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The Geneva gazette, and mercantile advertiser. (Geneva, N.Y.) 1829-1833, December 08, 1832, Image 1

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ftBMEVA fiAZBTTE m ilk. SATURDAY, DECEMBER S 9 J832. f Wk: •^m:?m Geneva, Saturday afternoon, 6 o'clock, \ Decembers. 1832. ) PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. This- highly important Statf Paper was receiv- ed this morning at II o'clock, by the Telegraph mail ; and we hasten to lay it before oar readers :n an Extra sheet. Congress assembled at Washington on Monday, when a quorum, of both Houses appeared. The denote, on the fifth ballot, chose the Hon. HUGH L. WHITE, of Tennessee, President of that body, in place of Mr. Tazewell, resigned. lathe House 165 Members were present. After organizing, both Houses adjourned. They met again onTues- day, when, 8t 12 o'clock, the President sent to the Senate and House, his Message by his Private Secretary. The Message was received by Ex- press, by'the Editor of the New-York Standard, m twelve hours from Washington city. From the Washington Globe, Extra, Dec. 4. PiesVAenVs Message. FISIXOW-CITIZENS OF THE SENATE aifD HoOSE OF REFKESEHTATTVES: It gives me pleasure to congratulate yon upon your return to the Seat of Government, for the purpose of discharging your duties to the people of the United States. Although theoestilence which had traversed the Old Worldffiwcntered our limits, and extended its ravages over much of our land, it has pleased Almighty God to mitigate ils severity, and lessen the number of its victims, compared with those who have fallen in most otfi- er countries over which it has spread its terrors. Notwithstanding this visitation, our country pre- sents, on every side, marks of prosperity and hap- piness, unequalled, perhaps, in any other portion of the world. If we fully appreciate our compar- ative condition, existing causes of discontent wiff appear unworthy of attention, and with hearts of thankfulness to that Divine Being who has filled our cup of prosperity, we shall feel our resolution strengthened to preserve, and hand down to pos- terity that liberty and that union which we have received from out Fathers, and which constitute the sources and the shield of all our blessings The relations of our country continue to present the same picture of amicable intercourse that I had the satisfaction to hold up to your view at the open- ing of your last session. The same friendly pro- fessions, the same desire to participate in our flou- rishing commerce, the same disposition to refrain from resenting injuries unintentionally offered, are, with a few exceptions, evinced by all nations with whom we have any intercourse. This desirable state of things may be mainly ascribed to our un- deviating practice of the rule which has long guid- ed our national policy, to require no'exclusive privileges in commerce, and to grant none. It is daily producing its beneficial effect in the respect shown to our fla& the protection of our citizens and property aWoad, and in the incroase of our navigation and the extension of our mercantile op- erations. The returns which have been matte out since we last met, will show an increase during the last preceding year of more than 80,000 tons in our shipping, and of nearly forty millions of dollars in the aggregate of our imports and exports. Nor have we less reason .to felicitate ourselves on the position of our political, than of our com- mercial, concerns. They remain in the state in which they were when I last addressed you—a state of prosperity and peace, the effect ofa wise attention to tha parting advice of the revered Fa- ther of his Country, on this subject, condensed in- to a maxim for the use of posterity bv one.of hia most distingalsbed Dtn««Bton, to otfiuvale nee commerce and honest friendship with all nations, and to make entangling alliances with none. A strict adherence to this policy has kept us aloof from the perplexing questions that now agitate the European world, and have more than onco deluged those countries with blood. Should those scenes unfortunately recur, the parties to the con- test may count on a faithful performance of the duties incumbent on us as a neutral nation, and our own citizens may equally rely on the firm as- sertion of their neutral rights. * With the nation that was our earliest friend ani ally in the infancy of our political existence, th most friendly relations have subsisted through the' late revolutions of its Government, and, from the events of the last, promise a permanent duration. It has made an approximation in some of its po- litical institutions to our own, and raised a mon- arch to the throne who preserves, it is said, a friendly recollection of the period during which he acquired among our citizens the high consideration that could then have been produced by his per- sonal qualifications alone. Our commerce' with that nation is gradually as- suming a mutually beneficial character, and the adjustment of the claims of our citizens has re- moved the only obstacle there was, to an inter- course not only lucrative, but productive of litera- ry and scientific improvement. From Great Britain I have the satisfaction to in- form you that I continue to receive assurances of the most amicable disposition, which have, on my part, on all proper occasions, been promptly and sincerely reciprocated. /ftie attention of that Government has latterly been BO much engrossed by matters of a deeply interesting domestic char- acter, that we could not press upon it the renewal application I directed to be made for the ddwery oTa part of the archives of Florida, which had been carried to the Havana, has produced a royal order for their delivery, and that measures been taken to procure its execution. By the report of the Secretary of Sate- < , r _ __ .i cie.l. Ti,na Inst. V have municated to you on the 25th June last, you are informed of the conditional reduction, obtained by the minister of the United States at Madrid, of levied on Anaericanshipping the duties on tonnage .„. _ in the ports of Spain. The condition of that re- duction having been complied with on our part, by the act passed the 13th of July last, I have the satisfaction to inform you that our ships now pay no higher nor oth^r duties in the continental ports of Spain than are levied on their national vessels. The demands against Portugal for illegal cap- tures in the blockade at Te'rceira, have been al- lowed to the full amount of the accounts present- ed by the claimants, and payment was promised to be made in tKree instalments. The first of these has been paid—the second, although due, had not, at the date of our last advices, been received; owing, it was alleged, to embarrassments in the finances, consequent on the civil war in which that nation is engaged. The payrhents stipulated by the convention with Denmark, have been punctually made, and the amount is ready for distribution among the claim- ants as soon as the board now sitting, shall have performed their Junctions. I regret that by the last advices from our Charge d'Affaires at Naples, that government had still delayed the satisfaction due to our citizens; but, at that date, the effect of the last instructions was not known. Despatches from thence are hourly expected, and the result will be gommunicated to you without delay knoFbyUu ejected reed.of our Minister who hadcommenced them with »IM hope of access Mv great object was the settlement of ??,no which though now dormant, might here- q !vfb e revivedudef circumstances which would eld n«er tnalood understanding which t is the fnterestof both parties to preserve inviolate, ce- memed as it is by a community of language, man- ors and social habits, and by the high obligations we owe to our British ancestors for many of our most valuable institutions, and for that system of nenresentative Government which has enabled us ~,n nrpserve and improve them. S question of our. Norih-Easlern Bounoary f till remains unsettled. In: my last annual rnes- SUII teuio\ _ . , ._ . ,k„ oimntinn IT, which I sage. 1 explained to you the situation in w Found mat ousiness on my coming into office, and the measures I thought it my duty to pursue for as- serting the rights of the United States before the Sovereign who had been chosen by my predeces- sor to determine the, question ; and also the man- ner in which he had disposed of it. A special message to the Senate i n their executive capacity, afterwards brought before them the question, whe- ther they would advise* submission to the opinion of the sovereign arbiter. That body having con- sidered the award as not obligatory, and advised me to open a further negotiation, the proposition was immediately made to the British Government, but the circumstances to which I have alluded have hitherto prevented any answer being given to the overture. Early attention, however, has been promised to the subject, and every effort on my part will be made for a satisfactory settlement of this question, interesting to the Union generally, and particularly so to one of its members. The claims of our citizens on Spain are not yet acknowledged. On a closer investigation of them than appears to have heretofore taken place, it -was discovered that some of these demands, how- ever strong they might be upon the equity of that government, were not such as could lie made the subject of national interference. And faithful to the. pi inciple of asking nothing but what was clear- ly right, additional instructions have been sent, to modify our demands so as to embrace those only on which, according to the laws of nations, we had a strict right to insist. An inevitable delay in procuring the documents necessary for this review of the merits of these claims retarded this opera- tion, until aft unfortunate malady which has af- flicted his Catholic Majesty, prevented an exam- ination of them. Being now for the first time presetited-in an unexceptionable form, it is confi- dently hoped the application will be successful. f'f. mvk the Satisfaction fo inform you, that the \th the rest of Europe, our relations, political and commercial, remain unchanged. Negotia- tions are going on, to put on a permanent basis, the liberal system of commerce now carried on betwen. as and the Empire of Russia, g The trea- ty concluded with Austria is executed by His Im- perial Majesty, with the most perfect good faith— and, as we have no diplomatic agent at his court, he personally inquired into and corrected a pro- ceeding of some of his subaltern officers, to the injury of our Consul in one of his ports. Our treaty with the Sublime Porte is producing its expected effects on our commerce. New mar- kets are opening for our commodities, and.a more extensive range for the employment of our ships. A slight aogmentation of the duties on our com- merce, inconsistent with the spirit of the treaty, had been imposed ; but on the represention of our Charge d'Affaires, it has been promptly with- drawn, and we now enjoy the trade and naviga- tion of the Black Sea, and of all the ports belong- ing to the Turkish Empire and Asia, on the most perfect equality with all foreign nations. I wish earnestly, that in announcing to yon the continuance of friendship, and the increase of a profitable commercial intercourse with Mexico, with Central America, and the States of the South, I could accompany it with the assurance that they all are blessed with that internal tranquillity and foreign peace which their heroic devotion to the cause of their independence merits. In Mexico, a sanguinary struggle is now carried on, which has caused spme embarrassment to our commerce; but both parties profess the most friendly disposi- tion towards us. To the termination of this con- test, we look for the establishment of that secure intercourse, so necessary to nations whose territo- ries are contiguous. How important it will be to us, we may calculate from the fact, that even in this unfavorable slate of things, our maritime com- merce has increased, and an internal trade by car- avans, from St. Louis to Santa Fe. under the pro- tection of escorts furnished by the Government, is carried on to great advantage, and is daily increas- 4flfe P oTv&, a romigrfaT^ established,'have been named on our part; but one of the evils of the civil war now (raging there has been, that the appointment of those with whom they were to co-operate, has not yet been announ- ced to us. The Government of Central America has ex- pelled from,its_Territory the party which some time since dlsTurrjetT*Its \pence. Desirousjof fos- tering o favorable disposition towards us, which has on more than one occasion been evinced by this interesting country, I made a second attempt, in this year, to establish a diplomatic intercourse with them ; but the death of the distinguished cit- izen whom I had appointed for that purpose, has retarded the execution of measures from which I hoped much advantage to our commerce. The union of the three states which formed the Repub- lic of Colombia has been dissolved; but they all, it is believed, consider themselves as separately bound by the Treaty which was made in their fed- eral capacity. The Minister accredited to the Federation, continues in that character near the Government of New Grenada; and hopes were entertained, that a new Union would be formed between the sepj#le States, at least, for the pur- poses of foreifl^rirtSFcourse. Our Minister has been instruqiffilg«use his good offices, whenever they shall be^HRTed, to produce the re-union so much to be wished, for the domestic tranquillity of the parties, and the security and facility of for- eign commerce. Some agitations naturally attendant on an infant reigphave prevailed in the empire of Brazil, which have had the usual effect upon commercial opera- tions ; and while they suspended the consideration ( of claims created on similar occasions, they have ' given rise to new complaints on the part of our citizens. A proper consideration for calamities and difficulties of this nature has made us less ur- gent and peremptory in our demands for justice than duty to our fellow-citizens would, under oth- er circumstances, have required. But their claims are not neglected, and will on all proper occasions be urged, and it is hoped with effect. I refrain from making any communication on the subject of our affairs with Buenos Ayres, be- cause the negotiation communicated to you in my last annual message, was, at the date of our last advices, still pending, and in a state that would render a publication of the details inexpedient. A Treaty of Amity and Commerce has been formed with the Republic of Chili, which, if ap- proved by the Senate, will be laid before you.— That Government seems lo be established and at peace with its neighbors; and its ports being the resorts of our ships which are employed in the highly important trade of the fisheries, litis com- mercial convention cannot but be of great advan- tage to our fellow-citizens engaged in that perilous but profitable business. Our commerce with the neighboring state of Peru, owing to the onerous duties levied on our principal articles of export, has been on the de- cline, and all endeavors to procure an alteration have hitherto proved fruitless. With Bolivia, we have yet no diplomatic intercourse, and the con- tinual contests carried on between it and Peru have made me defer, until a more favorable peri- od, the appointment of any agent for that purpose. An act of atrocious piracy having been commit- ted on one of our trading ships by the inhabitants of a settlement on the west coast of Sumatra, a frigate was despatched with orders lo demand sat- isfaction for the injury, if those who committed it should be found members of a regular govern- ment, capable of maintaining the usual relations wiih foreign nations: but if, as it was supposed, and as they proved to be, they were a bund of lawless pirates, to inflict -such a chastisement as would deter them and others from like aggressions. This last was done, and the effect has been an in- creased respect for our flag in those distant seas, and additional security for nor commerce. In the view I have given of our connexion with foreign powers, allusions have been made to their domestic disturbances or foreign wars, to their rev- olutions or distentions. It may be proper to ob- serve that this is done solely in cases where those events affect our political relations with lliem, or to show their operation on our commerce. Furth- er than this, it is neither our policy nor our right to interfere. Our best wishes on all occasions, our good offices when required, will be 'afforded, lo promote the domestic tranquillity and foreign peace ' i of all nations with whom we have any intercourse. Any intervention in their affairs further than this, even by the expression of an official opinion, is contrary to our principles of international policy, and will always be avoided. The report which the Secretary of the Treasury will in due time, lay before you, will exhibit the national \finances in a highly prosperous state.— Owing to the continued success of our commercial enterprise, which has enabled the merchants to fulfil their engagements with the government, the I thwart their execution, receipts from customs during the year will exceed | the estimate presented at the last session ; and with the other means of the Treasury will prove fully adequate, not only to mdet the increased ex- penditure resulting from the large appropriations made by Congress, but to provide for the payment of all the public debt which is at present redeem- able. It is now estimated that the customs will yield to the Treasury, during the present year, upwards of twenty-eight millions of dollars. The public lands, however,'have proved less produc- tive than was anticipated, and according to pres- ent information, will not much exceed two mill- ions. The expenditures for all objects other than the public debt, are estimated to amount during the year to about sixteen millions and a half, while a still larger sum, viz: eighteen millions of dol- lars will have been applied to the principal and interest of the public debt. It is expected, however, that in consequence of the reduced rates of duty which will take effect after the 3d of March next, there will be a consid- erable falling off in the revenue from customs in the year 1833. It will, nevertheless, be amply sufficient to provide for all tbe'wants of the public service, estimated even upon a liberal scale, and for the redemption and purchase of the remainder of the public debt. On the first of January next, the entire public debt of the United States, fun- \ ded and unfunded, will be reduced to within a ' fraction of seven millions of dollars; of which $2,227,363 are not of right redeemable until the 1st of January, 1834. and $4,735,296 not until the 2d of January, 1835, The commissioners of the sinking fund, however, being invested with full authority to purchase the debt at the market price, and the means of the Treasury being ample, it may be hoped that the whole will be extinguish- ed within the year 1833. I cannot too cordially congratulate Congress and my fellow citizens on the near approach ofthat mem- orable & happy event, the extinction of the public debt of ibis great and free nation. Faithful lo the wise and patriotic policy marked out by the legisla- tion of the country, for this object, the present admin- istration has devoted to it all the means which a flourishing commerce has supplied, and a prudent economy preserved for the public treasury. With- in the four years for which the people have confi- ded the Executive power to rriy charge, fifty-eight millions of dollars will have been applied to the payment of the public debt. That this has been accomplished without stinting the expenditures for all other proper objects will be seen by relet ring to the liberal provision made during the same period for the support and increase of oui means ol mari- time and military defence, for internal improve- ments of a national character, for the removal and preservation of tjfeT Indians, and lastly, for the gal- lant veterans of the revolution. The final removal of this great butthen fiom our resources affords the means of further provision for all the objects of general welfare and public de- fence which the constitution aulhoiizes. and pre- sents the occasion for such further reduction in the revenues as may not be required for them. From the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, it will be seen that after the present year such a reduc- tion may be made to a considerable extent, and the subject ia earnestly recommended to ihe con- sideration of Congress, in the hope that the com- view of the considerations which led to tlieulop- tionofthe Tariff system: but they are n.everhe nabling us to review the subject less important in en« o -, , . .,.. . •,„„,;„<,„ with a more thorough knowledge of a 11 itttany upon the great interests of the Republic, and with a determination to dispose of it so that none can, with justice, complain. . It is my painful duly to stato, that moneqw- ter of the United Stales, opposition to the ro\e»ioe laws has risen lo a height which threatens to if not to endanger the m- ifflB^g' s\r«AT : a^st? e \s f utlfi'^en5np»W^rii^ i,& -f iU - rv object, as may remove those burthens which shall be found to fall unequally upon any, and as may promote all the great interests of the commu- 111 Long and patient reflection has strengthened the opinions I have heretofore expressed to Congress on this subject; arid I deem it my duty on the pre- sent occasion, again to urge them upon the atten- tion of the Legislature. The soundest maxims of public policy and the principles upon which our republican institutions are founded, leccmmend a proper adaptation of the revenue to the expendi- ture and they also require that the expenditure shall be limited to what, by an economical admin- istration, shall be consistent with the simplicity of the Government, and necessary to an efficient public service. In effecting this adjustment, it is due in justice to the interests of the different States, and even to the preservation of Ihe Union itself, that the protection afforded by existing laws to a- ny branches of the national industry, should not exceed what may be necessary to counteract the regulations of foreign nations, and to secure a sup- ply of those articles of manufacture, essential to the national independence and safety in time of vvar.B If upon investigation it shall be found, as it is be- lieved it will be, that the Legislative protection granted to any particular interest is greater than is indispensably requisite for those objects, I recom- mend that it be gradually diminished, and that as far as may be consistent with these objects, the whole scheme of duties be reduced to the revenue standard as soon as a just regard to the faith of the Government and to the reservation of the huge capital invested in establishments of domestic in- dustry will permit. That manufactures adequate to the supply of onr domestic consumption would, in the abstract, be beneficial to our country, there is no reason to doubt; and to effect their establishment, there is, perhaps, no American citizen who would not for a while, be willing to pay a higher price for them But for this purpose, it is presumed that a tariff of hifih duties, designed for perpetual protection has entered into the minds of but few of our states- men The most they have anticipated is a tempo- rary'and generally incidental protection, which they maintain has the effect to reduce the price by domestic competition below that of the foreign ar- ticle. Experience however, our best guide on this, as no other subjects, makes it doubtful whether the advantages of this system are not counterbalanced bv many evils, and whether it does not tend to be- get in the minds of a large portion of our country- men a spirit of discontent and jealousy dangerous to the stability of the Union. What thenshall bo done 1 Large intercuts have grown up under the implied pledge of our national feeiJlation, which it would seem * violation of pu™Uh suddenly to abandon. Nothing could fustifv t but ihe public safety, which is the sn- nrprne aw. But those who have vested their cap- \ • • nufacturing establishments cannot expect tegrity of tho Union. Whatever obstructions may be thrown in the way,of the Judicial Authorities of the General Government, it is \hoped they will be able peaceably to overcome them by the pru- donce ol their own officers and the patriotism of the people. But should this reasonable reliance on the moderation and good sense of all portions of our fellow-citizens be disappointed, it is believ- ed that the laws themselves are fully adequate to the suppression of such attempts as may be imme- diately made. Should this exigency arise, ren- dering the execution of the existing laws imprac- ticable from any cause whatever, prompt notice of it will be given to Congress, with the suggestion of such views and measures as may be deemed necessary to meet it. In conformity with principles heretofore explain- ed, and with the hope of reducing the General Government to that simple machine which the Constitution created, and of withdrawing from the States all other influence than that of its uni- versal beneficence in preserving peace, affording an uniform currency, maintaining the inviolability of contracts, diffusing intelligence, and discharg- ing unfelt its other superintending functions, I re- commend that provision be made to dispose of all stocks now held by it in corporations, whether created by the General or State Governments, and placing the proceeds in the Treasury. As a source of profit, ihes-e stocks are of little or no value ; as a means of influence among the States, they are adverse to the purity of our institutions. The whole principle on which they are based, is deem- ed by many unconstitutional, and to persist in the policy which they indicate is considered wholly inexpedient. It is my duty to acquaint you with an arrange- ment made by the Bank of the United States with a portion of the holders of the 3 per cent, stock, by which 1 the Government will b e deprived of^he use of the public funds longer than was anticipated. By this arrangement, which will be particularly ex- plained by the Secretary of the Treasury, a surren- der of the certificates of this stock may be postpo- ned until October, '1833; and thus the liability of thejGovernment, alter its ability to discharge the debt, may be continued by the failure of the Bank to perform its duties. Such measures as are within the reach of the Secretary of the Treasury have been token tu en- able him to judge whether the public deposites in that institution may he regarded as entirely sale ; but as his limited power may prove inadequate to this object, 1 recommend the subject to the atten- tion of Congress, under the firm belief that it is worthy of their serious investigation. An inqui- ry into the transactions of the institution, embra- cing the Branehes as well as the principal Bank, seems called for by the credit which is given lino'- out the country to many serious charges impeach- ing its character, and which, if true, may justly excite the apprehension that it is no longer a safe depository of the money of the people. Among the interests which merit Ihe considera- tion of Congress, after the payment of tho public debt, one of the mr.st important in my view, is that of the public lands. Previous to the forma- tion of our present Constitution, it was recom- mended by Congress that a portion of the waste lands owned by the states, should bo ceded to the United States, for Ihe purpose of general harmo- u<i._ •wLnt.ji.lJisAAo iPwA^fecaptKH-. '0110/31 drtter-' ent periods ol time the states of Massachusetts, New-York, Virginia, North and Souib-Carolma, and Georgia, granted their vacant lands for the u- ses for which/they had been asked. As :he lands considered as relieved from this bat \he people will continue permanently lo pay hieh taxes for their benefit, when the money is not requi ed for any legitimate purpose in the adm.nis- S°f t'>e Government. Is it not enough that he high duties have been paid as long as the mon- evlSe from them conlcfbe applied to the com- mon benefit m the extinguishment of the public de Those who take an enlarged view of the condi- tion of our country must be satisfied that the poll- Tof protection must be ultimately limited to.those articles of domestic manufacture which are indis- pensable to our safety in time of war. Within Fhis scone, on a reasonable scale, it is recommend- Pdbv every consideration of patriotism and duty, K will doubtless always secure to it a liberal andEfficient support. But beyond this object, we Save already seen the operation of the system pro- ductive of ^content. In some sections of be re- Dublic its influence is deprecated as tending to con- Lnt ate wealth into a few hands, and °™tmg fhose nerms of dependence and vice Whieh in Sher cfunTr es have characterized the ex stence of n onopoTies, and proved so destructive of liberty and he ceneral good. A large portion of the peo- }to o&?n of »hc republic ^™*»l only inexpedient on these grounds, but as d slurb- inTthe equal relations of properly by legislation, and therefore unconstitutional and unjust. DoSssfhese effects are, in a grejt degree, exaggerated, and may bp ascribed to a-miitaken an end to a courso of legislation calculated to de- stroy the purity of tho Government, have urged the necessity of reducing the whole subject to some fixed and certain rule. As there never will occur a period, perhaps, rnore propitious than tho present to tho accomplishment of this object, I beg leave to piess the subject again upon your at- tention. Without some general and well defined princi- ples ascertaining those objects of internal improve- ment to which the means of the Nation may be constitutionally applied, it is obvious that the ex- ercise of the power can never be satisfactory.— Besides the danger to which it exposes Congress of making hasty appropriations to works of the character of which they may be frequently igno- r>nt, it promotes a mischievous and corrupting in- fluence upon elections, by holding put to the peo- ple the fallacious hope that the Buccess ofa certain candidate will make navigable their neighboring creek or river, bring commerce to their doors and increase the value of their property. It thus fa- vors combinations to squander the treasure of the country upon a multitude of local objects, as fatal to just legislation as to the purity of public men. If a system compatible with the constitution cijpnot be devised, which is free from su'ch ten- dencies, we should recoiled that that instrument provides within itself the mode of its amendment; and that there is, therefore, no excuse for the as- sumption of doubtful powers by the general gov- ernment. If those which are clearly granted shall be found incompetent to tho ends of its creation, it can it any time apply for their enlargement; and thert is no probability that such an application, if founded on the public interests, will ever be re- fused. If the propriety of the proposed grant be not sufficiently apparent to command the assent of three-fourths of the Stales, ihe best possible rea- son why tho power should not be assumed on doubtful authority is afforded; for if more lhan one-fourth of the States are unwilling to make the grant, its exercise will be productive of dis- contents which will far overbalance any advanta- ges that could be derived from it. All must admit ( that ihere is nothing so worthy of ihe constant so- licitude of this government,-as the hatmony and union of the people. Being solemnly impiessed with the conviction, that the extension of the power to make internal improvements beyond the limit I have suggosted, even if it be deemed constitutional, is subversive of the best interests of our country, I earnestly recommend lo Congress to refrain from its exer- cise, in doubtful cases, except in relation to im- provements already begun, unless they shall first procure from the States such an amendment of the Constitution ns will define its character and pre- scribe its bounds. If the States feel themselves competent to these objects, why should this Gov- ernment wish to assume the power ? If they do not, then they will not hesitate to make the grant. Both Governments arc the Governments of the people; implements must be made with the money of the people; and if the money can be collected and applied by those more simple and economical political machines, the Stale Govern- ments, it will unquestionably bo safer and better lor the people, than lo. add to the Bplendor, the patronage, and the power of tho General Govern- ment. But if the people of tho several Stales think otherwiso, they will amend the Constitution, and in their decision all ought cheerfully to acqui- esce. For a detailed and highly satisfactory view of the operations of the Wor'Department, 1 refer you to the accompanying report of the Secretary of W ar. The hostile incursions of tho Sac and Fox Indi- ans, necessarily led to the interposition of the Gov- ernment. A portion of the troops, under Gener- als Scott and Atkinson, and ol the militia of the . stato of Illinois-, were called into the field. Af- iWni«\vsWi{wy! warfare,prolonged by the nature very little respecting the expediency of thei'rJ^nfi*^ mediate acceptance. They were however rtrjecfj\\!^* cd, and thus, the position of these Indianftrerrjajntjji;? unchanged, as do the views communicatee! ia \iti&A Message to the Senate of February,: -1831. * I refer you to the aunnal report of the Secretary.. of the Navy which accompanies this Message, for a detail of the operations of that branch of the ser-r vice during the present year. Besides the general remarks on some of the transactions of our Navy, presented in the view which has been taken of our Foreign relations, I seize this occasion to invite to your notice the in- creased protection which it lias afforded to our commerce and citizens on distant seas, without a-, ny augmentation of the force in commission. In the gradual improvement of its pecuniary concerns, in the constant progress in the collection of mate- rials suitable for.use during future emergencies, and in the construction of yessels and the build- ings necesiary to their preservation and fepair, the presentjstate of this branch of the service ex- hibits the fruits of that vigilance and care which. are so indispensable tojts efficiency, V^jionsnew suggestion! contained in'the annexed report, as well as otlers heretofore submitted to Congress, are wortby.of your attention ; but none more so than that/urging the renewal, for another term'of six years, of the general appropriation for the grad- ual improvement of the Navy. From the accompanying report of the Postmas- ter General, you will also perceive that his De- partment continues to extend its usefulness without impairing its resources, or lessening the accom- modations which it affords in the secure and rapid transportation of the mail. I beg leav.e to call the attention of Congress to the views heretofore expressed in relation to the mode of choosing the President and Vice-Presi- dent of the United States, and to those respecting the tenure of office generally., Still impressed with the justness of those views, and with the belief that the modifications suggested on those subjects, if adopted, will contribute to the prosperity and harmony of the country, 1 earnestly recommend them to your consideration at this time. I have heretofore pointed out defects in the law for punishing official frauds, especially within the District of Columbia. It has been found almost impossible to bring notoYious culprits to punishment, and according to a decision of the. .Court for this District, a prosecution is barred by a lapse of two years'ajler the fraud has been committed. It may may now be considered as pledge, the object for which they were ceded hnv f .. _..... mg been accomplished, it is in the discrelmn of I its impression will he permanent and salutary Congress to dispose of them in such way as best I This campaign has evinced the efficient organi- ti) conduce to the quiet, harmony and general in- | Hon of the Aimy and its capacity for prompt and teiest of the American people. In examining this I nclue SPIV ice. Its several departments have per- question; all local and sectional feelings should he : fermed'their functions with energy and despatch, ditcarded. and the whole United States regarded ! and thp general movement was satisfactory. Our fellow-citizens upon the frontiers were ready, as they always are, in the lender of their services in the hour of danger. But a more effi- cient organization of our militia system is essen- tial tos thatf securityl which is one of the principaln lappen again as it has already happened, that du- ring the whole two years, all the evidences of the ' fraud may be in the possession of the culprit him- self. However proper the limitation may be in relation to private citizens, it would seem that it ought not to comroence.running in favor of pnblic officers until they go out of office The Judiciary System of the United States re- mains imperfect. Of the nine Western and South Western Stales, three only enjoy the benefits of a circuit court. Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, are embraced in the general system; but Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Missisippi, and Lou- isiana, have only district courts.\ If the existing system be a good one, why should it not be exten- ded ? If it be a bad one, why is it suffered to ex- ist 7 The new States were promised equal rights and privileges when they came into Ihe Union, and such are the guarantees of the Constitntion Nothing can be more obvious lhan the obligation of the General Government to place all the states on the same footing, in relation to the administra tion of justice, 3nd I trust this duty will be neg- lected no longer. On many of the subjects to which your attention is invited in this communication, it is a source of gratification to reflect that the steps to be now a- dopted are uninfluenced by the embarrassments entailed upon the country by the wars through ^ «-..~ _, which it has passed. In regard to most of our subsidence, the i'nma J ns'w\'ere»ent I ir. iv™J3oau?£ V\?\* «**««•»««. we may consider ourselves as just and the disaflecled band dispersed 0,^destroyedWmg ,n out career. Wat, ^w^™-. Tl,» ™<, n i, i,„„ !«>„ 1 u /7 ,t -\ ,l; ° or uesiroieo 1 nen co, about to Gx upon o permanent Vuuao tic L ,1• fhl^ creditable to the troops enga-/ policy best calculated to promote the happiness of ged in. the-Semce. Severe as is the lesson to the lhe ' le and ruci j )ta , e & e/r progress towards Ihe Indians, it was rendered necessary by their un-' • • • -«• -'..:ria,.H» #s„ „„ provoked aggressions; and it iB to be hoped that gress of our ggvernment, for lhe lands they occu- py, paid into the Treasury a large proportion of forty mRHSbB of dollars, and of the revenue re- ceived therefrom, tat a mall part has tern** pended amongst them. When, o the disadvan- tagte of their situation in this respect, we add he consideration that it is their afeor aleme which gives real value to the lands, that^^'he proceeds «- rising from their sale are distributed chiefly among States which had not originally any claim to them, and which have enjoyed the undivided eanoluroDt arising from the sale of their own lands, it cannot be expected that the new States will remain lon- v . ... .t =ent policy after the To avert the conse- ger contented wiih lhe present policy after the payment of the public debt. To aveit quences which may Payment of the public debt. To ave.t th<H«>nse- qnences which may be apprehended from this 2ause, to put an end for ever to oil partial and in- terested legislation on this-subject, and to afford to every American citizen of enterprise the opportu- nity of sS an independent freehold, it seems mty tome, therefore, best lo abandon lhe idea of rais inc a future revenue out of the public lands. In former messages I have expressed my con- viction that the constitution does not warrant lhe application of the funds of the General Govern. J.L. ..o .1.:-.^ «rf imornall Improvementt wnicnh as a ns one people, interested alike in the prosperity ol i their common country. ' It cannot be doubted that the speedy settlement ! services of these lands constitutes the true interest of the \ republic. The wealth and strength of a country are its population, and the best part of that popu- lation are the cultivators of lhe soil. Independent farmers are every where the basi-= of society, and true friends of liberty. In addition to these considerations, questions have already arisen and may be expected hereaf- ter to grow out of lhe public lands, which involve lhe rights of the new slates, and the powers of the General Government; and unless a liberal policy be now adopted, there is danger that these ques- tions may speedily assume an importance not now generally anticipated. The influence of a grent sectional interest, when brought into foil action, will be found more dangerous to the harmony and union of the States than any other cans-e of dis- content : and it is the part of wisdom and sound policy to foresee its approaches, and endeavor if possibte fo counteract ibero- Of the various schemes which have been hith- erto proposed in regard to the disposal of the pub- lic lands, none has yet received the entire appro- bation of the National Legislature. Deeply im- pressed with the importance of a speedy and sat- isfactory arrangement of the subject, I deem it ray duty on this occasion to urge it upon your con- sideration, and, to the propositions which have been heretofore suggested by others, to contribute those reflections which have occurred to me, in the hope that they may assist you in your future deliberations. It seems to me to be our true policy that the pub- lic lands shall cease as soon as practicable lo be a source of revenue, and that they be so'd to settlers in limited parcels at a price barely suficient to re- imburse to the United States the exptnse of the present system, and the cost arising under our In- dian compacts. The advantages of accurate sur- veys and undoubted titles, now secured fc. purcha- sers, seem to forbid the abolition of the present system, because none can be substituted vhtch will more perfectly accomplish these important ends. It is desirable, however, that in conven- ient time this machinery be withdrawn from the States, and that the right of soil and the fuUre disposition of it be surrendered to the States res- pectively in which it lies. The adventurous and hardy population of lhe West, besides contributing their equal share of taxation under our impost system, have in ihe pro- object o al governments. Neither oursituatio nor our institutions, require or permit the main- tenance of a largo regular force. History offers too many lessons of the fatal result of such a meas- ure not to warn us against ils adoption here. The expense which attends it, the obvious tendency to employ\it because it exists, and thus to engage in unnecessary wars, and ils ultimate danger to pub- lic liberty will lend us, I trust, to place our princi- pal dependence for protection upon the great body of the citizens of Ihe republic. If in asserting rights or in repelling) wrongs, war should come upon us, our regular Jjjrce should be increased to an extent proportiosrodlo the emergency, and our pres- ent small army is a nucleus around whichsuch force could be formed and embodied. But for the. pur- poses of defence under ordinary circumstances, we must rely upon the electors of the counlry.— Those by whom, and for whom, the Government was instituted and is supported, will constitute its protection in the hour of danger, as they do its check in the hour of safety. But it is obvious that lh< perfect. Much time is lost, much unnecessary expense incurred, and much public properly wast- ed, under the present arrangement. Little useful knowledge is gained by the musters and drills, as now established, and the whole subject evidently equires a thorough examination. Whether a plan most complete enjoyment of oiviniberty. On an occasion so interesting and important in onr histo >y, and of such anxious concern to the friends of freedom throughout the world, it is our imperious duty to lay aside all selfish and local considerations, and be guided by a lofty spirit of devotion to tho great principles on which our institutions are founded. That this Government may be so, administered as to presorve its efficiency in prompting and se- curing these general objects, should be the only aim of our ambition, and^ejaonit, therefore, too carefully examine its sOTSclure, in order that we may not mistake its powers, or assume those which the people have reserved to themselves, or have preferred to assign to other agents. We should bear constantly in mind the fact that the considerations which induced tho framers of the Constitntion to withhold from the General Gov eminent the power to regulate'the great mass of the business and concerns of the people, have been fully justified by experience; and that it can- not now be doubled that the genius of all onr in- stitutions prescribes simplicity and economy as the \' characteristics of Ihe reform which is yet to be ef- fected in the present and future execution of the functions bestowed upon us by the Constitntion. Limited to a genera) superintending power to maintain peace at home and abroad,, and to pre- scribe laws on a few subjects of general interest, not calculated to restrict human liberty, but to en- force mrrrmn rights* this Government'will find its strength and its glory in the faithful discharge of -1-: J .:—1„ 4„,;„.. Relievofl'by its war and the ap- these plain and simple duties Relieved, by its protecting shield from the fear of 1 requires a inorougu M«UI,I,C.V U of classification, remedying these defects, and pro. viding for a system of instruction, might not be adopted, is submitted to the consideration of Con- gress. The Constitution has vested in the Gene- ral Government an independent authority upon the subject of the militia, which renders its action essential to the establishment or improvement of the system. And I recommend the matter to your consideration, in ibe conviction, that the state of this important arm of the public defence requires your attention. •** I am happy to inform you that the wise and hu- mane policy of transferring from the Eastern to the Western side of the Mississippi, the remnants of our aboriginal tribes, with their own consent, and upon just terms, has been steadily pursued, and is approaching, I trust, its consummation. By reference to the report of ibe Secretary of War, and to the documents submitted with it, you will see the progress which has been made since your last session in the arrangement of the various mat- ters connected with our Indian relations, With one exception, every subject involving any ques- tion of conflicting jurisdiction, or of peculiar diffi- culty, has been happily disposed of, and the con- viction evidently gains ground aiiongthe Indians, that their removal to the counlry assigned by'the United States for tbeir permanent residence, fur- nishes the only hope of their ultimate prosperity. With that portion of'lhe Cherokees, however, living within the state of Georgia, it has been found impracticable, as yet, to make a satisfacto- ry adjustment. Sncb was my anxiety to remove all the grounds of complaint, and to bring to a termination tho difficulties in which they are in- volved, that I directed the very liberal proposi- tions to be made to them which accompany the documents herewith submitted. They cannot but have seen in these offers ihe evidence of lhe strongest disposition on the port of the Govern- ment, to deal justly and liberally with them, An ample indemnity was offered for their present pos- sessions, a liberal provision for their future support and improvement, nod full security for their pri- .,,,,,„,«,„,„.., __ vate and political rights, Whatever difference Of ment t objects o interna Improvemen whic opinion may-have prevailed respecting the jtist are not national in their character, and both as a claims of these people, there will probably bo none means of doing justice to all interests, and putting respecting the ltberaliry of the propositwris, and protecting bM.^.v, ...... is obvious that the militia system is lm-j prehension of oppression, ihe free enterprise \of our citizens, aided by lhe Slate sovereignties, will work out improvements and ameliorations which cannot fail to demonstrate that the great troth, that the people can govern themselves, is not only re- alized in our example, but that it ia done by a ma- chinery in government so simple and economical as scarcely to be felt. That the Almighty Ruler of the universe may so direct our deliberations, and overrule our acts as to make ns instrumental in securing n result so dear to mankind, is my most earnest\and sincere prayer. ANDREW JACKSON. Dtcemltr 4, 1832. Seneca-Street Tiooksiore, (Orfc door vest of D. L. Lum's Shoe and Leather ' Store.) .'.,'' J OHN N. BOGERT is now receiving addi- tions to his stock of BOOKS &. STATION- ARY, which will be sold as low as at any •estab- lishment in the country i Among them sre \ The TOKEN and ATLANTIC SOCVJBMB, for 1833; • -.-. FRIENDSHIP'S OFFERING, (London) for 1833 ; The PEARL; or AFFECTION'S GIFT,for 1833; Mutsica Sacra, last edit, by the dozen or single;. Musical Monitor, do. do. do. Htsaxtfs Commentary, 6 vols.; Cruden's Contorifonte; CobhcWs Advice to Yoimg.M?tt; Cold Water Man; or.a Pocket Companion for the Temperate; by Doctor Spriiigwafer; Sketches'of Olden Timu irtNe^l(or)e, bfj. F. Watson i ,' - '''.\'.. '. Youth's Natural Theology; ., . Child's Book on tkeSoitl; Slteiehesof'VenetianHtstory,2vo\» ; being No« 43 and 44 of Harper's Family Library A good Supply of School and Classical Books, German ALMANACS, for 1833; Christian, Common, and Comic Abnmus. A share of patronage is solicited ACT Sub- scriptions for the N&F'YOML MlfiROR receir- cd as-above. ' , JGeneta, November Zl, ^1832 2B rxilffO TOM.VB MTTftXO. 4 LARGE assortment, just received and foi J|t Sale at the'Seneca-Street Beokstere; by * JOHN N. BOfcERT. . V

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