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The Troy weekly times. (Troy, N.Y.) 1856-1895, July 22, 1875, Image 2

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W t t M f i % i m WW W P AT MORNING, JULY 2S, 1875 . W m INDIAN KING. PM**. almost with one voice end one head, Iv V*ot. JC«eh la hia criticisms upon IMkao sad Commissioner Smith. The of trend, coemption and negligence •ampleta that congress must stop it, President find* it impossible to do Hm attempt ta destroy Prof. Marsh's testi- h*e moat signally failed. In New England, he Is kaowrrr, the press of both parties protest the effort to sqnelch an honest man by abnse, where charges are made, specifications sad. these a re th e facts which, m n st be an- »o4 by abuse, but by trntb .—Xew Tork £.< ia a fair sample of the tactics employed «p§4oaHlon respecting Republican officers government. Destroy a man’s reputation and inquire into his conduct afterward- ‘Hi the motto which inspires paragraphs like above. The truth as regards the press is the fair-minded portion of it is waiting to what evidence Prof. Marsh has in Ms >n, going to show that either the secre­ tive interior or the commissioner o f Indian been implicated in fraud or g u ilty of and negligence. So far are the from being complete, that not a single of them has been submitted. We have at food deal of unsupported assertion, nothing in the nature oi proof. As Prof. Marsh has offered no testimony to show that anybody connected with the bureau has done any intentional wrong, therefore, there is nothing of that sort to . We suspect that even the professor would be surprised to learn that an at- Ms been made to squelch him by abuse, from the outset of his assault upon the feetian ring, been treated with the ut- be*rt«y and fairness. It is certainly not im the p a rt of the persons whose honor called. In question, to deny his imputa- aod call upon Mm either to verify Ms or withdraw them. So much, at least, bad a right to do. Even though they are of tha government, it is unjust to eon- unheard. there are facts which afford eonelu- that Secretary Delano, Commissioner Agent Saville are guilty of the of- ef which they are accused by Professor we do not know. The professor says ■, and they deny it. It ia not our busi- to denounce or defend them at pres- l w e do not purpose to enter upon the cf the several issues raised until Jn the way of evidence shall have presented, both by the prosecution and the I f the implicated officials turn out to V w e shall n o t fail to perform our duty in by calling for their removal and SKflietion of adequate punishment; it does seem to us an outrageous per- of the functions of journalism to jump i, as the New York S tress seems done in this case. It is no doubt a great Pff to be a professor in Yale college, but per- jMtefeHMiity is not to be predicated of a man Im holds that position. It is quite prob- WtoL Marsh believes he has found good to suspect Secretary Delano, Commis- SHdth and Agent Saville of im- conduct; possibly he may he able to Ms belief a certainty in the public mind; until h e shall have done so, o r a t least sup- strong presumptive evidence against the offenders, we shall take the liberty of to join in the senseless howl of denun- by which partisan malice seeks to com- JIvHuilt chargee of Prof. Marsh are hased mainly, exclusively, upon information obtained by at the Red Cloud Indian agency, from the themselves, who alleged that they were in the quantity and quality of the sup- fesued to them by their agent, Dr. Saville. secured from the same source samples Mffaur, sugar and tobacco, and heard a good of complaint about cattle of light weight, professor, some five months later, brought saaiter to the attention of the President. It significant that about the same time in- began to be apparent that the New Tribune had determined to select the Indi- bureau as the special point of an assault toin jure the credit of President Grant’s ton. The professor was at once taken Hms sheltering wings of that journal, and renouncement was speedily made that great had been unearthed in the Indian bureau, ihe very first, it was assumed that not the agent b u t the commissioner of Indian and the secretary of the interior were of mMfeasance. That has been taken granted in all the Tribune's editorials and '-correspondence relating to the matter. meanwhile, the public has been waiting proofs, wMeh, for some reason, both the pro- Bor and the newspaper with which he appears be affiliated have b een very slow to furnish, fact, they have offered no proof whatever, ‘only a series of assertions. s all along appeared to be the desire of accusers to establish an impression that ®t SavDle’s appointment to the Red Cloud sy was a political one, and that he was a pet and favorite of the secretary and toner. In fact, he was not selected by for the position he holds. He is an ap- ee of the Protestant Episcopal church i, under the arrangement entered into ' 80 f»e years since by wMeh the details of Indian Danagementwere tam ed over to representatives the various religious denominations in the itry, under the general supervision of the department. In pursuance of this un- iing, the American Unitarian associa- the commissioners of foreign missions of Presbyterian church, the society of Friends odox and Hieksite), tbe missionary society Methodist Episcopal church, the Roman church, the Indian commission of stant Episcopal chureh, the Baptist isionary society, the hoard of missions tormed chureh, and the American mis- iety, all exercise the privilege of agents for the Indian reservations, .ecretary of the interior is expected Dr, Saville received Ms appoint- ta that Way> through the recommendation executive committee of the Indian coni- of the Protestant Episcopal church. It fair presumption that he was selected by body because of his known probity aud fitness for the performance of the du­ el an Indian agent, and it is exceedingly to prononnee Mm a rascal, without in- into the facts attending his administra- simply .on the strength of allegations to Prof. Marsh by an ignorant and notori- y untrustworthy savage. As to (Jommis- gmith, we believe lie has always maiu- a good reputation as a man and a public ■, and although Secretary Delano has, dur- it long period of publie service, ttercd more or less of obloquy and no direct charge of misconduct arer been substantiated against him. the whole, does it not appear worth to Wait for evidence before proceeding to and pass judgment upon these men ? Marsh may not like them, but Prof. is human, like the rest of us, and among frailties may, perhaps, be reckoned those of e and intolerance. The commission re­ appointed to investigate the condition of at the Red Cloud agency has organized, ia about to commence operations, and as it eoopoaedof gentlemen concerning whom no >n h as been raised in any quarter, the ry may safely await its report before % up a verdict, (L&lnts “authorities, SBMsral rife * * ) N lfw tto n W h i s k y F r a u d P r o s e c u ti o n s . ttTie names of sevepd persons who haye been at St. Louis for being connected with frauds on the revenue, have been re- One of the inculpated persons is John aid, late supervisor of internal revenue, another is John A. Joyce, late revenue at. The others are all distillers and reoti- As yet we hear nothing further of the feicaenta alleged to have been found against Holt and Avery of the treasury depart- fit Washington, and Messrs. Fishback , McKee. The last named gentlemen were ally understood to have been instrumental ■ th e frauds, and th e i r accuser, as [ i* the accuser of Messrs. Holt and Avery, atlne MeGrew, late collector of iater- e, who was Implicated iath e frauds, understood to have secured exemption cation by turning state’s evidence, is said to have confessed that he accepted bribes for himself, bnt i-between generally, making ar- [ the distillers and rectifiers in officials. Testimony coming tlyimpu impure source ought to ition.r A man who, apt only of ae- of feuding others them secure im- I hardly a m d u b le per- fer. Sew® » person actorish matire against Wa Hjgaiify was laaUMfestly uhl P£f . i grand j ireaaur i io ve wifch he Brit iyw a y ibt, will courts, secre- credii of tl T lie O n ly D e f o r m . Special efforts at reform are well enough in their way, hut they signally fail in their object withouttha aid of forces wMoh elevate and en­ noble the whole body politic together. Aecoun- drel may be dragged out to light here and there, and consigned to condign punishment. But experience shows that Ms ill success will not deter hia neighbor from flirting with villainous fortune. The only trustworthy restraint must come from within, not from without. The criminal classes will persist in plunging over the same precipice, notwithstanding the fatal fall, until reason and conscience tell the outlaw bet­ ter. So all p r o h ib ito r y measures, the negatives in moral and political legislation, only wring out at last the confession of Scripture, “ My people “ are destroyed forlacli of knowledge.” Inmost parts of the world the masses and their rulers resemble a herd and its keepers. The fear of the. scourge in the hands of astern and righteous ruler may preserve a fear-inspired regard for right. But it is only an animal administration. The brute forces are only temporarily in muzzle, and no prophetie eye can foresee the moment when it will be slipped. The fearful eras iu history, whieh point morals for centuries after, are only the saturnalia of tho ignorant hordes of society broken loose. Powerful as law may be, it never alone en­ sured safety, immunity from lawless outbreaks, the overriding of the best maxims of order and morality. Whether or not our fathers foresaw ail the consequences that would result from demo­ cratic principles, the fact is patent that they projected the only system certain in its maturer development to afford the greatest safety and happiness to society. The monarchical—the herding system—had failed the world over. In it there was too little motive for cultivating a monarchy in every subject’s breast to restrain him from vice and disorder. A democracy at once imposed the necessity of looking after the individual. Handling people in masses would no longer do in the face of the great experi­ ment. The school house, the press and other educational instruments have been multiplied all over the land to make every man a political institution, combining the legislative, executive and even judicial departments all in himself. Every reform here that does not recognize this will surely fail. You can kill the sinner, and call the performance reform, but the sinners themselves must eradicate the sin. If you would have a temperate society, a legis­ lative fence will not perform the chore. Over or through it the drinking classes will go, though the heavens fall. A political poundmaster proves a faree and a burden to the state in every instance. Crusades may sweep across the country, but beMnd them rolls the black tide of intemperance covering tbe land onee more. Make a proMbitory law so perfect that the eye of a Marshall would he baffled to detect a flaw in it, and it is soon driven out of the streets into Congressional Globes and unused volumes of legislative lore. Society is lifted from the bot­ tom upward, not pulled higher by grasping its top. It is slow work, unsatisfactory we know to Hotspurs who would render the world a par­ adise in a day. But elevation gained iu this way is subject to no revulsion. It took centu­ ries for the native forces to push the continents above the sea. But the progress made was much faster than if nature had looked to some zealous naturalist to shovel up a sand heap to reach above the tides. Efforts at special reform are only good in an indirect way. They may call the attention of the people to a grievance, and stimulate the work of lifting and educating the erring classes. But paradise regained never did and never will come by a system of throt­ tling and scourging. That the masses will eventually reform themselves, seems probable in the light of our history. Every hour makes hands worth less and brains worth more. The subject of to-day thinks for Mmself, where his grandfather looked to the nodding plume of his leader. Onee the king must be a Saul—head and shoulders above Ms breth­ ren, so that timid souls could easily see him and know the points of the com­ pass. Now, the obscure private, with the cardi­ nal points in Ms mind, criticises his captain, and brings him back to safer bearings. The day when a Clay or a Calhoun could pick up his party in Ms hand and set it where he would, is over. The party now picks np its leader, and If it wills, throws him aside. Whether men are aware of it or not, eaeh successive year the real ruler of the people, the common sense of the masses, is coming more into the command. The instinctive feeling, quickened by the increasing intelligence, is to extend the reign of right. The end will be the triumph of every desirable re­ form, not through a special fight, but because all men will be gradually aud forever lifted above the desire to indulge in evil. law yers* Opinions. A reporter of the New York Herald has been interviewing some of the leading lawyers of the metropolis concerning Mr. O’Conor’s letter to Judge Davis, criticising the action of the court of appeals in the Tweed ease. Of course these gentlemen of the bar were disposed to reticence. It was only by dint of persistent questioning tbat they could be induced to say anything. They did n ’t like to commit themselves to any opinion on the subject. None of them wanted to assume an attitude of antagonism toward Mr. O’Conor or Judge Davis, and for obvious rea­ sons it is for their interest to stand well with the judges of the court of appeals. So the re­ sponses obtained by the Herald man were by no means satisfactory. Regret was generally ex­ pressed that Mr. O’Conor had seen fit to write sneh a letter, because it would have a tendency to weaken the respect of the public for tbe court. The decision is final and must be respect­ ed, right or wrong; it has all the force of law. That is the sum and substance of the answers elicited. Not one of the gentlemen interrogated said anytMng about the palpable contradiction in whieh the court involved itself. It was a pity that Tweed could not be punished, but the opin­ ion of the court of appeals must be sustained, lest that tribunal become an object of irrever- ential comment among the people. That was the cautious and truly lawyerlike conclusion reached in every instance. Nobody saw fit to discuss the question really at issue. The in­ quiry of Mr. O’Conor into the legality of the de­ cision was in “ bad taste.” It makes no differ­ ence whether the court was right or n o t; its de­ terminations are law, and that’s enough. Of course this is an affirmation of the propriety of judicial legislation. While the court of appeals held that cumulative penalties could he imposed, that was law ; when it turned about and de­ clared that cumulative penalties could not be imposed, then that became law'. Aud there must be no criticism, because it will tend to lower the estimation in which the court is held. It strikes us that this sort of “ now “ you see it and now you don’t “ see it” jugglery, is quite as likely to inspire distrust and weaken confidence in the judiciary as anything we have heard of lately. It il the performance itself, and not the criticism, that really supplies the reason, if any there be, for doubting the impartiality of the court. The people have aright to know whether the judi­ ciary chosen and supported by themselves cuu be relied upon, and we regard Mr. O’Conor’s letter justified upon that ground, even if it is not by the use wMeh the court saw fit to make of Ms argument in the Philo Johnson ease, in order to cover its own change of position. A Shocking Tragedy. Shocking news comes from the city ot San Miguel, in the Central American republic of San Salvador. On Sunday, June 20th, a Catholic priebt preached a sermon against the authorities, which so stirred up his congregation that a dreadful riot occurred in consequence. The mob broke open the jail, and released two hundred prisoners, after which the military garrison was attacked, overpowered and massacred with cir­ cumstances of horrible barbarity. Many peace­ able citizens were also killed. Sixteen houses were destroyed by fire, involving, it is said, a loss of §1,000,000. • The affair was an episode of that perpetual struggle for the ascendency of church over state which has agitated Christendom for cen­ turies and caused the most dreadful calamities. The government had refused to permit the read­ ing in the churches of a seditious paste iralis?uftd by a certain bishop. Bonce the inflammatory harangue of the priest at San Miguel, and tho scenes of bloodshed and anarchy that followed. The clerical agitator selected a moment when the passions of the lower classes of the people were inflamed by a regulation in regard to a market place. It is announced that the presi­ dent of the republic has caused many of the in­ ferior rioters to be shot, and that the turbulent priest and others are under arrest. Why the executions were not made to begin with the In­ stigators and leaders of the disturbance ii a wonder. If anybody deserved short shrift it was the priest whose appeals caused the rising, The republie’of San Salvador has enjoyed the reputation o f being one of the most advanced of the Central American states in civilization, and culture. Its history has been one of com­ parative peace and prosperity. The population is more denso than that of the other small re­ publics, and has exhibited considerable thrift. It is a pity that this dreadful outrage has oc­ curred to mar an otherwise creditable record. Better Dty* at Hand. Among the principal causes delaying the re­ turn of prosperous business relations is the sur­ plus production of all kinds of industry, which stai overstock the market. Tho war had the effect of stimulating manufacturing interests far beyond the demand. The panic eame, car­ rying awaypurehasingpowerand the disposition to buy, together. Both are returning, but so slowly that business men everywhere loudly complain in their disappointment. The outlook improves gradually. The rate at which pros­ perity Is returning is a safe one, much better than a sudden restoration. The lesson we are learn in g w ill be the m o re lastin g , a n d p e r h a p s save us from plunging, without delay, into some other folly. It is simply a question of tim e ; belter days cannot be forced to come at any man’s bidding. When the means of purchase are in hand again, and di-trust and the momen­ tary spasm of economy have passed, then the. demand for the goods of the overcrowded market w ill increase, manufacturing will revive, and idle hands will llnd employment. All the people need is patience. The shock two years ago was too great to permit he house to be set to rights in a minute. One of the most encouraging features is the prospect of large erop3 and an active market for breadstuff next fall. Manufacturing interests rest largely on agriculture. When the farmer is out of money c>r has nothing to exchange for manufactured articles, “ dull times” is the re suit. No wonder then tbe condition of the crops i- a matter of absorbing interest to many people. The farmer's outlay this season prom­ ises a large return. Tlie drouth in the spring affected grass somewhat, but sufficient rain came in time to save other crops from any se­ rious check. From nil parts of the country come cheering reports as to the bountiful har­ vests in prospect. Already the flow of cereals from the West to the seaboard lias largely in­ creased. Our line- of transportation are having more to do ; money i- moving westward, and with the access of new wealth will return tlie spirit of purchase, whieh will gladden the hearts of manufacturers all over the country. One cause of this new demand for breadstuff* is the unexpected call for them in European mar­ kets. There is a great deficiency of crops in Hungary, while unfavorable weather has seri­ ously interfered with agricultural prospects in France and England. The heavy floods in France, so destructive to crops, will greatly in­ crease tlie demand on our market. The follow­ ing from an English paper gives the exact con­ dition of things : The w eathcr of the p a -t w eek has been verv change­ able, commencing with Tain, and then fin'-, while on W ednesday night and Thursday there were violent rains, calculated greatly to hinder the hay harvest, which had generally commenced: and we fear not a little will be damaged in condition and qualify. It has been too.wet also for the wheat coming info ear and bloom, as a period of calm is m u ch now to be de­ sired, a n d as we are approaching the period when heavy rains are common, it looks rather threatening for the future; growers, too, it seems, have thought so, as, in spite of the re-i-tanee- of millers, manv places have established a future advance of one shil­ ling, and some have put up prices two shillings per quarter; and this steady dogged way of advancing is perhaps the best, as the gain is more likely to be p er­ manent. Indeed, with the calamitous flood- in France the improvement seems very small, and the French m arkets have been less affected than might have been expected, for Paris only notes a rise in flour of eight shillings per sack, and one shilling per quarter in wheat, arid few of the provincial markets exceed this ri-,-; but Bordeaux ha- increased one shilling and sixpence per quarter, and a very large business has been done a t M arseille-on full term-, while .Southern Russia tells us that tlie recent rains have come too late to recover the position of the crops, wnieh everywhere have -nti -refl heavily from the long drought. New York confirms h e r la-t report of poor prospects by an advance nf one shilling -on. wheat, and Germain-, vvith good prospects almost everywhere, is slightly dearer: so, that any further calamitie- in this m o st eventful year would speedily change onr tariff and benefit growers. That the last harvest has held out well is seen in the last weekly sales, which were nearly double tlio-e of 1871, as those deliv eries also show that farmers are easily sat­ isfied by improved m arkets, and are n o t of that selfish race who “ withhold the corn till the people curse tln-m.” In Belgium and Holland there h a - been little change, nor has' there beeu any to notice in Northern Russia and Hungary. The deficiencies in European breadstuff- will be mostly supplied from this country. Every­ thin\ encourages us to believe that we shall be able to meet the unexpected draft upon us. The result will be a large flow of wealth into this country, which will tend to revive every department of business, and then we shall float beyond the shadow of the great panic of 187A ___________ _ Tlie C o u rt o f A p p e a ls . The Albany Are/us -ays it b u s “ repcato-lly tak>-n ocea-ton to reflect public- sentiment with reference to the hjgli estimation in which the conrt of appeal- is held by all classes of citizens.” Far from it. •• Pub­ lic sentim p n t” accurately reflected would show al­ most anything b u t “ high estimation ” for o u r higlu- t court. — Utica S t / aid. It is pretty certain that the court will gain nothing in the opinion of sensible men by the injudicious effort- of its friends to break the force of Mr. O’Connor’s criticisms. Demo­ cratic newspaper reporters may interview cringing and subservient lawyers iu that be­ half, and print the results, as much as they choose, but the bare fact will continue to ob­ trude itself, that Tweed was saved by a revcr-al of the principle announced in the Fisher ease, whieh was declared to be so well settled that no departure from it could be permitted. Un­ doubtedly it may he regarded as unfortunate that the action of the court has been called in question, but tbat is merely because there ap­ pears to be substantial ground for complaint. Mr. O’Conor might find fault till doomsday without creating an impression, if he were un­ able to assign satisfactory reasons for doing so. Democratic newspapers, anxious, for partisan purposes, to shield certain members of the court from censure, dwell with great unction upon the necessity of maintaining inviolate the popular re-peet for the judiciary, but that con­ sideration has not restrained them from furious assault- upon the supreme court of the United State* wheneverneeasion- presented them-elves for as-ailing that tribunal. There are courts and courts, and those whieh avoid giving cause for offense may be reasonably sure of main­ taining the dignified position they ought to hold in public e-timation. If the court of appeal* Ita- made no mistake in the Tweed ease, the people will acquit it of blame, mo matter what Mr. O’Conor or anybody else may say. If it has swerved from the line of perfect judicial integ­ rity, it ought to be condemned, and the more so because of the solemn and weighty responsi­ bilities devolving upon it. The exalted nature of its functions can by no means be pleaded in extenuation of it- faults, but rather affords a reason why its decisions should be scrutinized with jealous eyes, It is unfortunate that so many of the judges of our highest court are know n as ardent politi­ cal partisans, aud that the circumstances under which they were elected were such as to weaken public confidence to their impartiality. Proba­ bly must of them mean to do right, but they are human, and subject to like frailties with other men. Old associations, friendships aud animos­ ities are commonly very potent agencies iu af­ fecting tlie judgment of person- whose theatre of action has been mainly confined to the arena of politics, and whose aspirations -till tend in that direction, anil it cauuot be expected that individuals who are known to be ambitious of political promotion will, even on tbe bench, escape the suspicion of being subject to impulse? wMeh are hardly con-i-teut with the higlie-t judicial excellence. Such a suspicion doe- not neccs-arily imply a doubt as to htme-ty of inten­ tion, but only an apprehension that the reason­ ing faculties may be warped by circumstance- not favorable to fair and unbia-ed constructions of law. WM’ther tbe deei-ion of the court of appeals in. the Tweed case is otieii to critiei-m based upon considerations of this nature, mu-'t be a matter of private opinion vvith every intel­ ligent citizen. Laymen are a- weH qualified to decide the question as lawyers, aud al-o to de­ tect inconsistencies of interpretation when the fa c t - are clearly p r e s e n ted t o them . TH£„rri&bf»£? eaya there ia talk in Republican circles Qljtovttlng Gen. Merritt of St. Lawrence co tuttinylftece on the ticket. Gen. Merritt is one*#?be very few Liberal leaders in this utate the Republicans cherish respect, or are anxious to see restored to their old with tp* party again. The general i» <lc and feow*t mad. The Republic m door sUCh u n ite. j L a d y F r a n k l i n D e a d . The telegraph brings the news thut Lady Franklin, widow of Sir John Franlcliu, i- de-ad. Thus ends a life which for nearly thirty years has touched the heart and won the admiration of the world, became of its devotion to the mem­ ory of him who had gone down into the dark­ ness and obscurity of the Arctic regions forever. Lady Franklin was Sir John Franklin’s second wife. The intrepid explorer was fortunate in unding in both heroic qualities to encourage and illumine Ms career of hard-hip and danger. In 1825, when he was given the command of an Arctic overland expedition, Ms first wife, upon her dying bed, urged him not to delay his depar­ ture on her account, and gave him as a parting gift a silk flag, w h ich s h e req u e s ted him t o h o ist w h e n h e had reached th e n o r t h pole. In March, 1828 , Jjir John Franklin was married to Jane Grifllu, tlie Laily Franklin ivlio.se mournful Iliad has just closed in death. Her husband sailed for the Arctic regions for the la-t time iu 1845, and w a s never heard o f m o r e .— Then began that scries ox ffforts for the discovery of him and Ms party which have thrown such a romance around the name of Lady Franklin. It seemed as if she had but one aim in life, and that was to bring back from the land of eternal fee and snowsi the husband of her youth. Scarcely a year has passed when through her means an expedition from England or America has not sailed in search of the lost explorer. Even when the certainty of Ms death had finally settled down on the civilized world, her efforts never relaxed. And within a few weeks a vessel, mainly fitted out by her money, eafled from England on the same hopeless er­ rand, Such devotion has a caste of heroism that the world has not beeu slow to recognize and honor. The long tragedy, with So much of ronwnce aud fidelity to a cherished object, re- c*ivc* x deeper tinge of sadness that the faith- M heart must stop beating in death with no balm, not even the recovery of her husband’s body, for the anguish of suffering and the con­ stancy of effort,- But at last mav wo hop ’ hai fi.irad Sic John Ui-imLHii.—A?,’//. C e n t e n n ia l F r u i t s . Aside from the revival of patriotic sentiments and the healing of sectional wounds, the cen­ tennial celebrations will result in good of a lit­ erary character. It is often said, and no doubt truly, that the history of any period cannot be written at tha time. The most that can be done is to chronicle the incidents, which some histo­ riographer in after days shall weave into an im­ mortal story. The dust of stirring events, the prejudiced and distorted angles of vision un­ der which contemporaries view the scenes before them, and the impossibility of gathering np all tbe items for data, all interfere with the just­ ness of historical pictures painted without some lapse of time. The observer m u s t stand at some distance from the era in order to see things to their true relations. Many things deemed vital to one generation are found to have been of the most trivial charac ter in the next; while events and influences overlooked at flr.-t have proved themselves the pivots on wldeh the era turned. It is safe to say that the history of the revolu­ tion has not yet been written. The returns are not ail in yet. Bancroft is the depot of avast pile, but there are more to come and some too of the utmost importance. Our centennial will not only he a period of hi-torieal writing, but what is of m o re value of a. tive gathering of his- torh al Information. Thanks to the enterprise of journalism, little of w orth is likely to e.-eape the thorough re­ search instituted for the occasion. The drag- hook is being poked into all the odd nooks aud com e r s , and long-hidden fact- stand a good chance of at last seeing daylight. Old docu­ ments arc being aroused from their hundred- year,-’ sleep to make clear und straight the ob- eeuro and crooked. New anecdotes, flashing light over character and complications, are made to tell their story for the entertainment of the hour. Orators, we are glad, to say, instead of soaring into ether, are striving to give us facts with a basis of philosophy. They thrust themselves into the back ground that their hear­ ers may not be not be diverted from the great lessons of patriotism, freedom and progress. When the centennial era shall have passed; when every four comers where a patriot dis­ charged a musket for Ms country, shall have paid due tribute to the dead; then the his­ torian can sit down to the array of the old and the fresh materials, and write the Mstory of our country according to its deserts. We may tMnk of little now but the show, the parade, the restoration of unity, the quickening of the pa­ triotic pulse, but among the chief benefits will -tand the h istorical, v a luable alike to the eause of truth and the service of freedom. Another literary advantage, whieh may seem dilettant in us to mention, is the impulse given to poetic composition. Poets, as w ell as other mortals, often need the stimulus of great occa­ sions to call out their best efforts aud produc­ tions. None but talent will be likely to receive aniuvitatiun to pluck bouquets from Parnassus to adorn centennial tables. Knowing what is expected of them, the bards will not return from their excursions on the mount of song without the best on the slope. The poems, written for the few celebrations already held, are of a superior order, and seem likely to be the pioneers of a scries of wMeli every Ameri­ can will be proud for their patriotic fire, literary excellence and undying sentiments. The cen­ tennial fruits enumerated may not he so coarsely obvious as other varieties, but their trans­ cendent value will more strikingly appear as the rear- roll by. Poor TTmrinan! fcenator Thurman of Ohio is evidently aware of the fact that he has got himself into a pickle, and has adopted a truly Democratic means of ex­ tricating himself. Iu an interview with a re­ porter of the Baltimore ftazrtte, be declares to ef­ fect that even though the Democratic party is wroug it musHie supported. That is to be Ms justification for taking the stump in Ohio, and supporting a ticket nominated upon a platform of inflation and repudiation. He proposes to make a speech at Mansfield on the 31st Instant, and define his position. Then he will show the country how easy it is for a Democratic states­ man to ride two horses going in opposite direc­ tions. He will oppose inflation, but support in­ flationists. That is the way he proposes to maintain “ the convictions of a lifetime.” His predicament is a truly emharassing one, but per­ haps he ha- enough of the eel in Mm to wriggle out of it after a fashion. T J iu r in n ii’s B lunder. The inflation plank in the Ohio Democratic platform c< mtinues to be a source of much em­ barrassment to the brethren who hold that hard money is a cardinal principle of Democ­ racy. Senator Thurman’s ridiculous position is evidently fully appreciated. The Baltimore whose reporter recently interviewed that juggling statesman, is by no means satis­ fied with his position. In a well considered article tliat journal says : Briefly stated. Senator Thurman is in favor of tha Democratic party, right or wrong; while the better sentiment of the country only desires the sncoe-s of the Democratic party right, and would rather see it sustain a temporary defeat than have one of its car­ dinal principles trampled u n d e rfoot. This, as we un­ derstand it, is tho difference between Mr. Thurman and those who think him not justified in his course during and a fter the Ohio convention. How lie will reconcile his Democracy with the spurious arti-le proffered hv Mr. Pendleton; how as a states­ m an and lover of his country he can support for cilice an arrant demagogue and repudiationist like Cary, tlie candidate for lieutenant-governor; how he can have the hardihood to tell the people of Ohio that the road to reform and honest government is to he readied by jugglery and fraud, we do not know. Perhaps Mr. Thurman w ill p u t us at ease in his Mans- field speech, h u t v.<- are sceptical. At all events h is sure that a Republican victory in Ohio this fail would lie a great calamity, and th a ' a Democratic tri­ umph -honld lie secured' at all hazards. Mr. Thar man frankly acknowledges tb i t him-elf and lfis hard-money friends were bullied aud intimidated by tlie claeqiiirs of Pendletoni-ra, and forced to give wav in convention in spite of remuisirauee and protect. Where, tli'ii, will he lie in lsp; if the inflationist, carry Ohio on their . oft money platform this fall? Does he not see that, with the prestige of a vietory in a great central state, the p iper money element will have gained sufficient strength to dominate ov e r the next national convention? If he docs n ot, lie is very blind, indeed. The sequence of an inflation victory in Ohio is so plain that he who runs mav read. It will mean a triumph of the same element'in the next eongre-s, and the acceptance of the delusive heresy in the state conventions le-vt year. The lines have been so sharply draw n, and the issue so far overtopples all others, that the Ohio election lias but the one significance ot an expression ou the money qnertion. * * ~ « * * * But we are discu-sing this question mi a low plane. I would rather b e right.” said one of our greatest statesmen, \ than he President.\ The idea is rather quaint and old-fashioned iu these times, lmt it would not h u rt some of our modern statesmen to adopt it, und the same principle might be advantageously in­ fused into parties. A steadfast, uncompromising ad­ herence to principles will in the end bring enduring success, if those piim-ipU- are right. Such a cours- may beget temporary defeat, und success may he long postponed, but it will come and he perpetual. Any other course, any compromise with wrong, may bring temporary v ictorv, b u t ruin, swift and inevitable, will follow. Better never success at all if it is tn beli. night at the price the Democratic p arty would pay for it iu Ohio. E x -G o v. B ih l e k o f Pennsylvania, oen‘rul financial a g e n t of th e cen ten n ial exposition, es­ tim a tes t h e ex p e n d itu res to be in c u r r e d on ac­ co u n t o f t h e exhibition at §7,f30S,OUO, o f w h ich am o u n t t h e follow ing cap ital has b e e n s e c u r e d : State of Pennsylvania ............................................ Sl.uoi.rtti C i t v o r P h lla ili’IpU ia .............................................. l,.™ ,,*! i 8tate of New Jersey............................................... 1WMI S t a t e ol Delaware.................................................... 10.mil 8tuek9 sold iu l'cuns)hauls aud other ctatc*,., ?l,','e I.OOl Leaving s2,04*,ihio to lie obtained. Of this sum sl,r,(mi.IHMl might to lie secured be­ fore the opening of the exhibition. Four mil­ lions and fifty-eight thousand dollars of the gross expenditure represents stock whieli will have to be cancelled by payment, und Mr. Big­ ler is very coutbient this can he done from the receipts of the exhibition. Three millions of visitors entering an average uf three times each, at fifty cents admission, would pay the stock in full, with a handsome dividend. Were the ex­ hibition merely international to character, it is doubtful whether this large admission could be secured; hut the addition of the 1 Centennial adjunct to the nature of the exhibition changes its prospects, and renders it almost certain that pecuniarily the event will he a success. Thou­ sands of people will now attend it who would not have dune so if the exposition were simply international in character. The international outlook, how ever, i- good. Thirty-eight foreign governments have accepted the Frtsidcnt’s in­ vitation, and are making preparations to take part in the exhibition. These, united to the thirty-seven sovereign states of the Union, will make a greater gathertog of representatives of separate and independent governments than have evi r come together before. i she Speaking of the South, the Boston Post pays that a fire could not clean out a doomed territory more coin- plctely than, tho earwet-ba\ fraternity, chartered and protected from W ashington, devoured the remnant of substance whieh was the .South's only reliance in a struggle for recovery. At this very moment tlie Bouth owes about all tlie prosperity it enjoys to tlie so-called carpet­ baggers. Tbat much berated class of people have been “ ehnrterod an d p r o tected from “ Washington” exactly to the same extent, and ni; more, that citizens of southern states who cliose lo f OM? hovth have been chartered and proteeted-tbafc to sav, the government lias insisted that their rigm* el'0,ul'T 1)0 respected, under seetion tw’o of article fo’.’1' the consti­ tution, whieh provides “ the citizens cat'ti “ state shall he entitled to all privileges and ini-' “ munlties of citizens in the several states.” The abjcctness with which northern Democratic newspapers are iu tbe habit of cringing before the ex-slaveholders of the South is pitiable to behold. According to them, northern men are entitled to no “ privileges and Immunities\ whatever, c secpt such as may he extended to them through the sufferance, of unrepentant traitors south of Mason's and Dixon's Hue. M a m fa CTI HIXG is p o o r business over in Berlin ta this county The census gives .113 as the amount of capital invested in manufacture, §23,485 ; cost of raw ma­ terial consumed, $43,042; value of Annual product, j number of peivmi em­ ployed, 1,033; average monthly wages, $50. To recapitulate—there are sales amounting to $127,885, while there is paid for raw material $43,942, and for the labor of 1,035 persons at $50 per month each, or $600 per year, $621,000. The manufacturer or community of manufac­ turers that received $43,943 and pays out $664,- 933 per year must look sharp for any return upon capital invested. By the same process of figuring we find that unhappy Lansingburgh loses $209,678 annually in her manufactures, bt?- sides interest on $774,940 of capital. Is n’t such census taldng a little absurd ? S o m e R e s u l t s o f tin e C e n s u s , The press of the state is now giving the local results of the census taken in June, the figures are, in most eases, either a hasty first count, or include estimates for a j'art of the returns. We collate and compare the returns aud esti­ mates at hand as follow*: Albany ............. New Y o r k .......... B rooklyn ............... B u ffalo .................................. Rochester .......................... Syracuse ........................... tr o y .................................... Ci dines ........................ Osweco ............................... Pnunhkeepsle ............... IvrnSia.................................... A u b u r n \ \ .......................... Newburgh .......................... omlcniburgh ................... Ithaca 157.-.. si.isi t.axyw 470,'Ml kifl.irni 8-1,100 50,837 48,253 ....... 85,imo 22.240 20,007 20,003 19.(110 17,133 10,343 11110 , s 14711. 01.122 012,292 390, IM 117,714 03,r,22 l:l,K31 40,403 15,377 2(1,0111 2>i,04rt 15.S03 172225 17,014 10.(158 10,107 138.7. 02.813 724,340 290,112 94,502 59,940 31,784 3:1,293 191234 18,073 13,130 12,587 17,339 vrad-i As far as reported the rural counties appear to be more than holding their own, and while some of them show losses, others report very gratifying gains. In Otsego county the popu­ lation is 50,205. against 48,007 in 1870, a gain of 1,238, all of which has been effected'in the towns of Oneonta and Richfield, the other towns showing a falling off. Schoharie is re­ turned at 33,898, a falling off of 443 as compared with 1870, and 1,571 as compared with 1865. Chenango county shows a loss from 1870 of 769. The population now is returned at 39,795. The decrease is accounted for from the fact that, during the census of 1870, a large number of foreign laborers were employed in building rail­ roads who have since removed. Chemung county shows a marked degree of prosperity, every town showing an increase except one. The population of the county is 43,007, a gain over 1870 of 6,736. Two.thirds of tliis increase is to be credited to the eity of Elmira. Chau­ tauqua county shows the handsome gain over 1870 of 5,000. The returns are not quite com- jilete. Kings county will reach about around 500,000, against 419,921 five rears ago. The citv of Brooklyn will reach 470,000, against 396,000 to 1870. Tlie total population of the forty-live census districts of Buffalo from whieh returns have been received is 121,541. This gives an average population to a district of 2.723. Estimating the five districts to be heard from at that figure, the total population of Buffalo would appear to be 130,156. R o c h e s ter is s o m e w h a t disappointed, as a p o p ­ u latio n o f 100,000 w a s confidently anticipated. Nearly full returns show it to be' 84,109, a gain o f 13,000 in t h e original w a rds. Yonkers has a population o f 17,313, against 12,797 in 1870. N E W XOIS.lt I ’O i m t ’S. Mopefttl Outlook Tor tke Republicans as Viewed by a Correspondent oT a Western Paper. [New York correspondence Chicago Evening Journal-! N ew Y obic , July 12,1875.—I have been verv much struck, to canvassing with Republican leaders and workers, to find how generally pre­ vailing is the belief that we shall carry the Em­ pire state this fall. Indeed, talk with any one uf them, and there is the same expression of confidence that we are to recover the state this fall by a rousing majority. This confidence is ba -ed'upon a variety of reasons : —The Democrats last fall promised that tliev would bring better times. Well, over ino,ooo Republicans remained away from the polls, the Democrats elected their candidates by over St.,000 majority, bnt so far from times be­ coming better, they have grown still worse. Democratic promises of bringing plenty of vyork and plenty of money have not been ful­ filled, and, a* a consequence, there is a most bitter disappointment among the working cla-ses, whieli will manifest itself to no uncer­ tain manner at the polls. Xt'fond —The third term business, which cost us so many votes last year, has ceased to be a bugbear. ‘It is now uuiver.-ally felt and con­ ceded that Gen. Grant is out of* the next presi­ dential contest, and could not even get in, how­ ever much his more immediate friends and ad­ mirers might desire Mm to do so. While I have always been a warm supporter of the hero who brought the war to a close, I do not write harsMy when I say that were he to ran next year for the presidency he would lack 200,000 votes of securing the electoral vote of the state. His friends realize this, aud admit aud assert that he is out of the contest. Third —The Liberal Republicans in this state are coming hack to the fold almost to a body. I met their recognized leader, Gen. John Coch­ rane, a few days since, when he assured me that the old party would not leave the Democrats a peg tn stand upon iu this state this fall. He added: “ Granth-m is now dead; there is nothing to keep us apart; we seceded to 1872 because we were opposed tu a second term ; now we ere coming hack, and together we shall be invincible.” He added tbat “ tbe Democratic party was the most corrupt that God ever per­ mitted to live.” This strong language of course indicated much bitterness on the part of the Liberal Republican* toward tbe Democrats. The truth is they feel that they have not been well treated, but, on the contrary, have been snubbed and humiliated by the Democrats. To the above significant language of Gen. Cochrane may be added a remark made by Sen­ ator Fentqn \\ hen coming to New York’a few days since to receive a daughter returning from Europe, viz.: “ I claim tb he aud still am a Republican.” While the straight Republicans in liis own region (Chautauqua) are still hitter toward him, and what are known as the Walter Ses.-Ions Republicans will never consent to re­ ceive bim buck, there is a general disposition among tbe Republicans of the state to receive him buck into good fellowship. Hon. D. D. 8. Brown of Rochester, another of the Liberal leaders in this state, and the main getter up of the National Liberal convention in 1872, assured me nut very long since that he intended to re­ turn to the Republican party proper. For all such Liberals as have wanted' to come hack hut have been ashamed to do so, Gen. Grant’s let­ ter withdrawing from the contest now affords a good pretext for changing their political base. While tbe Liberal element is by no means as large iu this state as in 1*72, it was of sufficient importance to elect such men on both the Re­ publican and Democratic tickets as were in­ dorsed two years ago. Col. Ethan Allen, chair­ man o f the Liberal Republican national eo.-n- liiitite, wants to bring the Liberals hack to the Republican party proper, with the proviso that lie retei\e the nomination f o r attorney general this fall. But Mr. Allen is of so little account, and has so wholly lost whatever inflneuee he ever had to the Liberal ranks, that his personal tt ishes or desire 4 Will not receive the slightest 1 oiisideration. At the furthest he is a light weight. J'liurth —The inflation platform of the Ohio Democrats has had a mo t depressing, demoral­ izing effect upon the Democrats of this state, who are, with but few exceptions, hard-money men. They make no secret of their thorough disgust and of their determination of improving the first opportunity to administer a rebuke at the polls. You may rest assured that this in­ flation business in Ohio will make a most de­ cided change among the Democrats in New York this fall. ‘ Fifth —There is an irrepressible conflict be- tw cell Gov. Tildcnaml the Democratic managers and manipulator* generally in this state. There is no doubt on that point.' The governor’s vig­ orous war upon the canal and other rings has aroused tlie most bitter hostility of all dishonest Democratic politicians, and tliey are now only waiting for an opportunity to strike at him after he has struck at them such hard blows. They will smite him hip aud thigh if they can do it. All this means a bitter strife between the Til- denites and the anti-Tildenites which will ac­ crue to the benefit of the Republican party. t>hth— There is a bitter war between the Tam­ many leaders here and the rank and file of the Democratic party whieh daily grows iu vim- lfiice. Tin* Kitz eTnlm P o r ters and B.tldv Smiths, who Lave been given the positions of honor and trust by Mayor Wiekliam, have had little or 110 experience to polities, and conse­ quently do not know how to manage the Demo­ cratic elements whieh have to be manipulated and placated in order to keep the parly as a unit. Ini.. , I n example, the munugenoqh Gen. I'itz John Porter as commissioner of public works. This is a position of very great power. Porter's predecessor, George Vail Sort, (Republican,) so treated the hundreds of men in liis employ that they would vote as he de­ sired them tii do, no matter what their poli­ ties w ere. The first thing Fit* John did was to discharge them. This made a compact body o f h o s tile m e n t o t h e D e m o c ratic parly. T h e n the Democratic power in tlie eity proceeded to reduce the wages of the new laborers. This made tliein in turn the enemies of the party, so that Pi liter's patronage, instead of being a source of stre n g th to the Democratic party, is proving directly the reverse. Furthermore, the reduc­ tion of wages of laborers in all tbe departments is breeding dissatisfaction and hostility to the Democratic leaders among the Democratic masses generally. They charge that whereas their leaders here claimed tb be for the eight hour law, thoy now, when placed iu power, cut down their wages and at the same time do not reduce the number of hours of labor. You can readily understand bow demagogues with these facts for texts and themes can easily work up an intense feeling against the present Democratic leaders (Swallow-tails,) and this they (Short- hairs) arc now doing. Mr. Van Nort said to me tlie other day, tliat with the present feeling of the laborers to the various eity departments al­ most the entire eity vote of the laboring elasses w as liable to be alienated from the Democratic party. aV truth —'The Democratic legislature last ses­ sion made a wretched winter’s work of it. The leaders quarreled with Tilden and w ith them­ selves, and altogether came far short of the ex- Xiectalions of those who elected Mm. This has liurt the party, and gives the. Republicans de- t id e d ho p e s o f c a rrying1 b o th ho u s e s n e x t f a ll. I have thus briefly sketched the political situ­ ation in this state, and endeavored to present facts as they are. If tbe prospects of the Repub­ licans are presented in a flattering light it is be­ cause a careful survey of the field warrants it. The facts I have presented will, I take it, be of special interest through the west, Inasmuch as a recovery of tho Empire state this fall by the Re­ publicans will have a most important bearing upon the coming presidential campaign. —The July returns to the department of agri­ culture show that the acreage in corn is about eight per cent, greater than lost NOW jr jtia n d has reduced her acreage about V£ per cent., uiiu Pacific states about one per cent. All the great eorh',cr!'owinPG'f’ginT1s have increased their acreage. The a^'Mlc states, two per cent.; tlio South Atlantic states, c ^ e e per c e n t.; the Gulf states, 10 per ceut. j the id Land Southern states, 12 per c e n t.; the states north of the Ohio, seven per cent. , the slates west of the Missis­ sippi, I t per rent. The condition of the crop Is below average in the New England, Middle and South Atlantic states; the minimum, 82, being in Rhode Island, Florida and Alabama are also below average, but the other Gulf states and the inland Southern states are above ; the maximum, 113, being in Mississippi. All the other states, except Missouri, 103, are beiow average: the minimum condition, 83, being in Wisconsin, NOTES FROM OFT OF TOWN. [From (he Daily Times, July 10.] S a n d y I I l l l . NARROW .ESCAPE. Monday, Mrs. Jam es Morrill and her sister, Mrs. Armstrong, were driving to Glen's Fails. As the 9;10 a 51 . tr a in came along, the horse h n amc frightened, and commenced hacking up, upsetting the carriage, hut for which it would have been backed npou the track. Mr*. Armstrong was badly h u rt. Orescent. SERIOl'8 ACCIDENT. Mr*. Catherine Ward, a resident of Central New York, while leaving a passenger train a t Crescent sta­ tion, New York Central railroad, with a heavy satchel 011 Wednesday, was thrown on her back across the rail of a siding by the sudden starting o f the train, in­ juring h er spine. She was picked u p insensible. Dr. Peekham attends her. LFrom the Daily Times, July 19.) Fonda. DISTItEssrNo CASE. J H. Brower o f tlii* place cut his hand badly a few days ago while splitting wood, and hia condition has be­ come dangerous from loss of blood and nervous ex­ haustion. His teamster came home drunk and abused the family, whieh excited the sick man and made him worse. The neighbors h a d the teamster arrested, and then made a “ bee \ f o r hauling the b a r to market, whieh was very k ind.—Professor Jewell lectured be­ fore the connty institute last night, and. gave great satisfaction. Subject: “ Bible in common schools.” [From the Daily Times, July 2a.] Bennington, A CENTENNIAL KETTLE. Wednesday the family of Willard F. Cummings wore out and laid hy an iron kettle, which liad been in u*c one hundred years. Glen’s Falls. AN rNGENEROVS GIRL. Louise Gatanpie of this place visited EIvi Gahoury, ut Springfield, Mass., recently, and when she left stole $40 from her entertainer. She was followed hack h ere and p art of the money was recovered. B urlington. A WATER SPOUT. Burlington saw the unusual phenomenon of a water spout in Lake Champlain during a thunder storm, a few days ago, which was estimated to be thirty feet in diameter and reached to the clouds, and was moving slowly toward the north. Shushan. A TRA3IP‘S NEW DODGE. The ladies made up a bundle of small garments and a purse of money the other day for a tramp, who said that h is wife was in a barn near by and had given birth to a child. On reaching the barn no woman could he found. Meanwhile the tramp was d rank 011 the money given Mm. Moosieli Falls. SHEEP KILLED—PERSONAL. Twenty-three of H. D. C. Osborn's sheep at W est Hoosiek were k illed hy lightning last week.—Herbert Little, formerly of this village, now a resident Of Berlin, Prussia, ha» returned to liis native country on a b rief visit. He publishes a newspaper in Berlin, called the International Gazette. He is also foreign correspondent of the New York Tribune aud a Lon­ don daily. Tomliannoclc. BAPTISM—SNEAK THIEVES. The p a stor of the Methodist church of this place baptized a number of persons on Sunday by immer­ sion in Brownell's pond, while the rain was pouring in torrents.—For some weeks pa-t an unknown gang of sneak thieves have been making very profitable raids on the cellars of farmers along the line of this town and Hoosiek. A number of jars o f butter and lard, together with p ork, etc., have been taken. Salem. A TRUMPED UP CHARGE OP BIGAMY. At the recent term of the county court the ease of the j.eople against Florence Jones, a n indictment for bigamy, was tried. The prisoner was married ta 1870 nt Fairhaven, Vt., to one Jone“, and in February last to one Shaw, in Hebron. She entered into h e r second marriage on tlie strength of a decree of divorce which she obtained in Rutland. This divorce, which she supposed to be legal aud valid, was nothing more than a mock decree drawn np by a fellow named Monaghan, then practicing law in Rutland. The court directed tbe jury to find a verdict of acquittal. S a n d y m i l . CORN—PERSONAL—LOOS POR FORT EDWARD. Com h as improved wonderfully the pa-t ten day*. W ith a late full there will be a fair crop.—The census return*, complete, make the population of the town of Kingsbury 4,574, an increase of 273 in five years.— The grand jury found twenty-nine indictments for different crimes at its last sitting in Salem.—Gen. J . H. Martindale, formerly of this place, is in town, looking over the scenes of his youth. He was attor­ ney general of this state a few year? ago.—J. A. Rus­ sell & 80 ns of Fort Edward, lumber dealers, are r a ft­ ing some of their logs a t the feeder dam, and running them to Fort Edward through the canal. If the ex­ periment works well, they will go into it more exten­ sively another year. S a r a t o g a . ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION. Two weeks ago Dr. VT. B. Mills at Loeu-t Grove, two miles from this village, fired on a b urglar who was trying to g et into the doctor's honse. The fol­ lowing Friday as he was sitting on h is piazza a bullet whistled hy his head. Monday he heard voices near Ms h am , and as he\ turned a corner, heard a b ullet pass n ear his head. He quickly recovered himself, fell h ack to an apple tree about seventy feet distant, and dropped to the ground. Suddenly two men came to the comer where he had previously stood, appa­ rently looking for him; he deliberately fired the shot gun, loaded with buck-hot, at the nearest one, who fell back to where his confederate stood, when the doctor fired the second barrel and gave the alarm. On arriving at the house, he found to Ms astonishment, that the ball fired ut him had entered liis hat in the front, and passing through had barely missed his scalp, taking in ita way a small lock of hair. Amsterdam. FOLLOWING A MAN UP AND STABBING HIM. A stabbing affray occurred Saturday night on the bridge leading to Port Jackson, in which a notorious character known as “ Rigger Clem ” was badly, if not fatally stabbed by an Englishman named Bill Rick­ etts. They h a d a quarrel in a saloon k ept by “ Doe.” Ca«e, from whieh C’leiu was ejected, and started for his home across the river. He was followed by Rick­ etts, who attacked him on the bridge, when a severe struggle ensued, during which Ricketts drew a knife, «.uttiug thonegTo several times in the back and side. He attempted to escape, b u t was captured by officer Early and placed in the lock-up to await an examina­ tion. He is spoken of as a quiet, industrious man v.hen n o t under the influence of liquor. The negro is reported as in a critical condition.—John R. Howe of 8 p c n m \ Mass., stole a diamond ring from a friend whom he was visiting here. He was followed aud arrested. Mohawk Valley. A TERRIFIC HAIL STORM—A THUMB TORN OFF—FA­ TALLY SHOT—DESPERATE APFRAY. The most remarkable hail storm that ever occurred in the v alley took place la-1 week at Tribes Hiil and vicinity. It lasted only about ten minutes, but the hail stones averaged more than half an inch iu di­ ameter and covered the ground. One man, it is said, will lose $2,000 in the item of broom corn alone. Another man, who had a twenty acre field of oats, will turn his cows into them. Corn, cabbage, etc., were cut all to piece*. All the houses in the region had more or less lights broken out.—Wednesday, Patrick Hinckley, a h o stler at the Nellis House, Can- ajohurie, caught his thumb in a h a lter, and it was torn off. He is suffering intensely, and it is feared vv ill n o t recover.—Will Welch, aged fourteen, while playing vvith a toy pistol at Fort Plain recently, was terribly wounded by the di-charge of a lead slug into h i-abdom en. He i - n o t expected to recover.- Saturday a farmer named Hoffman, living n ear Boss- fiebl Bridge, in Herkimer county, had a quarrel with one iff his sons, who fired two shots ut Mm. The father aimed a terriffc blow vvith an ax at the eon, vv liieh glanced from the young m an's head and the ax vvu- buried in the shoulder of a younger son stand- ing-bv. I From the Daily Time-, July 21.1 S a n d y H i l l , THE RACES. In tlio race on W ashington Park yesterday. Flora L ie won fir-t money, winning second, third and fourth heat-. Modoc winning first, Modoc get- sec­ ond lfiomy and N' )!l'.’ Webster third, Iu the three minute race F rcil Lee wop lir.-t money in three straight hi ot-. No Name second, Top-y third, .vjeSieiiectatly. KICKED TO DEATH BY A MULE. Ito'er Cleary, employed on tlie canal boat Martin Vun Bim-u, went into a stable to feed a team of mules, a short distance beyond Schenectady, Monday. A noise wtiM heard, and *0011 after Clcury was found lying 011 the floor vvith his head brniRed. He was brought to this place, and died soon after the arrival of the boat. He had been kicked liv a mule, and his skull wa- fractured. Mohawk Valley aud Vicinity. Tho Episcopal church a t Glovcraville, recently p u r­ chased by the Methodists, wa? dedicated la-t week. The Rev. B. I. Ive- of Auburn was present, and suc­ ceeded to obtaining subscriptions to the amount of §7,000 to liquidate indebtedness.—Monday a slight fire was discovered in a Mock of buildings owned liy a lady named Fleming, in Little Falls. Two barrel- of shavings had been saturated vvith kero-ene and fired. A man named Dority has been arrested on sa-pieem of incendiarism. Cambridge. AN ELOPEMENT PREVENTED. Quite a sensation wa? created in this usually quiet village Monday night by the discovery of a contem­ plated elopement. Tin- gentleman vv us a comparative stranger, b u t the lady i- connected vvith some of the leading families. She was to meet h e r companion at a certain house, and he wa* to drive h e r to a neigh- lioring village a n d have the nuptials performed, but tlie fortunate discovery of the fact hy her p arent- kept h er at home, and iter anxious lover waited in vain, Tlie young lady i* doubtless convinc'd of her follv bv this time. Fort Ann. ennr-: - incenhiiary firt; uox wn vt n r \ vcrrp Friday^ Times Paid that Asa Tofft of Fort \nn a member of tbe building committee of the i>aratOi?a Monument Association. Mr. Tefft is a resident of Fort Miller, in the town of Fm-t Edward.—Farmers are engaged in t-ccuriug their crop of hay, but the weather bitlierui has been unfavorable. But little ha-been saved vvitUmii its bating been wet at least nine.' The potuto bug ha- not made it- appearance in thi-tow n . The eensu» retnrns show that this town numbo.rn an increase of ninety-nine in population finee lWO.—An alarm of five was given from tho vesi- •,\nce of Thomas Dun. Friday morning. The fire was found in an upper, unoccupied rocim, where a quanti­ ty of kerosene had been poured 6U the floor aild ig­ nited, but Mow and by whom remains a secret. It was extinguished b tf w e doing any injury.—On Sunday, Thomas Dun was eltrif.'g quietly Ou the stoop Of Mr. Biovvu A giocery, ho was fipproaehed by Mat tin Nil- -on, who asked if he htidrepofSxi Min as selling hi- hutiM- on fire Due .Inquired wli.ff he meant by talk­ ing so, when NelHoti. cave iii th a riap in. the face Dun arose, and eeIzijuB Nelson by the neck, -hook bim against the side of the building tb h' tbreiv him npon the ground and kicked him till hp cried “ enough.’’ tUtSm M IS C E L L A N E OUS IN T E L L IG E N C E , ITrontlay, J u l y 1 9 . —Joseph Frando fatally stabbed Jobn Morello to New York yesterday afternoon. Thpy had quarreled about a woman. —In ’Weisburg, Baltimore county, Mel., Satur­ day afternoon, Patrick Kelly shot and mortally wounded William Grupy during a primary elec­ tion. —Goy. Gaston of Massachusetts has signed the death warrant of George W. Pemberton, convicted of the murder of Mrs. Bingham, in East Boston, and he is to be banged to the Suf­ folk county jail on the 8th of October next. —At Canton, Ohio, Saturday morning, Taylor Fortner quarreled with his wife, and after nearly chopping her in pieces*took to the woods. He was pursued and captured after a desperate resistance. The woman was still living, but at last accounts could not recover. —There were three more attempts at robbery' at Cold Spring Saturday morning, and the rob­ bers were shot at four times and one of them wounded. The authorities will hold a meeting this evening to consider the situation. The citi­ zens generally have purchased arms. —Frederick Floyd, chief clerk of the Boston liquor license commission, has been arrested, charged with procuring licenses issued by forged indorsements on applications, and by forging the name of N. E. Hc-mmenvvav, super­ intendent ol intelligence offices and licenses. —Within the last month at least six accidents bave occurred in Wa-hiugton from the explosion of falsely-called non-explosive oil, several re­ sulting ta death. The latest sufferer, a woman, was yesterday lying in a critical condition. A lamp exploded while she was regulating the burner. —In a fight between two negroes to Thomp­ son street, New York, yesterday, one named Samuel Peterson, from Elmira, was stabbed by another named Sorrel, and died from hem­ orrhage. Both combatants used razors. Another negro named William J. Saunders was also fatally stabbed. Sorrel, who was arrested, was found to be badly cut. —Ira Shattock, aged nine, residing in New­ town, L. I., by some means obtained possession of a pistol on Saturday, and, pointing it at a group of children who were playing, discharged, it, the ball entering the breast of Thomas Riker, aged four. The ball is believed to have lodged c, somewhere near the spine and his recovery isS: hours. tered Block's face add body. The left side of his face was tom awpy, and the eye probably destroved. Dr. Dallas, who was present, <x- Tw enly pounds wind a 8pii-gfl.'l-t I h ill. 1- o\aVtiy : after considered doubtful. —James Bailey, residing at 431 West Thirty- fourth street, New York, was yesterday shot to the breast, fatally, by his eldest son, James L. Bailey, with whom he had quarreled. Mrs. Bailey was in an adjoining department, aud did not witness tbe occurrence, though she heard the report of the pistol; tbe son gave himself up, and acknowledged his crime. —Fires: Four frame buildings, comer of Vinet and Workman streets, Montreal, were de­ stroyed Saturday morning. Loss $10,000. —At Windsor, Canada, the same morning, four stores and a blacksmith shop were burned. Loss $30,- 000.—Three temporary shops of the Buffalo and Philadelphia railroad at Buffalo burned yester­ day morning. Loss $5,500.— Mitchell & Co.’s large furniture factory to St. Louis was destroyed yesterday morning, with a large amount of ma­ terial and finished stock. Loss $60,000, insured $40,000. —The New York Weekly office, Smith & Street, was damaged $30,000 Saturday night. The entire edition of the Weekly was destroyed. The loss to the other occupants of the building swells the total to $50,000. —Of the 1,300,000,000 human beings inhabit­ ing the globe, 370,000,000 have no paper nor any writing material of any k ind; 500,000,000 of the Mongolian races use a paper made from the stalks and leaves of plants ; 10,000,000 employ for graphic purposes tablets of wood; 130,000,- 0U0—the Persian?, Hindoos, Armenians and Syrians—have paper made from cotton, while the rematatag 300,000,000 use the ordinary staple. The annual consumption of this latter number i? estimated at 1,800,000,000 pounds, an average of six pounds to a person, which has increased from two and a half pounds during the last fifty years. To produce tMs amount of paper 200,000*,000 pounds of woolen rags, 800,- CCO,0C0 pounds of cotton rags, besides great quantities of linen rags, straw, wood and other material?, are yearly consumed. The paper is manufactured *in 3,960 paper mills, employing 90,000 male and 180,000 female laborers. The proportionate amounts manufactured of the different kinds of papers are stated to be, of writing paper, 300,000,000 pounds ; of printing paper, \900 pounds; of wall papers, 400,- 000,006 pounds, and 200,000,000 pounds of cartoons, blotting paper, etc. —Jesse' Pomeroy, the condemned boy mur­ derer of Boston, has written a statement, in uhieh he enters upon a discussion of his for­ mer confessions, and retracts them all. He elrims that he was goaded by the police into making a confession of being guilty of the crime for which he was first arrested, and that he was entirely innocent. He traces with great minuteness the circumstances that ultimately led to his arrest for the murder of the hoy on the marsh. He gives a detailed account of his whereabouts on the 22d of April, 1874 He then refers to the discovery of the body of Katie Curran at No. 327 Broadway. He doubts whether those are the remains of Katie Curran. He says that he made a false confession, that Ms mother and brother, who had been arrested for the murder, whom he knew to be innocent, might go free. He at­ taches very great importance to the. fact that the body of this girl was in the cellar four months without attracting any attention hy its smell or the attention of the inen who worked there for nine days. Neither was there any blood found to the cellar or on his clothing. He charges that lies were used freely all around hy the witnesses at the coroner’s inquest. He in­ timates that he has the knowledge as to who committed the murder, but he has not yet re­ vealed liis suspicions. He comments on his counsel’s plea of insanitv on his behalf, and says that the doctors used their quizzing pumps on him unmercifully. —Senator Thurman of OMo, who is visiting in Baltimore, was interviewed by a reporter of the Gazette on Saturday, and talked quite freely on the situation in OMo and his own relations to it, whieh he thought had been misunder- stoud. In reply to inquiries he said the Demo­ cratic party to Ohio is divided on the currency question. The financial opinions contained to the Columbus platform should only be regarded a? the expression of local opinion, and nothing could lie more unjust than the attempt to charge on thi? account that the Democratic party as a national organization is animated by a spirit of inflation. In all times of commercial depres­ sion the cry of more money is raised, the present period being no exception. In- flatioiiMs are to be found in both politi­ cal parties, and it is very unbecoming for Re­ publican journals to denounce the Democracy as an inflation party while so prominent a Repub­ lican as Judge Kelley is haranguing the iron workers of OMo in favor of Ms 3. 05 bond scheme and greenback heresies. He also referred to other Republican leaders who bave been first and foremost in the defense of greenbacks as the best currency the world ever saw. Touch­ ing the desire for Republican success in the present OMo canvass in the interest of Demo­ cratic principles, Senator Thurman said : No man who comprehends the political situation and hopes for the success of the Democratic party at the next Presidential election, should desire a Re­ publican victory in OMo, in the foolish ^belief that such a result will contribute to a Republican defeat in 1870. Nothing could be more erroneous. A Demo­ cratic defeat in the approaching state election i? pimplv suicidal. It is true that .serious er­ ror? * were inserted in the platform. I did mv he?t to avert the threatened evil, hut because other? disagreed with me. I see no rea- ?on wbv I should bolster up the Republican party. If errors have been committed in Ohio, they can be corrected. They need not be the excuse for greater ones. The Republican party in Ohio is also divided on the currency question. The financial plank in their platform can be construed to mean hard or soft money, and prominent Ohio Republican congressmen are in favor of more greenbacks. Rej'1,r;r.£ to the charge that h? eyinceq a Iscff of moral courage for not denouncing tke infla­ tion plank of the Columbus platform at the rati­ fication, be said: The place and time were not opportune. It is a great injustice to condemn one for opinions never ut­ tered. I have said or done nothing to warrant the charges brought against me. My record in the senate is before the country, and on that record I yet stand. I am to make mv first speech of the campaign at Mansfield, Ohio, July 31?t, and shall then announce mv disagreement with the financial provisions of the platform, and throughout the campaign I shall say nothing to discredit the convictions of a lifetime. Tuesday, Ju l y 20. —Mis? Anne Louise Cary will sail for Europe on August 1st. —President. Grant is expected to attend the grand army reunion at Newark to-morrow. —The English journals are urging their gov­ ernment to grant a pension to the widow of Sffiirtey Brooks. —Fires: Taylor’s hardware store and two ad­ joining buildings, at ParliMll, Ont., were de­ stroyed yesterday. Loss $14,000. —$mith Vincent closed up a drunken spree of six w eeks’ duration by hanging himself in a barn lu Baiubridge, Chenango county, last Fri­ day. —Jules Simon, formerly a professor at the university ot Pari*, has been granted a pen­ sion of 6,000 franc? a year hy the French govern­ ment. —A boatman on the Delaware and Hudson canal named Kelly, residing at Eddyvllle, near K ingston, fell off his boat about six o’clock yes­ terday afternoon and was drowned. —James Gibbs, aged twenty, was jlrowned while batliiug iu Irondequoit bay yesterday afternoon. Tlie boat from which he jumped drifted away aud he was unable to swim to it or to shore. —Ex-Speaker Blaine and the Hon. J. W. Bradbury have subscribed $1,500 and §2,000 re­ spectively toward the $10,000 needed to secure the $60,000 pledged to the general endowment fund of Bowdoin college. The C'onew ango swamp, containing some 25,- 000 acres ol wet farming land, In Chautauqua and Cattaraugus counties, New York, is about to bo reclaimed bj drainage. It is estimated that by this means over $1,000,000 worth of land w ill he got under cultivation. —Gens. Forrest and Pillow have gained great pcmilarity among the colored folks of the south by \h e friendly sentiments they uPon the recent presentation to them in M em pl1^ floral offering’s in token of reconciliation be­ tween the two races Of that section. —A bad accident happened at tbe Syracuse shooting tournament last Friday, M. H. Barber was shooting at the escaped bird? to the tiuter fleld, when the one upon whieh he bad fixed bis aim flew directly between hint- and Frgfek B, Klock. B a v t o ^ ^ f c i n d the whole eh] the depot, and Will prob'.ably recover. He u president of the Central City sportsmen's club. —In the New York court o f general sessions yesterday afternoon Tho?, Sprf'tt, an engineer, who on the 7th of June threw hto wife out of % three-story window, was sentenced1 to ten years In state prison, notwithstanding th.at both th* man ana tils wife denied, tlie assault* —Mr. Gwynn of Virginia is dead. His last memorandum provided that he should He buried With Ms head eighteen inches higher tlianhis feet: that his cane and sheepskin bhouid bo placed m the coffin with him, and that the coffin should be carefully wrapped in a blanket. —The graduating class of Hamilton college petition the trustees to remove Prof. Henrv A. Fink, the rhetorical professor, for “ improprie­ ty to Ms personal intercourse with students,” besides partiality, deeeit, and inconsistency. The class of 1874 adopted a similar memorial. —The mountain brigands stffl continue their depredations along the lower Hudson. Early on Sunday morning three dwellings and two stores at Highland Falls were robbed of §1,096 worth of articles by burglars, supposed to be by the same gang who have recentlybeen operating at Cold Spring. No arrests were made. —An elderly lady named Cannon of Massa­ chusetts was standing by an iron sink during a thunder storm, When she was prostrated by lightning. She was entirely senseless, and was so charged and battered by the electric current that the gold beads about her neck were melted, but she lives, and ascribes her escape to the silken cap she wore. —A passenger train for Cape Cod on the Old. Colony railroad was thrown from the traek by a broken rail one mile below Wareham, Mass., yesterday afternoon. The two rear cars were overturned and badly wrecked. The passengers escaped with slight injuries to a few. Travel was delayed about four hours. The escape from serious disaster was miraculous. —When the measles broke out among the na­ tives of New Zealand twenty-one years ago, just as the same disease has now broken out la the Fejee islands, aH efforts to cure the Maoris proved hopeless. Their only idea of relief from fever and skin irritation was to plunge into the brook wMeh ran by each “ pah,” so “ driv­ ing the disease in,” and making it fatal in a few —Ex-Marshal Bazaine has not taken up Ms residence in England, as the English papers re­ ported. A correspondent of the London Times writes that “ the marshal has not once loft Spain since last autumn, and in a letter received here this morning, bearing the postmark ‘ Madrid,’ he simply states that for many months past he has not been absent from that capital further than the Escurial.” —Vagrants in Springfield are made to pay for a lodging and breakfast hy work on publie im­ provements from 7 o’clock until 11 in the morn­ ing. An overseer watches them closely, be­ cause they are always ready, after having the sleep and food, to get away without giving the required equivalent. Ten of them were recent­ ly cleaning brick to the burned blocks. A horse ran away, tbe overseer went to catch it, and when he came back not one of Ms gang was there. —Herkimer county has another tragedy, tMs time in the town of Russia. Saturday morning Francis Hoffman was brought to the Herkimer jail on the charge of attempting to murder Ms two sons. The affray occurred last Friday. It seems that Hoffman had loaned a horse against the wishes of his sons. They were so enraged in fact that they shot twice at him through a window, neither of the shots taking effect. He seized an ax, and attacking them to turn, broke one’s ribs and cut the other’s head very severe­ ly. He claims to have acted in self-defense, and the sons will he arrested in turn as soon as an officer can reach them with a warrant. \Wednesday J u l y 21. —Rev. and Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher have left Peekskill for the Wtate mountains. —Officers of the state department took pos­ session of their new building yesterday. —Recent estimates of the estate of the late Robert H. Ives of Providence, place it at more than $20,000,000. —Hon. Samuel S. Spring, county judge ai Cattaraugus county, tMs state, died a t Duluth, Minn., last Saturday, of heart disease. —The Wabash river has overflowed its hanks and destroyed three thousand acres of corn be­ tween Terre Haute and Hutsonvffle, Ind. —Patrick Kehoe, convicted of murder in the second degree for killing Ms wife in Jersey city, was yesterday sentenced to twenty years instate prison. —At Baltimore last evening, Henry Zaiser, a butcher, in a fit of insanity shot and mortally wounded his neighbor, Louis Egnor, and then shot himself fatally. —The grand jury of the United States court at Oshkosh, WIs., yesterday found three indict­ ments against Samuel Lewis, Jacob and Max Rindskopfl, for illicit distillation. —During a quarrel yesterday afternoon ia ' New York, Jobn Henry kicked Mary Mastersoa to tbe abdomen, Inflicting serious injuries. Sub­ sequently tbe woman gave birth to a dead female child. —The postmaster general has commenced suit against the bondsmen of over forty failing mail contractors, and has confiscated certified cheeks deposited by law by other failing con­ tractors. •Bishop Cummins of the Reformed Episco­ pal church has just returned to Baltimore, hav­ ing succeeded in raising the sum required for the construction of Ms proposed new church edifice. ■Mr. Ostrom, the stroke of the victorious crew at Saratoga, has supported MmselTat-col­ lege hy working at his trade as a carpenter, and' by taking care of one of the Cornell College buildings. m —C. W. Beckwith of Stafford Springs, Conn., is the owner of a sword wMeh, it is asserted, descends from William the Conqueror. But if, bears the date 1414, and has an ancient coat-of-1. arms upon it. Mr. Beckwith refusedaa offer of $1,000 for it several years ago. ' —Tt is said that Prof. Alexander Agassiz has not given up completely his father’s plans for the school on Penikese Island. It is not proba­ ble that the school will ever be opened again on its present site, but it is probable that a similar institution will be established on the main land within a year or two. —Elihu Burritt, tbe “ Learned Blacksmith,’’ who for ten years made efforts to England for the establishment of a universal ocean penny post, has just received an oeeau postal card stamped “ one penny ” from an old friend ia London, mailed July 1, 1875, tbe day when the ocean penny postal card system went into ope­ ration. —Judge Fisher, prosecuting attorney for the District of Columbia, had an hour’s interview yesterday with the attorney general, his object being to present satisfactory replies to tbe com­ plaints which have been ma de against his admta- ,'eiwirm 0f Ms office. No Conclusions were office. No conclusions were Another interview will take place to- istration reached, day. —Fires : The losses by the fire in Cincinnati yesterday amount to $112,000, divided among three firm s, with an in s u r a n c e of $85,500, Dick Holcomb of Engine Co. No. 3 wa3 found dead in the into s. His body was broken to two just below tbe breast, Chief Megrae will probably recover. McCormick of the “ Fours” cannot survive. He had one side of Ms face knocked off. The rest are doing welL The B u ffalo Courier , the leading Democratic paper of that city, offers $100 towards a,sum to? retaking the census of that eity. The Courier does not wish to have it understood that it wishes to reflect, at ail upon the character of the census takers who have just pretended to do this business, and who are all Democrats, hut is willing to give $100 to know what the population of Buffalo is. —Reports from the Black Hills commission to the Indian bureau indicate favorable prospects for a general council, near the Red Cloud agen­ cy, S e p tem b e r 1. Y o u n g M a n A f r a id O f His Horses, the Ogalalla cMef, has gone with a reti­ nue of warriors to induce Sitting Bull of the Uheapapas and other hostile tribes of Sioux to come to, while Red Dog has gone with the sub- commission to influence the Missouri river tribes to attend the council. —The Fourth of July celebration at SanFran- eiseo does not prove a pecuniary success—the celebration committee having b u t §9,600on hand with wMeh to meet hills aggregating §13,000. The extent to wMeh the greed for gala has in­ fringed upon genuine, patriotism may be in­ ferred from the biff of a local poetess, Miss Fannie Marston, who presents a bill of §230 for two sentimental effusions. -E x -Father Gerdeman of Philadelphia, who w a s re c e n tly trie d for em b e z z lem e n t, t b e jury failing to agree upon a verdict, eame near being mobbed last night in the upper seetion of the city. His presence being discovered in a iiccr saloon, i t w a s s o o n n o is e d around, an d a larg e crow d collected a r o u n d th e hotels, a n d yell 4 greeted the ex-priest. The police rescued G e rdem a n a n d dispersed t h e m o b . —T h e s u b s tance o f t h e confession o f J o h n 1>. Lee, to regal’d to the Mountain Meadow massa­ cre, is that thirty Mormons, with the assistance of a large number of Indians, decoyed the emi­ grants from their entrenchments by a flag of trace; that all were murdered except seventeen children; that the deed was done under order of a leader of the Mormon church; that ho took the news of the massacre to Brigham Young, who deplored the transaction, and said it would bring disaster on the people. Tho statement of Lee, so far as known, only confirms tho pvo ioui reports In regard to the massacre, —Crops in Europe: The J Tarlt laze JJyrt' 1 of this week says! In France wheat h a s advanced In ttf* w o rtor*? J o three shillings, ond in Paris to one tlii lb''V a n d six­ pence. Flour has advanced tw o sluUmg*per: Here we bave yet to learn *>f tbo fall extent vf fhv ft * * vanee. Before tlie tewic*t '«««* rise of from one to two The *aie*of were 3,£14 ausrfcrs above Tfrv-o the tWremarket'fa’ro m a r k e t ft fq ^eaat'vy j.jp-pue« A sw last wt. j^e scantily j-jpplie.. week in lo. - t A on the borders o f exhaustion, Mat NYe^isct?xri . out aviJj^k^tiow < though from the n. WTi,i live rFecf only three ? h lU r e > ,8“ a j 5 ^ pinxa jbmI tV r e a . * J £vcn in Grcnanj, with &>->£ * - «leSTvr, vrliMu in are also dearer.

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