OCR Interpretation

Black River Democrat. (Lowville, N.Y.) 19??-1943, April 17, 1913, Image 7

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APRIL 17, 1913. -<:t:- -?:•-, w \ » -.*\. ,• > • •\*4* ';,.:'•*.. -. Riy^BJEtiMOCSAT^;. V: NEW TARIFF BILL iiiairman Underwood's Expla- nation of Measure. *K mmi THE iO Fraa List la Largely Increased, Meat, Bread, Sugar, Roll\ Salt and Fish Being Added, With ' Reduction on Butter and Eggs—Sugar to Go on Free List After Three \Years—Few •Changes In Luxuries, and Such • Shanges as Are Made Increase Du- ties—Incomes of More Than $4,000 to Be Taxed. $$•' •MP* , H 'l&pere is the explanation of the new tariff bill as prepared by Chairman Un- derwood-of the house ways and means •cottunittee, which framed the measure: The present condition of the revenue legislation of the United States is the result of years of adherence to the (protective tariff.policy. This theory is ithe result of circumstances and in no jfftois can be said to be the choice of the people. At the beginning of the •civil war the United States found it- self with little other (taxation than •that of a low revenue tariff. The un- fortunate political situation of the war times permitted interested persons to ^increase and continue high protective '\•duties and this system of high pro- tection has been maintained to the present time, except from 1894 to 1897, ™\{ when the Wilson tariff was in effect. 1909 Revision. i The enactment of a tariff revision measure in 1909 was unavoidable po- litically even from the viewpoint of 'High protectionists. The country de- ' ananded of the then dominant political 4>arty a modification of the extreme •tariff policy with which the country was afflicted, but the expectation of •redress through the act of l'909 was blasted, for that, measure not only fail- ed, to giv!e the desired relief, but made many conditions even worse. The 'rates of duty on some commodities ••were even advanced, due largely to re- •classifie'ations by which the real duties •tpere concealed. It is only natural, therefore, that the deception Imposed •on the people through the failure of the law of 1909 to give needed relief tfas become more and more irritating to the people as the years have passed by. This was evidenced by the po- litical results of the election of 1910, by which the Democratic party se- cured control of the house of repre- sentatives. Following this a series of tariff bills were passed at the first ses- sion of the Sixty-second congress dur- ing the summer of 1911, Which were passed by congress and presented to President Taft, only to be vetoed by Mm. < Impatient t,o obey the mandates of eople, ..congress durlng^-tbe winter jSrJlfg of 1912 repassed these with pth<$? tariff revision measures, but the fate was the same as at the former ses- sion, in that they met the prompt veto of the executive. Then came the elec- tion of 1912. which gave the Demo- cratic party a sweeping victory at the' fjolls atfd turned over to them the ma- chinery necessary to effect tariff legis- lation and placed upon them the re- sponsibility of revising the tariff down- - ward in accordance with the urgent and repeated demands of.the public. The committee has given very careful consideration during the last two years to the economic conditions throughout this, and other countries, has studied «very phase of the tariff as related to •our economic conditions, and the bill which it now presents to the house is Its interpretation of the responsibilities placed upon it by the people in the matter of revising the present tariff du- ties and also its views of a tariff re- vised to a basis of legitimate competi- !'< tion, such as will afford a wholesome Influence on our commerce, bring relief to the people in the matter of the high 'cost of, living and at the same time •work no detriment to properly conduct- ed manufacturing industries. 1 .Theory of a Competitive Tariff. The dividing line between the posi- tions of the two great parties on this question is very clear and easily as- certained in theory. Where the tariff I rates balance the difference in cost of production at home and abroad, includ- i, 1ng an allowance for the difference in freight rates, the tariff must be com- petitive, and from that point down- •i -Ward to the lowest tariff that can be levied will continue to be competitive to a greater or less extent. Where competition is not interfered with by levying the tax above the highest com- petitive point the profits of the manu- facturer are not protected. On the oth- >\ \jhr hand, when the duties levied at the -Custom house are high enough to ailow t the American manufacturer to make a profit before his competitor can enter the field, we have invaded the domain yOf'the protection of profits. In the '•'\ committee's judgment the protection of any profit must of necessity have a tendency to destroy competition and , create monopoly, whether the profit protected is reasonable or unreason- able. Which course is the wiser one for our government to take? The one that demands the protection of profits, the continued policy of hothouse growth for our industries, the stagnation of de- velopment that follows where compe- tition ceases, or, on the other hand, the gradual reduction of our tariff to * basis where the American manufac- turer must meet honest competition; •where he must develop his business along - % the best and most economic lines; where, when he fights at home to control his market, he is forging the way in the economic development of his business to extend his trade in tlfe markets of the world. The future giVwth of our great industries lies be- yvjbd the seas. 'Necessities and Luxuries of Life. its tariff revision work the com- |tee has kept in mind the distinction the necessities and the lux- tee, reducing the tariff bur- X dens on the necessities to the lowest possible points commensurate with revenue requirements and making the luxuries of life bear their proper por- tion of the tariff responsibilities. Revision Explained. The committee has in the main fol- lowed the 1 policy set forth in the re- vision bills reported at the Sixty-second congress. A brief discussion of some of the changes will suffice to furnish a general clew to the character of th'e new tariff measure. Chemical Schedule. As representing the chemical schedule the rates on certain commodities show heavy reductions. For instance, boracic acid is cut from 78.70 per cent to 21.43 per cent, glue from 35.06 per cent to 14.29 per cent and red lead from 60.35 per cent to 25 per cent. Moderate re- ductions have been made on medicinal preparations, which are cut from 25 per cent to 15 per cent, blacking from 25 per cent to 15 per cent, drugs from 12.55 per cent to 10 per cent and olive oil from 35.18 per cent to 21.05 per cent. The schedule contains a number of articles on which either no reduction has been made or an advance provided for. In each case the effort has been to consider not only the character of the article, whether a necessity, a comfort or a luxury, but also the amount of Its probable importation and Its re- lation to the revenue yielding power of the schedule. In evefiv case the ac- tion taken has thus been the result of complex factors, the prime motive be- ing that of granting to the public as much relief as was practicable, while at the same time conserving the in- comes of the government to the neces- sary extent. Earthen and Glassware. Rates on nil brick have been cut on the average from 30.23 per cent to 1.0.28 per cent, tile froo 47.84 per cent to 23.36 per cent, asphalt from '37.05 per cent to 9.62 per cent. Ordinary earth- enware, which was already relatively low, being subject to an average duty •of 24.67 per cent, has now been cut to 15 per cent, while window glass has been given an average reduction on all glasses of from 46.38 per cent to 28.31 per cent. On the other hand plate glass, which may be considered a lux- ury, still retains a duty of nearly 40 per cent. Hie average^ of paragraph 94 being 38.45 per cent in plac- of the duty-of 63.95 per cent in the law. Metals. Pig iron and slabs, which were 16.35 per cent and 17.79 per cent have been cut to 8 per cent in each case, beams from 23.0 per cent to 12 per cent and forgings from 30 per cent to 15 per cent. On the other hand, bicycles, a much more highly manufactured prod- uct, are dutiable at 25 per cent, as against 45 per cent, and razors at 35 per cent, as against 70.68 per cent. Many items of manufacture controlled by monopolies have been placed on the free list. Lumber. The idea of the large extension of the free list for the unmanufactured products has been the fundamental conception, while the effort has been made to improve the status of the manufactured lumber. Thus sawed boards other than cabinet wood have been- carried to the free list, while sawed cabiuet boards, which were 12.75 per cent in 1912, are now 10 per cent; casks, barrels, etc., which were 30 per cent, are now 14.77 per cent, and house furniture, which was 35 per cent, is now 15 per cent. - , Sugar. The action of the committee with re- gard to sugar is interesting and shows an appreciation of the commercial con- ditions involved and the committee's desire to respond to the public de- mands lor free sugar. The plan as provided in the bill is to reduce with its passage the present sugar rates by 25 per cent, with the further provision that three years from the date of the enactment of the bill sugar goes on the free list. Tobacco and Spirits. The schedules containing these prod- ucts have been found to be good pro- ducers of revenue, are sufficiently ad- justed to the internal revenue duties of the United States, deal entirely with ayticies not to be classed as necessa- ries and have therefore been left at the same rates as in the present law. Agricultural Products. In the effort to relieve the consumer and to mitigate the high and rising cost of living Schedule G, which deals with agricultural products, has been thor- oughly revised and important reduc- tions have been made. For instance, the duty on horses has been reduced from 25 per cent to 10 per cent, cattle from 25.07 per cent to. 10 per cent, sheep from 16.41 per cent to 10 per cent, barley from 43.05 per cent to 23.07 per cent, macaroni from 34.25 per cent to 23.81 per cent, bay from 43.21 per cent to 26.07 per cent, fruits from 27.21 per cent to 15.38 per cent, figs from 51.53 per cent to 42.10 per cent, lemons from 08.85 per cent to 24.03 per cent, live poultry from 33.10 per cent to 6.67 per cent and vinegar from 33.03 per cent to 17.39 per cent. Other changes are in proportion, and the gen- eral effect has been to reduce in a very material proportion the heavy taxes upon imported foodstuffs. Cotton Goods. During the last few years a-large part of the discussion of the tariff has borne upon the textile schedules, which it has been felt, were unduly high. Particular attention has therefore been paid to the revision of these schedules in the effort to adjust them more equi- tably both to the needs of the con- sumer and to the condition of the man- ufacturing .industry in the United States. In Schedule I, dealing with cotton, comparisons of the principal Items show reductions ou cotton thread from 31.54 per cent to 19.29 per cent. on spool thread from 22.05 per cent to 15 per cent, on cotton cloth from 42.74 per cent to 26.09 per cent, on water- proof cloth from 50.56 per cent to 25 per cent, on ready made clothing from 50 per cent to 30 per cent, on collars and cuffs from 64.03 per cent to 25 per cent, on plushes from 51.40 per cent to 40 per cent, on handkerchiefs from 59.27 per cent to 30 per cent, on stock- ings from 75.38 per cent to 50 per cent, on gloves from 89.17~per cent to 35 per cent, on underwear from 60.27 per cent to 25 per cent and on cotton damask , from 40 per cent to 25 per cent. f Linen. Schedule J,. delilinXwitb flax, hemp and their products, tutss^been similarly, dealt with. %xsv flax and raw hemp' have been re'ifeced from N $22.40 jni>6 $22.50 per touSjtespectively tq JJl.20 each, jute yarns %ive been cut from 26.90 per cent to Kh per cent;' cables and cordage from 6.43\per cent to 4.55 per cent, oilcloths for floors from, 44.29 pe'r cent to 15 per cent,, handkerchiefs from 50 per cent to 35 percent Wool. • \ Schedule K, dealing with -wools and woolen manufactures, has tpeen the center of criticism for many y^ars, and the committee has given it very care- ful study. The result has been to make raw wool free of duty, to reduce yarns from 79.34 per cent to. 20 per cent, blankets from 72.69 per cent to ,25 per cent, flannels from 93,29 per cent to 25 and 35 per cent, dress goods from 99.70 per cent to 35 per cent, clothing from 79.56 per cent to 35 per cent, webbings, etc., from 82.7. per cent to 35 per' cent, and carpets from rates ranging from 60 per cent t o 82 per cent to rates ranging from £0 per cent to 35 per cent. { j Silk. I In Schedule L, relating to silk\and sjlk goods, it has been sought to jcon- viert the schedule previously almost W;holly specific in an ad valorem b^sis, thereby placing it upon an equality, of treatment with the other schedules'al- lied to it and eliminating the possibil- ity of concealed protection. Inasmuch, however, as silk and silk goods are dis- tinctly to be classed as luxuries, it hfts been deemed wise to make onJjf very moderate reductions in the rates, of duty. Partially manufactured goods : 'have been cut from 21.01 per cent to IB per cent, spun silk yarn from 37.09 \ per cent to 35 per cent, sewing silk frjom 35 per cent to 15 per cent, silk goods from 52.58 per cent to 50 per cent, silk handkerchiefs (plain) from 50 per cent to 40 per cent, ribbons from 5G\.per cent to 40 per cent, artificial silk yajrns from 41.79 per cent to 35 per cent, and braids', embroideries and.the like of artificial silk from 68.49 per cent to 60 per cent. . j Paper and Books. Schedule M, which deals with paper, booths and allied articles, has been sub- jected to the general operation of the same', principles that apply throughout the tariff. Print paper, whose cost of/ production is as low in this country under favorable conditions as it is any- where In the world, has been transfer- red to the free list when worth less than- 2 1 /. cents per pound, while the higher grades have been given a tariff of 12 per cent in place of 15.80 per cent. Oopying paper has been cut from 42.32 per cent to 30 per cent, bag envelopes, etc., from 49.92 per cent to 35 per cent, parchment papers from 47.92 per cent to 35 per ceut, in pho- tographic paper from 28.99 per cent to 25 per cent, writing paper from 4543 per cent to 25 per cent, common wrap- ping paper from 35 per cent to 25 per cent and books from 25 per cent to 15 per cent. Sundries. Schedule N, which deals with a va- riety of sundries, calls for compara- tively little comment, except to say that the general principles of tariff re- duction have been applied to each of the items caroled in the schedule ac- cording to the peculiarities of each. Thus, trimmed hats are given only a moderate reduction, being cut from 50 per cent to 4 per cent, while brooms are substantially reduced, being cut from 40 per cent to 15 per cent. Jew- elry has been but slightly reduced, fall- ing from 75.74 per cent to 60 per cent. A good illustration of the attitude adopted with respect to the application of the tariff is seen in the item, pre- cious stones, uncut, which are given a rate of 10 per cent, notwithstanding they were on the free list under' the act of 1909. Changes In Classification. Few changes have been made Us classification. Ad valorem rates, how- ever, have been substituted for specific rates and for the complicated and cum- bersome compound rates of 'the Payne law. This is particularly true of the textile schedules—cotton, flax, silk and wool—in which the present classifica- tions depend upon various conditions, such as the count of the thread, the condition of the yarns, the weight and value of the fabric. The classifications by values of ar- ticles has been eliminated as far as possible. It was found necessary in u few instances, in order to place a low rate of duty on a common or cheap article of ordinary use, to make the classification dependent upon th» value and place a higher rate upon the more expensive article of the same character and description. This is true in the paragraphs providing for glues and gelatins, that providing for pocket- knives, blankets and for jewelry.' Customs Administrative Changes. The customs administrative situation has long been unsatisfactory under ex- isting enactments and is regarded as being of primary importance, for the reason that rates of duty in them- selves are not conclusive until they have' been interpreted and applied to actual importations through classiflca- ! tion and appraisement The/tariff act of 1909 made considerable changes in the previously existing system of ad- ministration and abrogated a number of useful modifications which had been introduced into previous practice as a result of the commercial agreements negotiated during the second Roose- velt administration. It, however, fail- ed to substitute a more satisfactory system of classification and appraise- ment, and defective methods have con- tinued to prevail ever since. How bad the situation has been is indicated by the recognition of euormous customs frauds in the federal service, these be- ing corrected only after a lengthy de- lay, in which tardy reparation was made to the government for what It had lost. That these frauds extended almost throughout the whole range of trades is a startling fact, to which witness has been borne not only by the\ secretary of the treasury, but by many others whose official duties gave them knowledge of the situation. Two commissions appointed under the last administration .to examine into cus- toms administration conditions have detected great evils and have made extensive recommendations for im- provement, none of which, however, has been carried out, except the re- •'.*. •#, ''A^-*-'\\ moyai of two m'eiftbers of the board of appraisers at New York city, * That it is necessary to take steps to strengthen the administrative features of the customs laws has been recog- nized by the treasury department, and two commissions have already been appointed and have made reports in this connection. The president of the United States appointed a committee to inquire into the practice of pro- cedure and the administrative methods of boards of general appraisers. The secretary of the treasury appointed an appraisement commission \to in- vestigate and report on both the prin- ciples and practices of the appraising work of the government.\ The reports of both of these com- mittees were before the ways and means committee and were given care- ful study. The provisions recom- mended follow in a large measure the changes suggested in one or the other of the reports referred to. These re- ports were made by officials p,f the government charged with the collec- tion of the customs- and represent the views of persons of experience. To their conclusions we have given much weight. Maximum and Minimum. Paragraph A of this section takes the place of section 2 of the Payne •bill, which provides for a minimum and maximum tariff for the United States. Section 2 is repealed, and Par- agraph A reads as follows: That for the purpose of readjusting the present duties on Importations Into the United States and at the same time to en- courage the export trade or this country the president of the United States Is au- thorized and empowered to negotiate trade agreements with foreign nations wherein mutual concessions are made looking to- ward freer trade relations and further- re- ciprocal expansion of trade and com- merce, provided, however, that said trade agreements before becoming operative . shall be submitted to the congress of the United States for ratification or rejection. ! The minimum and maximum tariff provisions adopted > 1n the Payne bill have not been productive of any ef- fective expansion of our foreign trade and commerce. The conventional tar- iff, being the minimum rate and the president being authorized to enforce the maximum rate against foreign na- tions resulted in an attempt to ex- pand our commerce by force. We went to the nations of the worl* with the demand that they stand and deliver, or we would punish them. Many years ago . this system of expanding trade and commerce was abandoned by the enlightened nations. The only true course that can be pursued to expand our foreign trade along rational lines is through mutual concessions that may proje beneficial to both of the contracting parties, free from coercion. Under the proposed substitute the presiotnt of the United States is au- thorized to enter into these trade agree- ments without limitation on his au- thority to do so, except that such agreements as he enters into must be ratified by the congress before they shall become effective. This legislation Is new and somewhat along the same Hne as the reciprocity treaties that were authorized under the Bingley tariff law, the difference being that the reciprocity treaties were re- quired to be ratified by a two-thirds vote of the United States senate, where- as the trade agreements now provided for wWi ouly a'equiye-^-ra*$aritywVQte of both houses. As the senate is. not directly representative of the majority of the people of the United States it is deemed more in accord with the pro- gressive tendencies of our people that such agreements should be ratified as far as possible by the representatives of a majority of the American people. The Sugar Schedule. Here is the sugar schedule in the new bill: \Sugars tank bottoms, sirups of cane juice, melada, concentrated melada, concrete and concentrated molasses, testing by the polariscope not above 75 degrees, 75-100ths of 1 cent a pound, and for every additional degree shown by the polariscopic test, 26-1000ths of 1 cent per pound additional, and frac- tions of a degree in proportion; mo- lasses testing not above 40 degrees, 15 per cent ad valorem; testing above 40 degrees and not above 56 degrees, 2V4 cents per gallon; testing a\Vve 56 de- grees, 4% cents per gallui; sugar drainings and sugar sweepings shall be subject to duty as molasses or sug- ar, as the case may be, according to the polariscopic test, provided that three years after the day when this act shall take effect the articles here- inbefore enumerated in this paragraph shall thereafter be admitted free of duty.\ Maple sugar, maple sirup and refined sirups are taxed at 3 cents per pound, glucose or grape sugar at iy s cents a pound and sugar cane in its natural state or unmanufactured at 15 per cent ad valorem. At the end of three years the articles in this paragraph also shall be admitted duty free. A duty of Go cents per pound is pro- vided for saccharin. Sugar candy and all confectionery valued\at 15 cents per pound or less have a duty of 2 cents per pound, and valued at more than 15 cents per pound the duty is 25 per cent ad valorem. The Metal Schedule. The metal schedule provides a duty of 8 per cent ad valorem on iron in pigs, wrought and cast scrap iron and scrap steel. All iron in slabs, blooms, loops or other forms less finished than iron in bars and more advanced than P'g iron, except castings, also is taxed 8 per cent. Beams, girders and joists and all oth- er structural iron and steel are rated at 12 per cent; boiler or other plate iron or steel, 15 per cent; iron or steel anchors and forgings of iron or steel, 15 per cent; hoop band or scroll iron or dteel, 12 per cent; railway fish plates, 10 per cent; all iron or steel sheets, plates or strips and all hoop bands or scroll iron or steel when galvanized, 20 per cent; steel ingots and sheets and plates made by the Bessemer, open hearth or similar processes not con- taining alloys, 10 per cent, and with alloys, 15 per cent; round iron or steel wire, 20 per cent; bolts, with or with- out threads or nuts, 15 per cent; cast iron pipe of every description, 12 p/ar cent; chain or chains of all kinds of Iron or steel, 20 per cent; table, kitchen and hospital utensils, 25 per cent; riv- ets, studs and steel points, 20 per cent; screws, 25 per cent; copper in rolled plates, sheets and rods, 5 per cent; lead bearing ores of all kinds, one*half cent per pound on the lead contf.lned therefn; lead dross and lead bullion, 25 per cent; nickel, 10 per cent; s in sheets or strips, 20 per cent; quicksilver, 10 *per cent; watch movements, 30 per cent; steam e'rigines and steam locomo- tives, 15 per cent. The Agricultural Schedule. TOe agricultural schedule provides the following rates: Cattle, 10 per cent; horses and mules valued at ,$200 or less per head, $15; sheep, 10 per cent; bar- ley, 15 cents per bushel; barley malt, 25 cents per bushel; buckwheat, 8 cents per bushel; oats, 10 cents per bushel: rice, cleaned, 1 cent per pound; rye, 10 cents per bushel; wheat, 10 cents per bushel; biscuits, bread, wafers and cakes, when combined with choc- oclate, nuts or fruits, 25 per cent; butter and butter substitutes, 3 cents per pound; cheese and substitutes therefor, 20 per cent: beans, 25 cents per bushel; vegetables, if cut or sliced, 25 per cent; pickles, 25 per cent; cider, 2 cents a gallon; eggs, 2 cents a dozen; hay, $2 a ton; hops, 16 cents a pound; straw, 50 cents a ton; fish, packed in oil, 20 per cent; apples, peaches and other common fruits, 10 cents per bushel; figs, 2 cents a' pound; lemons, limes, oranges, grapefruit, 18 cents a package, which is about half the duty of the present law; poultry, live, 1 cent a pound: (\ead 2 ,eents a pound, as compared with 3 and 5 cents under the present law; vinegar, 4 cents a gallon. Under Schedule J, flax, not hackled or dressed, is taxed one-half of 1 cent a pound, which is just about cut in half; cables and cordage one-half cent per pound, as compared with three-quarters of a cent per pound un- der the present law: hemp cables are taxed 1 cent a pound, compared with 2; floor maftlngs 2V4 cents per square yard, 'as compared with 3%; carpets of flax and hemp or other vegetable fiber, 35 per cent ad valorem; linoleum, 30 per cent, plain and 35 inlaid; oilcloth, 15 per cent; shirts, collars and cuffs, 30 per cent. Under Schedule K raw wool is on the free list, combed wool or tops is taxed 15 per cent, yarns 20 per cent, cloths and knit fabrics 35 per cent; blankets arid flannels, 25 per cent; women's and children's dress goods, 35 per cent; clothing, ready made, 35 per cent; web- bings, suspenders and bracings, 35 per cent; aubusson, axminster, moquette and chenille carpets, 35 per cent; sax- ony, wilton and tdurnay velvet carpets, 30 per cent; Brussels carpets, 25 per cent; velvet and tapestry velvet car- pets, 30 per cent; Venetian carpets, 20 per cent, and'Dutch wool and two ply Ingrain carpets, 20 per cent; mats and rugs are taxed the same as carpets of like\ character. Silks and Ribbons. Under Schedule L silk goods, silk partially manufactured, 15 per cent; spun silk, 3jv-per cent; silk handker- chiefs and mufflers, 40 per cent; rib- bons, 40 per cent; chiffons, clothing ready made and articles of wearing apparel of every description, 50 per cent; woven silk fabrics, 45 per cent; silk yarns and threads, 35 per cent. Under Schedule M sundries and but- tons are taxed at 10 per cent; dolls, 35 per cent; feathers, 20 per cent; human bair, 20 per cent; hats and bonnets for men and women, 40 per cent; jewelry and precious stones, 60 per cent; dia- monds, 20 per cent; bags, baskets aud satchels, 30 per cent; gloves, men's and 1 women's, $1 per dozen\ pair, which is 25 cents less than the present rates; musical instruments, 35 per cent. Why He Was Popular. The man with a natural aptitude for mechanics received so many invitations to take automobile trips with friends who acted as their own chauffeur that he came to be envied by his less popu- lar acquaintances. One day the popu- lar guest condescended to enlighten them on his true status. \You fellows needn't get green eyed,\ he said. \I haven't got such a snap as you think I have. What they want me to go along for is to blow up the tires and make repairs in case of accident I wouldn't be such a hot fa- vorite if I wasn't* so proficient in that line. The knowledge that I wouldn't is somewhat galling, but as I enjoy the trips I swallow my pride and accept the invitations.\—New York Times. THE INTERNATIONAL GAME. Tennis la Played Practically All Over the Earth. If baseKall is Oncle Sam's national game and cricket is John Bull's, tennis Is certainly the iuternational game. It Is played everywhere on the face of the globe, almost from pole to pole and from far east to near west. The United States and Canada are dotted with tennis clubs from ocean to ocean and honeycombed with courts. Every country in Europe has its host uf tennis players, from Russia down to the tip of Italy. Every sport loving foreigner in India Is a tennis devotee and many of the natives. At the last tournanieut in Singapore there were 500 entries, and the standard of play was very high. Tenuis is played in the Malay states, In the Straits Settle- ments, in Slam, In Indo-Chlna. all over Australia, New Zealand and Tas- mania, as well as In many of the tiny islands of Polynesia, in the principal cities of China and Japan and their suburbs and in Egypt, under the shadow of the pyramids. There are plenty of places in the world where an athletic American couldn't get up a nine to play base- ball or a patriotic Britisher couldn't find a cricket crease or bat, but If there is another lover of sport within hailing distance and the place is at all civilized he can be pretty sure of find- ing a tennis court and an opponent worthy of his racket. — New York World. METALS AND MICROBES. In Some Instances Contact Means Death to the Germs. Experiment seems to show that there are certain metals which are capable of destroying microbes that come In contact with them. The microbes experimented with were cultivated for the purpose In jelly spread on a plate, and pieces of metal were dropped upon the jelly while It was still moist Any metal that had the property of arresting the development of the mi- crobes destroyed them, not only just under the place where It lay, but for a narrow space around it. The width of this space varied both with the kind of metal and the kind of microbe. Pure gold, when freshly cleaned and burnished, had no effect upon the mi- crobes. Pure nickel and platinum and a few other metals also failed to af- fect the organisms. But cadmium, cop- per, brass, zinc and silver destroyed them, the first named metal especially acting quickly and effectively. It has been observed that the metals thaf affected the microbes were those that are readily attacked by chemical reagents, .jwhile those that resist such reagents, like gold, had no effect. From this fact It has been concluded that the action upon the organisms is due to a solution of the metals taking place ID the jelly.—Harper's Weekly. LEG A M ORTGAGE SALE—WheTed* defttuit ,J„. has been made, in tha payment of \\ —•\\' »»»•—-' *- fie paid by >.\.. 19th\ Jay ik •!•• . by EOSWslt- 'fi .. ha pi the money secured to b< a mortgage dated the \ June, 1912, made and executed _, Carpenter, of Turin, Lewis county, Nw York, to Arthur H. Carpenter, of We*K Turin, New York, which mortgage ytm • duly recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office in Liber 54 of Mortgages, at pake 264, on July 19th, 1912; and whereas' 15^. amount claimed to be due on said .mort- gage at the time of the first publication Of this notice, is the sum of J750.69, to wit: $735 of principal, and' the sum of $16.00 Interest thereon, from Sept. Vi, 1912, which said sum of $750.60, is the whole amount claimed to be unpaid on said mortgage, and no suit or proceeding at law or otherwise having been institut- ed to recover said mortgage debt or any part thereof. Now, therefore, notice is hereby given that by virtue of the power of sale contained in said mortgage, s,nd duly recorded as aforesaid, the said mort- gage will be foreclosed by a sale of the premises therein described at public auc- tion, at the law office of Fred C. Schraub, in the village of Lowville, N. Y., oh the 19th day of April, 1913, at 10 o'clock In the forenoon of that day. The following is a particular descrip- tion of said mortgaged premises: All that tract or parcel of, land situate in the town of Turin, county of Lewis and state of New York, being part of Great Lot No. 92, Township No. 3, bound- ed as follows: Viz: Beginning at a-stake standing N. 52 1-2 deg. W. 12 chains 156 links from the S. B. corner of said lot and extends from thence N. 52 1-2 deg. W. 12 chains 65 links along the S. bounds of said lot to a; stake, thence N. 37 1-2 deg. E. 23 chains 7 links to a stake, thence S. 84 deg. E. along the center of the road 13 chains 70 links, thence S. 37 1-2 deg. W. 29 chains 7 links to the place of beginning, containing thirty- three acres of land. Also all that certain other piece or par- cel of land, being a part of lot No. 92 situate in said Township No. 3 in Turin aforesaid and bounded as follows, viz: Beginning at the. N. W. corner of said lot and running from thence S. 52 deg. 30 mln. E. 10 chs. 69 Iks. to a stake, thence S. 37 deg. 30 min. W. 40 chs. to the S. side of said lot, thence N. 52 deg. 30 min. -yv. eleven chains 28 links to the S. W. cor- ner of said lot, thence N. 37 deg. 30 thin. E. along the line of lots to the place of be- ginning, containing forty-four acres of land. Also all that other tract or parcel of land situate in said town of Turin, being a part of lot No. 83 tn said township No. 3 bounded as follows, viz: Beginning on the East line of said lot at the South East corner of one hundred acres of land formerly owned by William Failing and runs thence along said east line S. 37 1-2 deg. W. 19 chains to a stake, thence N. 52 1-2 deg. W. 6 chains 75 links to the east line of land formerly owned by Amos Kentner, thence along the same N. 37 1-2 deg. E. one •ehaiiv and N. 25 deg. W. 4 chains 12 links to an old cedar stake, thence N. 37 1-2 deg. E. 2 chains, thence S. 52 1-2 deg. E. 36 links, thence N. 37 1-2 deg. E. 14 chains 61 links, thence S. 52 1-2 deg. E. 10 chains IS links to the place of beginning, containing eighteen 60-100 acres of land. Also all that other tract of land sit- uate In said town of Turin, being a part of lot No. 84. Township No. 3, situate, ly- ing and being in Turin aforesaid, and bounded as follows, viz: Beginning at.the N. W. corner of said lot and extends thence S. 37 1-2 deg. W. 27 chains ,22 links to a stake, thence S. 52 1-2 deg. E. 36 chains 90 links to the East bounds of said lot thence N. 37 1-2 deg. E. 27 chs. 23 Iks. to the N. E. corner of said lot, thence N. 52 1-2 deg. W. 36 chs. -59 Iks. to the place of beginning, containing one hundred acres of land. Dated January 20, 1913. -, ARTHUR H. CARPENTER, Mortgagee. FRED C. SCHRAUB, Attorney for Mortgagee, Office and P. O. Address, Lowville, Lewis Co., N. Y. V Royal Trains. Few people know that the passage of a royal train is guarded almost every yard of the way be the journey of the sovereign short or long. Many people laugh when they read of lines upon lines of soldiers being drawn up along the railway metals in Russia when the czar travels, butfthe same thing prac- tically occurs in England, says the Pall Mall Gazette, only without the ostenta- tions display of uniforms. The line over which the royal train Is to pass is quite as effectively guarded, though to all appearance there is nobody there. Why Waste Words? \Hello! Is that you, John?\ \Yes.\ \Did you go to the store and order the things I spoke about when you left home this morning?\ \Why to tell you the truth, Maria\— \That's all. Onodby.\—Chicago Trib- une. A King and His Doctors. It is said that Ardashir, the king of /he Persians, never permitted a physi- cian to prescribe for him until he had him stung by a viper. If he was able to heal himself he gave him his daily food, and the physician entered his service.—The Orient.- Native Meeting Places In Sumatra. Every district of importance in the towns of Sumatra possesses a balei. or native meeting place, which the Dutch regent visits periodically in or- der to .discuss with his subordinates the affairs of the district. These Su- matraa'equivalents of a county coun- cil hal! are very quaint and are dec- orated with beautiful inlaid work at the ends and a tapering roof of fine palm, ornamented with bright brass- work, which glitters in the sun. set- ting it off most picturesquely against a background of tall eocoanut trees and a forest of rich tropical plants. A space is left between the ground and flooring, the reason of which is ob- vious, for in the tropics during the rainy season the inhabitants are often visited with floods, so in order to safe- guard themselves in such an emergen- cy most of the buildings are erected on stilts.—Wide World Magazine. A \View\ In New York. I heard some one descanting about her view. She said one thing she'd al- ways hated In New York was not hav- ing a view and now she had one. She took me up to see it. \Well where is it?\ said I. looking out of the win- dow. \Why there and there!\ said she. \Don't you see how I see over that roof to the next one and down in the street to the mail box and over- head to ihat bit of sky?\ I said, oh, yes, and bow nice it was that she had it It's really pathetic when somebody thinks that what she showed me was a view!—Jane Stone in New York Press. A Mean Trick. Knicker—Why did Jones give his wife a clock that strikes the quarters': Bocker—It keeps her so confused she doesn't know what time be comes home.—Puck. -?.^ COUNTY COURT, LEWIS COUNTY. Carrie J. Jones, Plaintiff, against Flo- rilla Jones, Volney Jones, her husband, Mary Stoddard, Irene B. Stoddard, Min- nie Jones and Wellington Jones, De- fendants. The undersigned, duly appointed referee in the above entitled action, by an order of this court duly granted, and entered on the 1st day of February, 1913, herein, hereby requires each and every person, not a party to this action, who at the date hereof, has a lien upon any undi- vided share, or Interest in the pr6perty hereinafter described and describ- ed in the plaintinff's complaint herein, to appear before the un- dersigned, on or before the 6th day of May, 1913, at his office in the village of Iiow.vlHe,.-.N- y.^-&>-i».'0¥9-**\?Jc«aild5p\\ , a \ and the true amount due or to become^ by reason thereof; and to specify\^w«jo nature of such ineumberance and the v dates thereof respectively. Said property is substantially and briefly described as follows: all situated in the town of Pinckney, Lewis county*• state of New York, owned by Blodgett Stoddard, late of the town of Pinckney, Lewis county, N. Y., deceased, at the-time of his decease, and is the property sought to be partitipned or sold in the above eiu • titled action.^. ' , n All the land described in and conveyed by a deed from Levi R. Stoddard and ' others to Blodgett Stoddard April 5, 1873, recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office '• in Book of Deeds No. 49 at page t;304,» &c, and the deeds and records therein referred to, containing about seven^y-^ix and seventy-five one hundredths acres of. land. Also all the land conveyed by ^sahel Hollis and Abigail, his wife, to Blodgett Stoddard by deed dated April 21, 1863, recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office y in Liber of Deeds 46, page 234, contain- ' ' ing six and sixty one hundredths acres of land. Also all the land described in a deed from Catharine Denning, Executrix .of the estate of William Denning, deceased, to Blodgett Stoddard, dated June 10, 1856, recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office in Liber IS of Deeds, page 148, &c, con- taining thirty acres of land. Also all the land described in a deed by Philip D. Adams .and Julia, his wife, to Blodgett Stoddard, recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office in Liber of Deeds 23, page 285, containing about twelve acres of land, more or less. Dated, Lowville. N. Y., March 12»1913. WILLIAM B. BREEN, Plaintiff's Attorney, Lowville, N. Y. FRANK BOWMAN, Referee. '!&. The strongest things are in danger from the weakest—Disraeli. T I I Flattered. i Ethel—Jack asked Miss Passeigh last night how old she was. Edith- Did she get angry? Ethel—No. She was flattered. You see, she felt she must look young or he'd never have dared.—Boston Transcript How It Grows. Until a man does something note- worthy the little bunch of whiskers on 'lis chin is described as a \goatee.\ •After he achieves eminence it is refer- red to as an \imperial.\—Philadelphia Ledger. The Worst of It. \Do you keep a cook, Mrs. Subub?\ \Mada'm 1 not only keep the cook, but also her entire family.*'-^Baltimore American. Nothing Is so new as what has long been forgotten.—Cterman Proverb. HE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF New York, to Florence M. Mickel, Julia Harvey, Clyde Harvey, Wil- liam J. Means, Alonzo A. Dewey, Jessie Marshall, Hazel Marshall, Florence Deakin, Samuel J. Neff, Herbert L. Har- vey, a son of Sarah J. Dewey, (formerly Sarah J. Harvey), deceased, late of the town of Leyden, Lewis Co.,_N. Y., if he be living, whose place of residence is un- known and cannot, after due diligence, be ascertained or if he be dead, the heirs at law arid next of kin of said Herbert L. Harvey not above mentioned and per- sonal representatives of said Herbert L. Harvey, whose places of residence are unknown and cannot, after due diligence be ascertained, The legatees, creditors, or persons claiming to be creditors and the heirs at law and next of kin of Sarah^J. Dewey, late of the town of Leyden, in\ the coun- ty of Lewis, deceased, and to all persons interested in the estate of said deceased, send Greeting: You and each of you are hereby cited and required personally to be and appear be- fore our Surrogate of the county of Lewis, at his office in the village of Lowville, in said county on the 19th day of May, 1913; at ten o'clock in the forenoon of that day, then and there to attend the judi- cial settlement of the account of Everett L. Harvey, as the Executor of the Last Will and Testament of the said Sarah J. Dewey, deceased; and that if any of the above-named persons interested be under the age of twenty-one years, they are required to appear by their guardian if they have one,.'or if they have none, that they appear and apply for one to be ap- pointed; or in the event of their neglect or failure to do so, a guardian will be appointed by the Surrogate to represent and act for them in the proceeding. In Testimony Whereof, we have caused the seal of our Surro OTICE TO CREDITORS-r-In pur- suance of an order of the Surro- gate of the County of Lewis, No- tice is hereby given, according to law, to all persons having claims against Hiram Peake, late of the town of New Bremen, in said county of Lewis, de- ceased, that they are required to exhibit the same with the vouchers thereof to the subscriber, Administrator of the goods, chattels and credits of the said de- ceased, at law office of Frank Bowman, in the village of Lowville, in said countv of Lewis, New York, on or before the 22nd day of September, 1913. Dated March 10, 1913. JOHN KLOSTER, Administrator. -*H OTICE TO CREDITORS.—In pur- suance of an order of the County Judge of the county of Lewis. Notice is hereby given, according to law, to all persons having claims against William C. Montana, of Leyden Station, Lewis county, New York, that they are required to exhibit the same with the vouchers thereof to the sub- scriber, the asignee named in a general assignment for the benefit of creditors made by said William C. Montana to the subscriber and recorded in Lewis County Clerk's office, December 19, 1912, at the home of H. A. Williams in the village of Port Leyden, N. Y„ on or before April 15, 1913. Dated January 10, 1913. H. A. WILLIAMS, Assignee, OTICE TO CREDITORS-In pursuance of an order of the Surrogate of the Coanty of Lewis, notice is'hereby given, accord- ing to law, to all persons having claims against Julius C. Herzig late of the town of Croghan in said county of Lewis, deceased, that they ate re* quired to exhibit the name, with the voucher* thereof to the subscribers, Administrators of the goods, chattels and credits of the said deceased, at the office of Henry J. Nortz in the village of Lowville in said county of Lewis, New 4ork, on or before the 7th day of July, 1913. Dated December 31,1912. IDA. HERZIG HENEY J. NORTZ Administrator. „•'..•** N' OTICE TO CREDITORS—In pursuance of an order of the Surrogate of the County of Lewis, Notice is hereby given, accord- „ ing to law, to all persons having claims against gatete Court of the county. of Samueld O. Stoddard,y late of the town, oft Denmarky Lewis to be hereunto affixed Witness, Milton Carter, Surro- gate iff said County, at Low- (.L. S.) ville, !ln said County, on the 27th day of March, A. D., 1913. \ HARRY W. COX, Clerk bf the Surrogate's Court. CLARENCE R. SPERRY, Attorney fori Petitioner, Boonvi\le, N. Y. f inaai comit of LewlB, deceased tha the are required to exhibit the same, with the Vouchers thfreof to the subscriber, executors of the Will of the said deceased, at the residence of William J. Twining in the town of Denmark, m said county of LewiB, New York, on or before the 1st day of OctSier, 1913. Dated March 24,1913. CARL D. STODDARD, WILLIAM J. TWINING^ s. Executors. ictoiber,. DatedS

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