of the American Revolu­ tion slept; an ambitious, licentious, and ferocious Faction reigned in Paris, and, blasphemously claim­ ing the name of liberty, was threatening to involve the world iu anarchy. Nevertheless, there was no hope for Ireland but in aid from France, and in the arms of her own people. The insurrection was planned with skill and secrecy, but Treason gained access to its counsels and fomented it to a preco­ cious maturity. Then it broke forth only to betray its heroic leaders to the scafibld,' and their patriotic associates throughout the island to massacre indis­ criminate and merciless. Yet the Ribellion of’98 was not altogether rma vailing. Every drop that streams from the veins of a mai-tyr in the cause of Liberty, is gathered again by Him who wills that all his children shall be free, and is poured into the heart of some n ew­ born champion, imparting more than human vigor to the arm of the avenger. The British Government now asserted that Ire­ land had tried Lhe responsibilities of Government, jnd had proved herself incompetent They dis­ armed the people, established martial law, falsely promised specious favors to the Catholics, and showered gold and power ou the Protestants, and thus, iu 1800, the eighteenth year of Irish Indepen­ dence, obtained from the Parliament of tho Pale- have resisted this degradation with heroic energy, and have resisted to the last. The Aristocracy of England has usurped the Government of Ireland, and set upon it “ Tho mark of selfishness, 'I'ho siguut ol iu ail-enaluvlng power.” This was the condition of that unhappy country iu tho y ear 1775, six hundred and Jive years after the descent of Henry the Anglo-Norman King jjn its coast, when two events happened, widely dif­ ferent aud distant—the one in an obscure corner of the Island—the other in a remote part of tho British Emijire: events destined to affect forever the con­ dition not only of Ireland but of all mankind. Brit­ ish troops fired on the railiiia of Massachusetts in Lexington on the I'-Hli of April, 1775, aud D aniel - O ’C onnell was horn at Carheq .ip Ireland on the 6 th of August in the same year. The American Revolution exhibited a triumph­ ant resistance to the unconstitutioiial legislation of the ImperialParliament by a portion of the Empire far less oppressed than Ireland, and infinitely more pros()erous and happy. But that Revolution was more than this: It vindicated the inalienable and universal right of mankind to resist oppression and overthrow tyranny, however established aud how­ ever long endured. It was more even than this: It vindicated the inalienable and universal right and capacity of mankind to establish and conduct Governments for themselves and to change them t pleasure. I t struck the Governments of theEarth with consternation, and bewildered the enslaved masses of men with hopes which were not alto­ gether illasion s of Freedom and of U n iversal E q u a l­ ity. In the language of L a Fayette, America was not a solitary rebel. She was a Patriot in the cause of Humanity. Irelandnot only sympathized profoundly with the Trans-Atlantic Colonies in their complaints of usurp­ ation under which she suffered more sorely than they, but with inherent benevolence and ardor she yielded at once to the sway of the great American jipatioa. The bitter me­ mory of a stream of ages lifted up her thoughts, and she was ready to follow to the war for the >f Human Nature “ Thehe propitiousropitious godod thathat seemedeemed to leadad thehe ay.” “ T p g t s to le t wf This war, thus opened by America, is the struggle in which Ireland has been engaged ever since, in which O ’C onnell labored with so much zeal and force and success, and which h e has left unfinished. England, was soon at war not only with her American Colonies, but also with France, and Spain and. Holland,—^France threatened to invade Ireland, and America had already led Ireland into Revolution. Left by the British Government to’de­ fend themselves, the People of Ireland gathered at once an army of brave and well-appointed volun­ teers ready to resist the threatened invasion if England would yield Independence, and even mpre ready to achieve Independence if it should be refused. The.'influence -of such great events exalted for a time the virtues of tho Irish People. The Catholic forgot his peculiar wrongs amid the new-born hopes ofhis Country; the P rotestant for­ got his long-cherished fears. Now firmly united and lifting with them for a brief period the wretched Legislature of the Pale, they demanded the inde­ pendence of that Parliament. They preserved the forms of loyalty, indeed, but their resolution of rights w-as couched in the language of Freemen, and their petitions were written on tho drum-head and presented on the point of tho bayonet. The British Parliament were confounded. They heard at the same moment tho same principles, sentiments and resolutionss from Jefferson and Adams ajid Jay and Franklin in the Congress of America, from Grattan and Flood in the Parliament of Ireland, and from Chatham, the Tribune of the whole Empire, within their own Halls. They evaded, then con­ ciliated, and at last conceded. In 1778 the pro- visions of the Penal Code concerning tho rights of Property and Education were relaxed. Other concessions of the same sort followed in 1782; and in the same year, when the exigency became more alarming, Ireland was restored to Independence by a Declaration of tho British Parliament that “ The Rights claimed by tho People of that Island, to be bound only by Laws enacted by his Majesty and the Parliament of that Kingdom, should bo and then was established, and should at no time there­ after be questioned or questionjible.” Ireland, al­ ways moderate, always confiding, was content with this concession, which left her a distinct Kingdom, ii^ependeqt of Britain, but united, to that country through a common Protestant Throne. Then asher heart swelled with the memories of the glories of other days, and opened to visions of brighter glories in the future, she clasped her sis-, ter England with gratitude, pride and affection, On such occasions the pati’iot would exclaim, with a heart beating loud and fast, “ It shall be thus no m o re: too long, too long, Sons of the glorious Dead I have ye lain bound, In Darkness and in Ruin. Hope is stro n g ; Justice and Truth their winged child have found. Awake ! Arise ! until the mighty souttd Of your career shall scatter in its gust The throne of the oppressor.” The new revolution began in no popular impuls'e, for the People were roused, not witlioa#long, v ehe­ ment and incessant agitation. It had no fore,ign impulse. America was at rest, and France and even all Europe, were slumbering in the amus of Legitimate Monarchy. It was not a Military In­ surrection ; for Sedition had been tried for th.e last time. It depended not on the Irish People alone, for they were nearly powerless. It must b e effect­ ed by the British King and Parliament, and they could be moved only by Moral force, or Opinion. The objects ofbhe Revolution must be divided. Liberty of Conscience, or Catholic Bmanci^jation, must be demanded first. The Independence of Ireland, or Civil Liberty, must he attained after­ ward. If both were demanded at onc,e, neither would be granted. D aniel O ’C onnell knew that such a Revolu­ tion was possible, and in this knowledge excelled his country aud Ms age. W h en that knowledge was acquired, he stood confessed to himself, the Statesman of the-Revolution. From that hour he expanded, and “ Bore aloft the Fame and Fortunes of his Race.” But h o w should O p inion be directed with effect ? Burke and F o x , C a n n ing and B r o u g h a m and By­ ron, had pleaded for Catholic Emancipation in the British Senate; had shown the absurdity, the un­ righteousness and the inhumanity of the Penal R e­ ligious Code, and had demonstrated that it was only less ruinous to Protestants and to England than to Catholics and to Ireland. The British Par­ liament were already convinced. Reason, argu­ ment and conviction would not be enough. The British Government must be made to fear and trem­ ble. But how should Opinion be made so poten-! It must begin in Ireland, a country divided by faction and sunk in despair. And if Ireland should NELL foandtbe Irish Iieait An inslraOient which answered to his slightest touch, for ‘-he knew the strings in which its jnusic dwelt-” He tuned it anew to its ancient themes ofpatriotilm and piety. At length the old King of England, after a long Kving death, was gathered to the garner-house of ifce grave. Anodious Ministry was found in Eng­ land under an odious Prince. Mendicity bad driv­ en the artisans and laborers of England to mu­ tiny. The propitious hour for agitation had come, and D a n ie l O ’C onnell broke forth before the world “Monarch of Ireland.” He was a King none the less'though-the “ stone of Destiny” had been removed from Tara’s Hall to Westminster Abbey— I a King without sacerdotal unction, royal descent, I election or usurpation—a King without acrow i^a court or guards—a King by consent of clergy and laity—a very King of 7,000,000, standing erect be­ fore fire Imperial Throne, .with power to levy armies, to maintain war and to conclude p ^ c e ~ a King who could arrest the laws of England j-« let them go to execution- 7 -a King who could k e ^ his •Subject people in perpetual endurance, or let them Torth at pleasure to a carnival of revenge.. O ’C onnell was no longer the mere lawyer, subject and Catholic, but, retaining all those charac­ ters and the same 'position, his individuality was gone: He was Ireland. The same Ireland that had shone forth a beacon of Piety, Arts andLCam- ing in the dark ages—the same Ireland that,t][iough tom by faction and betrayed every hour by treason, usurpation of England for 500 years—the same Ireland that had been circum­ vented into capitulation to a perfidious King at Limerick, that had endured the Cross, despised the shame and kept the faith through the terrors of the Penal Code, that had slept in the tomb with Sars- field, had revived to newness of life under Grattan, and had been buried again by Pitt in the grave of* the Union—the same Ireland revived and regen­ erated,. wearing indeed the cerecloth of ^j^esialtOBre bat more majestic, more.vigorous and more terrible to her oppressors than ever. The agency employed by O’C onnell WM U sim­ ple and sublime as were his own position and charac­ ter. Combination is inherent in Democratic action. Civil and militaiy associations were employed in 1782 and in the rebellion of 1798. Civil association was againtried.faut without effect, in 1810. The Gov­ ernment had now put forth all its skill to frame laws which should prevent combination. There should be no military association, no secret association, no Representative or ddegated Assembly, none that was political, and none to 'continue more than four- teen days. Nevertheless O ’C onnell organized and become unanimous, what then? She had only twenty-seven Barons in the House of Lords, while Great Britain had nearly four hundred. Ireland had only one hundred delegates in the House pf Commons, and not one true representative. Great Britain had five hundred representatives there.— The Church of England, standing on the ruins that were to be restored, was one of the great estates ofthe Empire. Even if all these obstacles should be surmounted, there stood the King, pledged and bound as he thought by bis Coronation Oath to re­ ject the Bill for the Liberty of Conscience. But even the Catholic Church and Clergy were not yet reliable. Britain was continually temporising, and Rome seemed not unwilluig to compromise, and so divide the Irish People. The Agitator needed therefore character and po­ sition which would enable him to speak with some show of authority to the People of Ireland. Catho. lies and Protestants, Clergy and Laity,—to the King, Lords, Commons and People of England,— to Rome herself, and to an impartial World. W h a t then were O ’C onnell ’ s character and po­ sition ? He was a British subject, a member of the Catholic Church and a lawyer in the Four Courts of Dublin—merely a lawyer, a Catholic and a sub­ ject ; and while Catholics remained disqualified he could be no more than this. He determined to invest that humble and obscure character aud that position -with power aud strength, and this power and strength were to he obtained from the consent of the Clergy and his countrymen. So bold a Reformer needed rare po-vvers and qual­ ities, and needed them in extraordinary combina­ tion. He must have transcendent genius to con- the surrender of its infamous existence. Ireland, fettered aud manacled m-ji-e than ever before, was annexed to Great Britain by the Act of Union. A gloomy period of twenty years succeeded. Tyranny scarcely feared resistance. Penury had taken up her home in the land. Turbulence was abroad,, but only to reconcile the people to any Govermneht that would suppress disorder. W ealth and learning, warmed at the root with the unnat­ ural heat of Royal favor, lost their independent attitude, aud putting forth parasitic tendrils, twined in sickly growth around the pillars of the State. The Peasantry took on the habit and the gait of Slaves. The voice of orators was heard only in subdued complaints; the clang of arms had ceased. Even the National Harp, that still retained its an­ cient sweetness, though trodden under foot by tyrants, forgot the wild inspiration of Freedom, only gave forth plaintive notes when struck by the hand of Despair. “ Altts for our Country 1 Her pride has gone by, And the spirit is broken that never would bend. If a hope could have risen in the patriot’s heart, it would have been dispelled by a glance at the condition of England. She had made ample repri sals in the W e st Indies, in North America, in Asia in Africa, and in the South Seas, for the loss of the Thirteen rebellious Colonies ; Waterloo had pros­ trated at her feet her great natural eqemy; Spain had entered on her dotage: Hollandj had relin­ quished her ambition. The B r it is h Navy h e ld al­ most undisputed sway over the seas, and British garrisons encircled the globe. « . How mysterious and inscrutable are the ways of Providence in conducting the affairs of nations!— That season of gloom so intense, was the hour that preceded the dawn of Irish Liberty. It was no matter how wide the Empire, or how vast the Ar­ mies or Navies of Britain, Ireland was to be deliv­ ered by Oi’iNiON, not by the Sword—by the S tates­ man, not by the Soldier. That Statesman was the first fruit of the cautious concessions concerning Property and Education made by England in 1778 and 1782. D aniel O’C onnell , a Roman Catholic, heir-apparent of Darrynane, had been instructed in the. faith of his forefathers and trained for the Forum. The force which he was to employ Ar the redemption of his country was the fruit of concession made in 1792 in order to secure the act of Union. The Right of Suffrage was then conferred on Catholics in Ire­ land having freeholds o fthe annual value of 40 shil­ lings. Then, and long afterward, the right was iu- ieed useless, and Suffrage was yielded with the rents due to the superior Lords. But the Right was there. The political education of the Liberator was that History of Ireland, whose spirit we have endeav­ ored, perhaps vainly, to recall. Ho had witnessed with horror the desecration of Liberty and Religion in France, and thus, while he was imbued with the purest sentiments of Patriotism, he was .not less firmly established in religious principles. He was never for a moment tempted to divide what he thought God had indissolubly combined, Religion and Freedom. He first appeared before his coun­ trymen at the age of twenty-five, at a meeting of Catholics in 1800 in the midst of an intimidating po­ lice, to consider the Act of Union, then before the Parliament in College Green. His speech, which was \a great beginning in so green,an age,” re­ vealed the principles on which, near twenty years afterward, ho worked out Catholic Emancipation, and brought the Independence of Ireland to the verge of triumph. These principles were the com- binatiou of those two measures and the Union of the P e o p le o f I r e lan d b y conciliation. tempt—energy to pursue it—moderation to concili­ ate—pacific temper to avoid irritations to force— prudence and sagacity to circumvent the strategy of the adversary—sympathy with Catholic Ireland to be its organ—reverence for the Clergy.to gain their influence—loyalty to the British Constitution, to disarm those who converted it into an engine ef Oppression—ardent and impulsive eloquence to rouse illiterate and unreflecting masses—^logical acumen and rhetorical power to confute sophistty and convince the learned—tact and address to gain ladjutors and hold them in their proper spheres— itience in hearing the insolence of offended powe id the timidity, waywardness and caprice of po] alar m a s s e s ; and w ith a ll t h e s e h e m u s t c o m b ine ___ ^Imancipatlon. was offered for their consent t o ___ Act of Union, (even if Emancipation were a benefit after the Union,) they would reject it with prompt Indigna­ tion. .icLet us show to Ireland that we have nothing in view but her good, nothing in pur hearts but the desire of mutual forgiveness and mutual reconciliation. Let every Tnan who agrees with me proclaim that if the al­ ternative wore oSered him ofthe Union, or tho reenact­ ment of tho Pena? Code in all its pristine horrors, he would prefer the Iktter as the leiser or more sufferable evil; that he would confide in the justice ofhisbreth- ren'the Protestants o f Ireland, rather than, lay his coun­ try at the feet of foreigners.” W e know not when the great scheme of deliver, ing his country first occurred to O’C onnell , but his life was a continual pfeparation for the enter- d dwellings ------------- - --- --------------- - d monuments o f less ungentte creeds, Tell their own tala to Him who Tightly heeds The language which they speak.’! - ■ s departed, devotion which would make the the. sole business of a whole lii great enterprise ife. Providence ’ing to exist only One at any one time, capable of conducting a nation in a great emergency. There was only one W a s h in g t o n in Ameidca, and there could be only one O ’C onnell in Ireland, Time and experience ripened the Liherator.- The Bar of Dublin opposed the young Reformer.- H e exposed their mercenary spirit and cast the herd behind him. The Corporation of Dublin sent a champion who called him to the field of combat He slew the supercilious adversary and pensioned his widow; and, moui’ning over his almost involun­ tary crime, trampled thenceforth under his feet the false code of Honor. H e claimed nothing for him­ self, and even less than an equal share of politi­ cal power for his Catholic countrymen. “ Non ego, nee Teucris Italos parere juhebo Nec mihi regna peto ; paribus se legibus ambee Junctee gentes eterna in foedera mittant.” Opposition,’oppression, even imprisonment, could not extort from him a breath of disloyalty to the throne, nor even to the Protestant succession. He maintained inflexibly that the Deliverance of Ire­ land would he hazarded by a single crime and lost by the sacrifice of a single life. He detected with piercing sight the defects of laws designed to coun­ teract the Revolution, and organized all Ireland on a basis as narrow as the technicality-of a special plea. Fervid and vehement he carried with him the passions of the People, as a cloud that covered his person whenever he discoursed to them of Ms great theme; perspicacious and deliberate, he y the admiration of mankind by the profoundness of his testimony before aBritish Parliament-concerning the evils of Oppression. He waUdflimporturhahly to mature his prep arations and watched unceasingly for the Eourwhen his opponents should be enfeebled by faction. A lineal destftendant of oppressed gen­ erations, and a living and majestic mark o f perpetu­ al persecution for conscience sake, e.veiy physical and moral element ofhis constitution confessed the Celtic stock. “ Strong from the cradle and of stur­ dy brood,” his stature, complexion, gait, gestures, voice and attitude betrayed him for an Irishman of unmingled blood. Cheerful even to constant Mlar- ity, and gene'rous to self-destitution, he was the depository of all the public and the private griefs of his countrymen. He relieved their wants if po®' ble, and, if impossible, taught them how to endure privation. W hen they fell inadvertently under the power of the law, and even when they wilfuUy rushed into its grasp against his advice, he flung himself between them and the prosecution and bore them off in triumph. His indosti-y and assiduity never relaxed, although the cares not onlyrof a Re­ volutionary state, but of every suffering member of it, fell upon his shoulders. He scorned allurements to wealth which might divide Mm from the People, subsisted onsuch rewards ofhis own labors as could he obtained without neglecting Ireland, and when the country required Ms exclusive devotion, he re- jeeted peniion.ftiidpl 806 . offered by tbe CrOTemment and with distinguished magnanimity relied for his daily support on the unsolicited and voluntary con­ tributions ofhis countrymen. • Thus etidowed, teamed and disciplined, O’O on . maintained during seven y tending over the Island, t imbination ex- iracing 700,000 mem­ bers, and receiving fifty thousand pounds annually, hich violated none of the inhibitions of the law, fnd y et had all the efficiency which they were d e­ signed to prevent. The center of Agitation was ultimately Conciliation Hall in Dublin, fitted up as a Capitol. Business was transacted and debates conducted with legislative forms. The doors were open to every subject and publicity was more ef­ fective than executive secrecy. The assembly was crowded with impassioned and sympathising auditors, who manifested ap­ proval or dissatisfaction without restraint, whil* the speakers were animated by the smiles of Beau­ ty from the galleries. The themes discussed with all the genius and fervor of Irish eloquence by O'Connell, Shiel and their associates, were the British Constitution, the Penal Code, the Resour­ ces and Destiny of Irelsnd—^its condition—the value of Liberty—the evils of Faction; and not only these, but the daily conduct of Govern­ ment, the oppression of every landlord, the grievance of every tenant, the insults of eve­ ry patrician, tbe meekness of every plebeian: in short, whatever tended to excite, to rouse and to combine the Irish People. A Journal established by the Association transmitted the debates to kin­ dred associations in every p art of the Jjiland, by whom the same animating topics were discussed with even greater zeal. Ireland looked with pride on a voluntary and sell-constituted Legislature which for a time eclipsed from their sight the British Parliament. The enthusiasm of Ireland reassured the advo­ cates of Religious Tolerance in England and inBu- 3. And then every Irish Exile in America, in cities and fields and forests, on its canals and rivers, returned a willing and effective blow against Bngl'and. America, yielding to their enthusiasm and to natural impulses, saluted the new Repub­ lic of Ireland with gratulations and contributions. It seemed as if one discontented Irish subject had roused the world against the Monarchy of B rit­ ain. England had nothing to oppose to the nniver. sal opinion of Mankind, but fears wMch were groundless, habits which ^^ere absurd and prejudi­ ces which were unchristian. Oppression, however, had not altogether failed of its legitimate effects- on the Irish people. Ig­ norance abounded. Intemperancehadlmdits mad* on starving multitudes. There were ;ween the Catholic and Or­ ange peasantry. The latter had long maintained secret associations, and the former were often banded in opposing societies. These associations involved: Ireland in continual turbulence and riot, and often in scenes of blood. “ The Orange beggar spumed The Papist beggar’s hand, \While Freedom, shrinking, turned And fled the hapless land.” It was necessary to tranquillize Ireland in order to prove that the People were capable of self-gov­ ernment. O’Connell invoked order. All Ireland was immediately organized in vast assemblies un­ der the name of O’Connell’s Police. Temperance and tranquility reigned thronghout the .uland. - In time these assemblies became a suhjeK of com­ plaint. O’Connell had but to say, “ You want tho word of command: I give i t : Halt, diskand,” %id instantly O’Conhell’B Police was resolved into the peaceful constituency of the Liberator. The cause ofBmancipation advanced in England, and a majority in its favor was already secured in the House of Commons. But still theTbepresenta- tives from R eland gave it no effective aid. sig­ nal blow \wak wanting, and that fell from O’Con- nell’s hand, with boldness, precision and effect. “ Electors of Clare,” said he, on the eve of t special election, “ you want a Representative in Parliament; I solicit your suffrages. True, I am a Catholic ; I cannot, and of course I never will, take the oaths prescribed. But thepower which created those oaths can abrogate them. If you elect me, I will try tbe question.” O’Connell could only ex­ pect to be elected by the forty-shilling freeholders, as they were called, tenants of the landlords in Clare. Their votes', by tacit understanding and unbroken usage, belonged to their lords. Ruin awaited him who diverted his suffrage. But there was now a power higher than Ihe landlord. You see a mass of-the peasantry of Clare is­ suing from the little parish church on the Mil- side. They have reverently received the M u s ; but.theirAteps indicate perturbation. They gather,- around the priest and ask his paternal counsel con­ cerning the hazardous requirement of O'C onnell , The priest lays down Ms missal, raises Ms hand toward Heaven, breaks frirth in their o,wn wild na- tiye language, recites to them the story o f then ancient fame and of the persecution and perfidy o f' their conquerors, expatiates on their inherent right of liberty of conscience, and the right and duty of passive resistance, on the sublimity of suffrage and the glory and renown that are now breaking in upon Ireland, and conolndes his impassioned harangue with \the injunction, “ Vote, vote for O ’C onnell and Freedom.” It is now the election day. There is O’C onnell , depicting the atrocities of British persecution with a noble ardor of religious zeal. A band of ten­ ants are marching by ■under the conduct o f their landlord to vote for the ministerial candidate. They pause; they mingle in the crowd; they listen, and now, at. every cadence of the Libera­ tor’s voice, redoubledahouts arise, “ O’C onnell and FREEdOM.” An elector is released fi»m jafl by hi* creditor on SJSH FOURTU PAQIS-

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