OCR Interpretation


The Geneva gazette, and general advertiser. (Geneva, N.Y.) 1825-1829, December 14, 1825, Image 2

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::k ^^»^?l| 1 I n,i'cali'i i If-Hl. I.W :-» / M to the Senate and House of Kyp- „. t tin-s, »< '!><\ commencement, of die fi'=>i ,,i of the ilinoteputli Congress. retime- rith-ns of the Senate, and o f the House of Representatives— \ In taking iigenmlsuney of the concrm, of our bcloVed eountiy, with ret- erenee to subjects interesting to the corn- mo,, ueMaie/thetfirst sentiment which iiu- u.ess,-, itself, upon the mind .8 of gratitude to We Omiiipulent Uispensefof al Good, fo,\fhe continuance of the signal bk-ssings of bis- Providence, and especially for that health which, to an unusual extent, has prevailed within our borders; and for that abundance which in the vicissitudes of the seasons has been scattered with profusion over our laud. Nor ought we less to ascribe to Hun the glory, that we are permitted to enjoy the bounties of His lrand in peace and tranquillity; in peace with all the-other na- tions of the earth, in tranquillity among ourselves. - There has, indeed, rarely been a period in the history of civilized man in which the general condition of the christian,'nations has been marked so extensively by peace and prosperity. t Europe, .with a.few par- tial and unhappy exceptions, has .enjoyed ten years of peace, during which all her governments, whatever the-theory of their constitutions may have been, are success- ively taught to feel that the end of their in- stitutions is the happiness of the people, and that the exercise qf-tpower among men can be justified only .by the blessings it con- fers upon those over whom it is extended.- During the same period our intercourse with all those nations has been pacific and friendly ; it so continues. Since the close of your last session, no material variation has occurred in our relations with any one of them. In the commercial and naviga- tion system of /Great Britain, important changes of municipal regulation have re- cently been.'sMgtioned by acts of Parlia- ment, tha^gefef which upon the interests Of o|W,a^tfc1)ris, and particularly upon ours,'* Tia^s'not yet been fully developed. In the recent renewal of.the diplomatic mis- sions on. both sides, between the two gov- ernments, assurances have been given and revived of the continuance and increase of th&t^rnutual confidence and cordiality by whicb^the adjustment of many points of dilference had already been effected, and which affords the suresfpledge for the ulti- nnte satisfactory adjustment of those which still remain open, or may hereafter arise. The policy of the United States, in their commercial intercourse with other nations, lias always been of the most liberal charac- ter. In the mutual exchange of their re- spective productions they have abstained al- together from prohibitions, they have inter- dieted themselves the power of laying taxes upon exports, and whenever they have fa- vored their own shipping, by special prefer- ences, or exclusive privileges in their own ports, it has been only with a view to coun- tervail similar favors and exclusions grant- ed by the nations with whom we have been engaged in traffic, to their own people of shipping, and to the disadvantage of ours. Immediately after the clu<e of the last war, a pioposal was fairly made by the act of congress of the Ad of March, 1815, to all the maratune nations to lay aside the sys- tem of retaliating restrictions and exclu- sions, and to place the shipping of both parties to the common trade, on a footing of equality, in respect to the duties of ton- nage and impost. This offer was partially and successively accepted by Great Britain, Sweden, the Netherlands, the Hanseatic Cities, Prussia, Sardinia, the Duke of 01--I denburgh, and Russia. It was also adopt- ed, under certain modifications, in our late coimiitri inl convention with France. And by the act of congress of lith Januaiy, ltf'-Jl, it h.i i received a new confirmation with all the nations who h id acceded to it, and has beeii ottered ;iL:Iin to all tho^e who are, or Tiny here ifiei be willing to abide in reci- pio ity by it. But all thc-e regulations, w'le'hci established hy treat\ or hv munici- pd en iiiments, an; still subject to one im- ports' nt restiiction. The removal of dis- crimiiiatnvi duties of tonnage and of im- port, is limited to .uticles of the growth, produce or inanufactuie of the country to whir'.it he vessel belongs, or to such ar- ticle-, as are most usmliv fust shipped from her port*. It will deserve the senous cimsideiation of cuicirss whether even this renin mt of restriction mav not be safely a- b.indonri], and whether the general tender of equal competition made in the act of 8th Jan.iaiy, ICll. may not be extended to in- clude all articles of merchandise not pro- hibited, of uhit country soever they may be the pin,luce or manufacture. Proposi- tions to this effect have already been made to u.s by moie than one European govern- ment, and it is probable that if once estab- lished by lesjislatian or compact with any diMnmnished maritime state, it would re- commend itself by the experienca of its ad- vantages to the general accession of all. The convention of commerce and navi- gation between the U. States and France, concluded on the 21th of June, 18-24, was in the understanding and intent of both par- ties as appeais upon its face, only a tempo- rary arrangement of the points of difference between them of the most immediate and pressing urgency. It was limited in the iirst instance to two years from the 1st of October, 1822, but with a proviso that it should further continue in force till the con- clusion of a general and definitive treaty of commerce, unless tenninated bv a notice six months in advance of either of the par- ties to the other. Its operation, so far as it extended, has been mutually advantageous, and it still continues in force by common consent. But it left unadjusted several ob- jects of great interest to'the citizens and subjects of both count! les, and particularly a mass of claims, to considerable amount, of citizens of the United States upon the government of France of indemnity f or property taken or destroyed tinder ciruim- . s, ' l,u ' p -->of the most -tsuiavated and outrage- ous character. In the l ulU r period dtnmc, i »hi.'.h co.uimnl and earnest appeals have been m .„ie to tlm e,,„-, ly and tn.nnanimitv \1 *'»'>«, in behalf of these claims, their jusaee has not bee ,, a s it rould not be do- me I. ltw ; ,s| 10 pea,l u ttheacr e s S1 ,mof a n pw ;«vere 1! ;„t.,th* i tl 1 r„ lll .w 0ll i,ii 1 ave a f - toMed a favorable opportunity for ,,,-eson- • iog them to the consideration „f his (;„ v ermne.it . They h ,ve be*,, p li; „. ntf ,,, , md urged, hitherto without effect. The repeat ed and earnest representations of our Min ister at the Court of France, remain as vet even without an answer. Were the demands of nations upon the justice of each other susceptible of adjudication by the sentence now refer would long since have bceu set- tled, and adequate indemnity would have been obtained. There are large amounts of similar claims upon the Netherlands, Na- ples and Denmark. For those upon Spain prior to 1810, indemnity was, after many years of patient forbearance, obtained ; and those upon Sweden have been lately com- promised, by a private settlement, in which the claimants themselves have acquiesced. The governments of Denmark and of Na- ples have been recently reminded of those yet existing against them;' nor will any of them be forgotten while a hope may be in- dulged of obtaining justice by the means within the constitutional power of the ex- ecutive, and without resorting to those mea- sures of self-redress which, as well as the time, circumstances and occasion which maj'require them, are within the exclusive competency of the legislature. It is with great satisfaction that I am en- abled to bear witness to the liberal spirit with which the Mmublic of Colombia has made satisfaction lor well established cjaims of a similar character. And .among the documents now communicated to Congress, will be distinguished a Treaty of .commerce and navigation $*th that Republic, the rati- fications of which have been exchanged since the last recess of the legislature— The negotiation of similar treaties with all the independent South American States has been contemplated, and may yet be ac- complished. The basis of them all, as proposed by the United States, has .been laid in two principles; the one of entire and unqualified reciprocity; the other the mutual obligation of the parties, to place each other permanently upon the footing of the most favored nation. These princi- ples are, indeed, indispensable to the effec- tual emancipation of the American hemis- phere from the thraldom of colonizing mo- nopolies and exclusions; an event rapidly realizing in the progress of human affairs, and which the resistance still opposed in certain parts of Europe to the acknowledg- ment of the Southern American Republics as independent states, will, it is believed, contribute more effectually to accomplish. The time has been, and that not remote, when some of those states might, in the anxious desire to obtain a nominal recogni- tion, have accepted of a nominal indpend- ence clogged with burthensome condi- tions, and.exclusive commercial privileges granted to the nation from which they have separated, to the disadvantage of all others. They are now all aware that such conces- sions to any European nation, would be in- compatible with that \independence which they have declared and maintained. Among the measures which have been suggested to them by the new relations with one another, resulting from the recent changes of their condition, is that of assem- bling, at the Isthmus of Panama, a Con- gress at which each of them should be rep- resented, to deliberate upon objects impor- tant to the welfare of all. The Republics of Colombia, of Mexico, and of Central A- merica, have already deputed plenipoten- tiaries to such a meeting, and they have in- vited the United States to be also represent- ed there by their ministers. The invitation has been accepted, and ministers on the part of the United States will be commis- sioned to attend at those deliberations, and to take part in them, so far as may be com- patible with that neutrality from which it is neither our intention, nor the desire of the other American states, that we should de- part. The commissioners under the seventh ar- ticle of the treaty of Ghent, have so nearly completed their labors, that, by the report recently received from the agent on the part of the United States, there is reason to expect that the commission will be closed at their next session, appointed for the 2£d of May of the ensuing year. The other commission, appointed to ascertain the indemnities due for slaves carried away from the.United States, after the close of the late war, have met with some difficulty, which has delayed their progress in the inquiry. A reference lias been made to the Iliitisli government on the subject, which it may be hoped, will tend to hasten the decision of the commis- sioners, or serve as a substitute for it. Among the powers specifically granted to Congress by the constitution, are those of establishing uniform law s on the subject of bankiupicies throughout the U. States ; and of providing for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for govern- ing such part of thein as may be emploved in the service of the United States. The magnitude and complexity of the interests affected by legislation upon these subjects, may account for the fact, that, long and of- ten as both of them have occupied the at- tention, and animated the debates of Con- gress, no systems have yet been devised, for fulfilling, to the satisfaction of the commu- nity, the duties prescribed by these grants-i of power. To conciliate the claim of the individual citizen to the enjoyment of per- sonal liberty, with the effective obligation of private contracts, is the difficult problem to be solved by a law of bankruptcy. These are objects of the deepest interest to socie- ty ; affecting all that is precious in the ex- istence of multitudes of persons, many of them in the classes essentially dependant and helpless; of the age requiring nurture, and of the sex entitled to piotection, from the free agency the parent and of the hus- band. The organization of the militia is yet more indispensable to the liberties of the country. It is only by an effective militia that we can at once enjoy the re- pose of peace, and bid defiance to foreign aggression ; it is by the militia that we are constituted an armed nation, standing in perpetual panoply of defence, in the pres- ence of all the other nations of the earth. To this end, it would be necessary so to shape its organization, as to give it a more united and active energy. There are laws for establishing an uni- form militia throughout the United States, and for arming and equipping its whole bo- dy. But it is a body of dislocated members, without the vigor of unity, and having little of uniformity, but the name. To infuse into this most important, institution the power of which it is susceptible, and to make it available for the defence of the Union, at the shortest notice, and at the smallest ex- half, being the moiety of the loan of five millions, authorized by the act of the 2Gth May, 1821. The receipts into the treasury from the 1st of January to the 30th of Sept. exclusive of the other moiety of the same loan, a>e estimated at sixteen millions five hundred thousand dollars, and it is expect- ed that those of the current quarter will exceed five millions of dollars ; forming an aggregate of receipts of nearly twenty two millions, independent of the loan. The ex- penditures of the year, will not exceed that sum more than 2,000,000. By those expen- ditures, nearly 8,000,000 of the principal of the public debt have been discharged. More than a million and a half has been devoted to the debt of gratitude to the warriors of the revolution ; a nearly equal sum to the construction of fortifications, and the acqui- sition of ordnance and other permanent pre- paratives of national defence : half mil- pense of time, of life, and of treasuie, are among the benefits to be expected from the persevering deliberations of Congress. Among the unequivocal indications of our national prosperity, is the flourishing state of our finances. The revenues of the present year, from all their principal sour- ces, will exceed the. anticipations of the last. The balance in the treasury, on the first of lion to the gradual increase of the Navy ; an equal sum for purchases of Territory from the Indians and payment of annuities to them ; and upwards of a million for ob- jects of Internal improvement, authorized by special acts of the last Congress. • If we add to these, four millions for payment of interest upon the public debt, there remains a sum of about seven millions, which have defrayed the whole expense of the admin- istration of government, in its Legislative, Executive and Judiciary departments, in- cluding the support of the Military &, Naval establishments, and all the occasional con- tingencies of a government co-extensive with the Union. The\ amount of duties secured o n mer- chandise imported, from the commence- ment of the year, is about twenty-five mil- lions and a half; and that which will accrue during the current quarter, is estimated at five millions and a half; from these thirty- one millions, deducting the drawbacks, es- timated at less than seven millions, a sum exceeding twenty-four millions will consti- tute the revenue of the year ; and will ex- ceed the whole expenditures of the year. The entire amount of public debt remain- ing due on the first of January next, will be short of eighty-one millions of dollars. By an act of Congress of the 3d of March last, a loan of twelve millions of dollars was authorized at four and a half per cent or an exchange of stock to that amount of four and a half per cent for a stock of six per cent, to create a fund for extinguishing an equal a- mountof the public debt, bearing an interest of six per ct. redeemable in 182(5. An ac- count of the measures taken to give effect to this act, will be laid before you by the Secre- tary of the Treasury. As the object which it had in view has been but partially accom- plished, it will be for the consideration of Congress, whether the power with which it clothed the Executive should not be renew- ed at an early day of the present session, and under what modifications. The act of Congress of the 3d of March last, directing the Secretary of the Treasu- ry to subscribe, in the name and for the use of the United States, foi one thousand five hundred shares of the capital stock of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Compa- ny, has been executed by the actual sub- scription for the amount specified ; and such other measures have been adopted by that officer, under the act. as the fulfilment of its intentions requires. The latest ac- counts received of this important undeit.ik- ing, authorize the belief that it is in success- ful progress. The payments into the Treasury from proceeds of the sales of the Public L inds, during the present year, were estimated at one million of dollars. The actual leceipts of the first two quarters have fallen very lit- tle short of that sum : it is not expected that the second half of the year will be e- qually productive ; but the income of the year from that source may now be safely es- timated at a million and a half. The act of congiess of thei8th May, 1824. to pro- vide for the extinguishment of the debt due to the United States by the put chasers of public lands, was limited in its operation of relief to the purchaser, to the loth of A- pril last. Its effect at the end of the quar- ter during which it expired, was to reduce that debt from ten to sevpti millions. By the operation of similar prior laws of relief, from and since that of the 2d March, 1821, the debt had been reduced from upwards of twenty-two millions to ten. It is ex- ceedingly desirable that it should be extin- guished altogether, and to facilitate that consummation 1 leconnnend to emigres-, the revival, for one year more, of the act of 18th May, 1824, with such provisional mo- dification as may be necessary to guard the public interest against fraudulent practices in the re-sale of the relinquished land.— The purchasers of public lands are among the most useful of our fellow citizens, and, since the system of sales for cash alone has been introduced, great indulgence has been justly extended to those who had previously purchased upon credit. The debt which had been contracted under the ciecKt sales had become unwieldy, and its extinction was alike advantageous to the purchaser and the public. llnder the system of s lies, matured as it he been by experience, and adapted to the exigencies of the times, the lands will continue, as they have become, an abundant source of revenue ; and when the pledge of them to the public cieditor shall have been redeemed by the entire dis- charge of the national ilelit, the swelling tide of wealth with which they uplenish the common Treasury, may be marie to leilow in unfailing streams of improvement from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The condition of the various brandies of the public service resulting iioni theDepmt- mentof War, and their administration du- ring the current year, will be exhibited in the Report from the Secietary of War, and the accompanying documents herewith com- municated. The organization and disci- pline of the army are effective and satisfac- tory. To counteract the prevalence of de- sertion among the troops, it has been sug- gested to withhold from the men a small portion of their monthly pay until the peri- od of their discharge; and some expedient seems to be necessary to preserve and main- tain among the officers so much of the art of horsemanship as could scarcely fail W be found wanting, on the possible sudden eruption of a war, which should overtake us, unprovided with a single corps of cav- alry. The Military Academy at West Point, under the restrictions of a severe but pater- nal superintendence, recommends itself, more and more t o the patronage of the na- tion; and the number of meritorious offi- . cers which it forms and introduces to the | public service, furnisjies\the means of multi- plying the undertakings of public improve- ments, to which their acquirenfents at that Fortress Monroe, is well suited to the same purpose and may need the aid of further le- gislative provision to the same end. The Reports from the various officers at th e head of the administrative brandies of the military service, connected with the quar- tering, clothing, subsistence, health and pay of the army, exhibit the assiduous vigilance of those officers in the performance of their respective duties, and the faithful account- ability which has pervaded every part o f the system. VJ ^ Our relations with the numerous tribes of aboriginal natives of this country, scattered over its extensive surface, and so depend- ant, even for their existence, upon our pow- er, have been during the present year highly interesting. An Act of Congress, of 20th May, J824, made an appropriation to defray the expenses of making Treaties of trade and friendship with the Indian Tribes beyond the Mississippi. An Act of 3d March, 1825, authorized Treaties to be made with Indians for their consent to the making of a road from the frontier of Mis- souri to that of New-Mexico—And another act of the same date provided fdf defraying the expenses of holding Treaties with the Sioux,. ChippeWays, Menome*t|es, Sauks-, Foxes, JSLC for the purpose of'establishing boundaries and promoting peace betweeri e . • , - ., - - •-- •• • i January last, was a little short of two millions institution are' peculiarly adapted. Th e of an impartial tribunal, those to which 11 of dollars exclusive of two millions and a school of Artillery practice, established at said Tribes^ The first and'the last objects of these Actrhaye been accomplished; and the second is yetin a process of execution. The Treaties which since the last session of Congress, have been concluded with the several Tribes, will be laid before the Sen- ate, for their consideration, conformably to the Constitution. They comprise large and valuable acquisitions of Territory; and they secure an adjustment of boundaries, and give pledges of permanent peace be- tween several Tribes, which had been long waging bloody wars against each other. On the 12th of February last, a Treaty was signed at the Indian Springs, between Commissioners appointed on the part of the United States and certain Chiefs and individuals of the Creek Nation of Indi- ans, which was received at the seat of gov- ernment ouly a few days before the close of the last session of Congress and of the late administration. The advice and consent of the Senate was given to it, on the 3d of March, too late for it to receive the ratifi- cation of the then President of the United States; it was ratified on the 7th of March, under the unsuspecting impression that it had been negotiated in good faith, and in the confidence inspired by the recommend- ation of the Senate- The subsequent trans- actions in relation to this Treaty will form the subject of a separate Message. The appropriations made by Congress for public works, as well in the construc- tion of fortifications, as for purposes of internal improvement, so far as they have been expended have been faithfully applied. Their progiess has been delayed by the want of suitable officers for superintending them. An increase of both the corps of Engineeis, Military and Topographical, was recommended by my predecessor at the late session of Congress. The rea- sons upon which that recommendation was founded, subsist in all th dr force, and have acquired additional urgency since that tune. It may also be expedient to oiganize the Topographical Engineers into a corps si- milar to the present establishment of the corps of Engineers. The Military Acade- mv at West-Point, will furnish, from the Cadets annually graduated there, officers well qualified for carrying this measure in- to effect. The Board of Engineers for Internal Improvement, appointed for carrying into execution the Act of Congress of the SOth April, 1824, \ to procure the necessary sur- veys, plans, and estimates on the subject of roads and canals,\ have been actively engaged in that service from the close of the last session of Congress. They have completed the surveys necessary for ascer- taining the practicability of a Canal fiom the Chesapeake Bay to the Ohio River, and are preparing a full Report on that sub- ject ; which, when completed, will be laid before you. The same observation is t o be made with regard to the two other objects of national importance, upon which the Board have been occupied; namely, the accomplishment of a national road from the city of New-Orleans, and the practica- bility of uniting the waters of Lake Mem- pbiamagog with Connecticut River, and the niipiovenient of the navigation of that river. Thesurveys have been making, and are neaily completed. The tepoit may be expected at an early period during the pre- sent session of Congress. The acts of Congress of the last session lelativeto the sinveying, making, or lav- ing out roads in the Territories of Florida, Arkansas, and Michigan, fiom Missouri to Mexico, and for the continuation of the Cumbeiland Road, are, some of them, ful- ly executed, and others in the process of execution. Those foi completing or com- mencing fortifications, have been delayed only so fir as the corps of Engineers has been inadequate to furnish officers for the necessaiy superintendence of the works.— Under the act confirming the statutes of Viig'mia and Maryland, incorporating the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, three Commissioners on the part of the United States have been appointed for open- ing books and receiving subscriptions, in conceit with a like number of Commission- ers appointed on the part of those states.— A meeting of the Commissioners has been postponed to await the definitive report of the Board of Engineers. The light houses and monuments for the safety of our com- meice and mariners: the works for the se- curity of Plymouth Beach, and for the preservation of the Islands in Boston Har- bor, have received the attention required by the laws relating to those objects respec- tively. The continuation of the Cumber- land Road, the most important of them all, after suimounting no inconsiderable diffi- culty in fixing on the direction of the l'oad, has commenced under the most promising auspices, with the improvements of recent invention in the mode of construction, and with the advantage of a-great reduction in the comparative cost of the work. The operation of the laws relating to the Revolutionary Pensioners may deserve the renewed consideration of Congiess. The act of 18th March. 1818, while it made provision for many meritorious and indi- gent citizens, who had served in the War of Independence, opened a door to numer- ous abuses and impositions. To remedy this, the act of 1st May, 1820, exacts proo'f of absolute indigence, which many really in want were unable, and, all susceptible of that delicacy which is allied to ma- ny virtues must be deeply reluctant, to give. The result lias been, that some among the leas^esgrving have been retain- ed, and some, in kfecp the requisites both of worth and want \we*e combined, have been stricken from the list. As the num- bers of these venerable relief of an age gone by diminish ; as the de$ay$';\nf b5r|y, mind, and estate, of those thai. S^'vive,. must in the common course of hattUfe.'in- crease, should not a more liberal jfKtftion of indulgence be dealt out to them ? M,ay not the want, in most instances, be irijfened from the demand, when the service can be duly proved; and may not the last days of human infirmity be spared the mor- tification of purchasing a pittance of relief only by the exposure of its own necessi- ties ? I submit to Congress the expediency either of providing for individual cases of this description by special enactment, or of revising the act of 1st May, 1820, with a view to mitigate the rigor of its exclusions, in favor of persons to whom charity now bestowed can scarcely discharge the debt of justice. The portion of the Navy force of the Union, in actual service, has been chiefly employed on three stations—the Mediter- ranean, the coasts of South America bor- dering on the Pacific Ocean, and the West Indies. An occasional cruiser 1 has been sent to range along the African shores most polluted by the traffic of slaves; one arm- ed vessel has been stationed on'the coast of our eastern boundary, to cruise along the fishing grounds in Hudson's Bay, and on the coast of Labrador; and the first service of a new frigate has been performed in re-. stoiing to his native soil, and domestic en- joyments, the veteran hero whose youthful blood and treasure had freely flowed in the cause of our Country's Independence, and whose whole life had been a series of ser- vices and sacrifices to the improvement of his fellow men. The visit of General La Fayette, alike honorable to himself and to our Country, closed, as it had commenced, with the most affecting testimonials of de- voted attachment on his part, and of un- bounded gratitude of this People to him in return. It will form, hereafter, a pleasing incident in the annals of our Union, giving to real history the intense interest of ro- mance, and signally marking the unpur- chasable tribute of a great Nation's social affections to the disinterested champion of the liberties of human kind. The constant maintenance of a small squadron in the Mediterranean is a neces- sary substitute for the humiliating alterna- tive; of paying tribute for the security of our commerce in that sea, and for a preca- rious peace, at the mercy of every caprice of four Barbary States, by whom it was li- able to be violated. An additional motive for keeping a respectable force stationed there at this time, is found in the maritime war raging between the Greeks and the Turks; and in which the neutral naviga- tion of this Union is always in danger of outrage and depredation. A few instances have occurred of such depredations upon our merchant vessels by privateers or pi- rates wearing the Grecian flag, but without real authority from the Greek or any othei government. The heroic struggles of the Greeks themselves, in which our warmest sy mpathies as freemen and Christians have been engaged, have continued to be main- tained with vicissitudes of success adverse and favorable. Similar motives have rendered expedient the keeping of a like force on the coasts of Peru and Chili on the Pacific. The irre- gular and convulsive' character of the war upon the shores, has been extended to the conflicts upon the ocean. An active war- fare has been kept up for years, with alter- nate success, though generally to the ad- vantage of the American patriots. Bu t their naval forces have not always been un- der the control of their own governments. Blockades, unjustifiable upon any acknowl- edged principles of international law, have been proclaimed by officers in command ; and though disavowed by the supreme au- thorities, the protection of our own com- merce against them has been made cause of complaint and of erroneous imputations upon some of the most gallant officers of our navy. Complaints equally groundless have been made by the commanders of the Spanish royal forces in those seas; but the most effective protection to our commerce has been the flag and the firmness of our own commanding officers. The cessation of the war by the complete triumph of the Patriot cause, has removed, it is hoped, all cause of dissension with one party, and all vc-sti^e of force of the other. But an un- settled coast of many degrees of latitude, forming a part of our own territory, and a ilotnishing commerce and fishery, extend- ing to the islands of the Pacific and to Chi- na, still lcqune that the protecting power of the Union should be displayed under its flag as well upon the ocean as upon the land. The objects of the West-India squadron have been to carry into execution the laws for the suppression of the African slave trade ; for the protection of our commerce against vessels of piratical character, tho' bearing commissions from either of the bel- ligerent parties; for its protection against open and unequivocal pirates. These ob- jects during the present year have been ac- complished more effectually than at any former period. The African slave trade has long been excluded from the use of our flag ; and if some few citizens of our coun- try have continued to set the laws of the Union, as well as those of nature and hu- manity, at defiance, by perseverfhg in that abominable traffic,.it has been only by shel- tering themselves under the banners of other nations, less earnest for the total ex- tinction of the trade than ours. The irre- gular privateers have, within the last year, been in a great measure banished from those seas; and the pirates for months past ap- pear to have been almost entirely swept away from the borders and the shores of the two Spanish islands in those regions. The active, persevering and unremitted en- ergy of Captain Warrington and the officers and men under his command, on that try- ing and perilous service, have been crown- ed with signal success, and are entitled to the approbation of their country. But ex- perience has shown, that not even a tempo- iry suspension or relaxation from assiduity ^I inu „ al , su PP? rt ofamint aiyt power ( nations, andtheonly^^ndS^%l which Can - never b e J danS.^J only arm by whichahe wHS*Mg growth w«h whieh. the natioM^Wi in its carom, is. among the su 1^1 have alreatepccuMBd »he »» J '^ W W last congf^jTanJCSc!^wlU ? ght » f serious deliberation, OurNa > ced at an early period of ou/p! 00 ' cal organization, upon a scat^ l - ratevvith the incipient eneS C > resources, and the comparative!,- SCa f our infancy, was even then &H to cope with all the powers of S I ? - ' the first, and with one of the Jl7h^ itime powers of Europe At C ' P ^ further advancement, but with l$ m \ L 0 l*! r ^! h '. itno !^y sustain icts, but * unfa s close o theshipsof.which'itw;;^?/! 68 honor the most unequal of conflTtVr *i ered itself and our country 2 '^M glory'. /But it is only ^C&jL late _w 5 that by the number a »| deserve.flie.name of a NavyT'^YM ! nearly <$# same organization „ com4^1yof4.aS£ d ^| and regifctions by which it i s ov f.Nl gently ca%|br revision, and R? SI Naval Scf#)>finstrution 0 \ tof5 ' for the forma%i-of. scientific J? a \1 pRshedofficer S ,« 1 twithdailia aggravation. •|| 1 '. v - 3 reasi »il The act of dfngicess, of the < 1824, authprizini^a.examination *JI ! l vey oftthe Wbofc^bCiSSl Carolina, of St. %ry's, in Geo J^* the Coast of Florid foi ™& ses, has been executed so far as the ai priation would admit. Those of theM ofMarchlast, authorizing the establish? of a Navy Yard and Depot on the fWi Florida, in the Gulf of Mexico, andS lzing the building of ten sloops of war I for other purposes, are in the course oft edition ; for the particulars of which j other objects connected with this dem ment, I refer to the report of the Bern ry of the Navy, herewith communicate) A report from the Ppstmaster General! also submitted, exhibiting the present4 ishing condition of that department. % the first time for many years, the receipt for the year ending on the first of July iJg exceeded the expenditures during thesas period, to the amount -of move than fwi five thousand dollars. Other facts e creditable to the administration of I partment are, that in two years fromI first of July, 1823, an improvement of t than one hundred and eighty-five thoiisajl dollars in its pecuniary affairs have beennT alized ; that in the same interval the incttq of the transportation of the mail has exes ded one million five hundred thousand n annually ; and that one thousand andf«| new ^ost offices have been established. | hence appears that under judicious manaf ment, the income from this establishm may be relied on as fully adequate to deih its expenses; and that by the discontinue of post-roads altogether unproductive, otfc^j of more useful character may be< till the circulation of the mail shall kej pace with the spread of our population! the comforts of friendly correspondence,tl exchange 4 of internal traffic and the lightsl the periodical press, shall be distributed! the remotest comers of the union, at achat! scarcely perceptible to any individual, ai without the cost of a dollar to the | ' treasury. Upon this first occasion of addressing tl legislature of the union, with which I to been honored, in presenting to their vil the execution, so far as it has been effecte of the measures sanctioned by them, f promoting the internal improvement of« country, I cannot close the communicatio without recommending to their calm ai persevering consideration, the generalpri ciple in a more enlarged extent. Thegre object of the institution of civil govemiffl is the improvement of the condition oft k who are parties to the social compact: no government, in whatever form constil ted, can accomplish the lawful ends ofi institution, but in proportion as itimptol the condition of those over whom it iseste lished. Roads and canals, by multipljj and facilitating the communications a tercourse between distant regions, and mi titudes of men, are among the most is tant means of improvement. But mm political, intellectual improvement, are* ties assigned, by the author of our existaM to social, no less than to individual man| For the fulfilment of those duties, go«1 ments are invested with power, andloj attainment of the end, the progressiveu provement of the condition of the gownw the exercise of delegated power isadroi sacred and indespensable, as the usurp. of power not granted is criminal and o Among the first, perhaps the very m strtfment for the improvement o» « dition of men, is knowledge; andtojea quisition of much of the knowledge adfl to the wants, the comforts and enjo. of human life, public institutions and ^ naries of learning are essential, s vinced of this was the first ofnjyP'J\ sors in this office, now first in the mem | as living he was first in the heart\ country, that once and again mW\ es to the congress with whom he c • FI ted in the-public service, he earnewi commended the establishment ot » j of learning to prepare for all u» cies of peace and war-a nation* ** a can be indulged on that station without re producing piracy and murder in all their horrors ; nor is it probable that for years to come our immensely valuable commerce in those seas can navigate in security, with- out the steady continuance of an armed force devoted to its protection. It were indeed a vain and dangerous il- lusion to believe that in the present or pro- bable condition of human society, a com- merce so extensive and so rich as ours could exist and be pursued in safety, without the ries gencies of peace < versity and a military acacJ spect to the latter had he lived tot\ sent day, in turning his eyw tott* J tion at West Point, he would ^ the gratification of his most earn* ,, But? in surveying the city »&«*\£ honored with his name, he would n. j the spot of earth which he had beau j to the use and benefit of his connyj site for an university, still bare an j In assuming her station among d ized nations of the earth, Jt^JJL,' 1 out-country had contracted the enu^ to contribute her share of mind, o ( of expense, to the improvement parts of knowledge which he ' / reach of individual acquisition; *^P ularly to geographical and a_ . science. Lookback to the hi «J, of the half century since the iwci ^ our Independence, and ob3 ® rV }\° erD ni0 erous emulation with which the g ^ of France, Great Britain and BW , devoted the genious, the w te,I .° toi treasures of their respective naU \j n tlil common improvement of the spe bfn |l branches of science, is it not in' j^ pon us to inquire, whether we are ance. Some of t & 4*

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